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Lea&har? Na 5-ceaRC. 


6ea6haR nq 5-ceaRc, 








^A US, 




©I)c Celtic Society. 






^rcsiticnt : 

Fice=^rcstocnts : 

Butt, Isaac, Esq., LL. D. 

Hudson, the Very Rev. Edward Gus- 

tavus, Dean of Armagh. 
Kane, Sir Robert, M. D., M. R. I. A., 

President of the Queen's College, Cork. 
Monsell, William, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

O'Brien, William Smith, Esq., M.P. 

M. R. I. A. 
O'Connell, Daniel, Esq., M. P. 
Renehan, the Very Rev. Laurence, 

D. D., President, Royal College of 

St. Patrick, Mavnooth. 

trustees : 
Hudson, Henry, Esq., M. D., M. R. I. A. 
Hutton, Thomas, Esq., M. R. I. A. 
Sweetman, Walter, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

^Treasurer : 

O'Loghlen, Sir Colman Michael, Bart. 

Secretaries : 
Bindon, Samuel H., Esq. 
Webb, Patrick Robert, Esq. 


Barry, Michael Joseph, Esq. 

Crolly, the Rev. George, D. D., Pro- 
fessor, Royal College of St. Patrick, 

Duffy, Charles Gavan, Esq. 

Ferguson, Samuel, Esq., M.R.I. A. 

Fitzpatrick, Patrick Vincent, Esq. 

Graves, the Rev. Charles, A. M., 
Professor and F. T. C. D., M.R.I.A. 

Hardiman, James, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

Hudson, William Elliot, Esq., A.M., 
M. R. I. A. 

Kelly, the Rev. Matthew, Professor, 
Royal College of St. Patrick, May- 

Le Fanu, Joseph Sheridan, Esq. 

Mac Carthy, Michael Felix, Esq. 
Mac Cullagh, William Torrens, 

Esq., M.R.I.A. 
Mac Ivor, the Rev. James, F. T. CD. 
Mitchel, John, Esq. 
Nowlan, the Very Rev. Edward, V.G. 

Ossory ; P. P. Gowran. 
O'Callaghan, Isaac Stoney, Esq. 
O'Hagan, Thomas, Esq. 
Pigot, John Edward, Esq. 
Starkey, Digby Pilot, Esq., A. M., 

M. R. I. A. 
Tenison, Edw. King, Esq., M. R. I. A. 
Tighe, Robert, Esq., A.M., M.R.I.A. 
Wilde, William Robert, Esq., 


Assistant Sccrctarr? : 
Mr. John Daly. 

©orrcspoiVBing Secretaries : 
Cork. — John Windele, Esq. 
Kilkenny. — Robert Cane, Esq., M. D. 
Waterford.— Thomas Francis Meagher, Esq. 
Armagh. — Mr. John Corry. 

©orrcsponTJing Associate 'abroati: 

Richard Robert Madden, Esq., M. D., M. R. I. A. 

The Council of the Celtic Society having intrusted me with the superintendence of 
this volume in its progress through the Press, I hereby certify that it is, in all respects, 
conformable to the rules of the Society. I also take this opportunity of expressing, 
upon the part of the Council, their thanks to the Royal Irish Academy , for the permis- 
sion to print this work from their most valuable MSS. ; to the Provost and Board of 
Trinity College, for access to their Manuscript Library ; and to the Rev. Doctor Todd, 
for facilities in the consultation of it which he was kind enough to afford. To John 
O Donovan, Esq., our thanks are pre-eminently due, for the learning and zeal which 
he has exhibited in the editing and general arrangement of the work. In it will be re- 
cognized a further proof of the critical and profound knowledge which he possesses of 
the language of our country, as well as of its topography and history. The services of 
Mr. Eugene Curry have been invaluable, and I am happy to record that his intimate 
knowledge of our ancient literature has throughout the work been made available. 

I cannot close these observations without tendering our warm gratitude to the dis- 
tinguished artist, Frederick W. Burton, Esq., R. H. A., whose pencil has graced our 
title-page with a group as classic as it is Irish, and which cannot fail to excite, in every 
Irish mind, true feelings of pride and satisfaction. It is to George Du Noyer, Esq., 
that we owe the drawings of the ancient chess-king from the cabinet of Dr. Petrie, which 
will be found in our Introduction ; and to Mr. Hanlon we are indebted for the wood- 
cuts used there as well as in our illustrated title-page. 

William Elliot Hudson, 

Member of the Council, 
•nth July,— list December, 1847 




Of Leabhar na g-Ceart, i 

Of the Saltair Chaisil, xxii 

Of the will of Cathaeir Mor, and other pieces introduced 

into Leabhar na g-Ceart, xxxiii 

Of the References to Tomar as King or Prince of the Galls 

of Dublin, xxxvi 

Of the Tract prefixed to the Book of Rights, entitled 

" Geasa agus Buadha Riogh Eireann," xlii 

Of the Division of the Year among the ancient Irish, . . xlviii 

Of the Chariots and Roads of the ancient Irish, .... lvi 

Of Chess among the ancient Irish, lxi 

On the Irish Text and Translation, lxv 

^eaya agur 6uat)ha Rfogh Gipecmn. 

Prose, 2 

Poem — CI pip ain ia6ap in ceach, 8 

Leabhaji na 5-Cearin. 
I. Olisheaoh Rijh Chaipil. 

First Prose, 28 

First poem — tRijeao each pij 6 pij Caipil, 32 

Second prose, 42 

Second poem — Ceapc Chaipil, cen chpao 01a chupaio, . ib. 



I. Olijgheaoh TJijh Chairil. — Continued. 

Third prose, 50 

Third poem — 6enen — beanoachc pop in n-jen, .... 52 

Fourth prose, 60 

Fourth poem — Cip Caipil in cualabaip, 62 

Fifth prose, 68 

Fifth poem — Q eolaij lTluman moipi, 70 

Sixth prose, 80 

Sixth poem — Ctca puno peanchap, puaipc ppeach, . . ib. 

Seventh prose, 86 

Seventh poem — Qpa peapaoaip a n-joip, 88 

II. Dlijheaoh Rijh Chpuachan. 

First prose, 96 

First poem — ©'P^ij pe peanchap nach puaill, .... 98 

Second prose, 110 

Second poem — Uuapipcal cuicio Chonbacc, 112 

III. Olijheaoh Riogh CCili^h, Oipghiall, agup Ulaoh. 

1. tHijheaoh TCijh Cdl^h. 

First prose, 118 

First poem— Ceapc pij dilij, eip[c]io pip, 120 

Second prose, 126 

Second poem — Q pip, ba n-oeachaip po cuaio, .... 128 

2. Olijheaoh Righ Oipghiall. 

First prose, 134 

First poem — Sipcij cam cluinebaip, 136 

Second prose, 142 

Second poem — In cheipc-pea pop chloino Colla, . . . 144 

3. Olijheaoh TCigh Ulaoh. 

First prose, 154 

First poem, — Gca puno pochop Ulao, 156 

Second prose, ] 68 

Second poem — tDlijio pij Gamna acup Ulao, .... ib. 


IV. Olijheaoh TCijh Ueamhpach. 

First prose, 

First poem — OI1516 ptj Ueampa cuipim, 

Second prose, 

Second poem — Cip cuach TTI161, mop m peel, . . . . 

V. OligheabhTCish tai^hean, a^upUiomnuChachaeipmhoip. 

First prose, 

First poem — Ceapc pi£ ^aijean po luaib 6enen, . . . 

Second prose, 

Second poem — Coipci j, a Caijniu na laech, 

Third poem — Na paep-chlpa, plichc ao cuap, . . . . 
Fourth poem — Qca puno peanchap, puaipe, peanj-, . . 

VI. 6eannachc phaopuijj ajup Ceapc Riojh Gipeann a 


Introductory poem by Dubhthach Mac Ui Lughair — 

N16I15 cuaipe no ceanoaijeachc, 

First poem — Uearhaip, ceach a m-bf Ulac Cuinb, . 
Second poem — Uearhaip nocho Dip bo-pon, . . . 
Third poem — t)liji6 pig Ulao Gamna, .... 
Fourth poem — ^eapa pi£ Ulao Gamna, .... 
Fifth poem — Do ouaoaib pij Ulao uill, .... 

Sixth poem — t)liji6 pi Nctip, anopa, 

Seventh poem — Seachc (£)-capbaib ap a m-bia op, 
Eighth poem— ^)eapa pij Caijean ao chim, . . . 
Ninth poem — 6p'j'b bo peip im a pach, .... 
Tenth poem — tHijib pi Chaipil na (^)-cpeach, . . 
Eleventh poem — Upi buaba pij Chaipil cam, . . 
Twelfth poem — OI1516 6 plaith Cuimnij lip, . . 
Thirteenth poem — tDlijio pij Chopco fthaipcin, 
Fourteenth poem — ^eapa pig 6unnnij leachain, . 
Fifteenth poem — t)li£ib plaich Chpuachan, nd ceil, 
Sixteenth poem — ^eip 06 Cpuacha b' pap po epi, . 
Seventeenth poem — t)li£io pi h-Ua Ulaine mop, 
Eighteenth poem — tDlijib pi Hlioi in mapcaio, . . 
Nineteenth poem — ^eapa pig Gojain 'n-a chij, . . 
















In — £J ea r a a S u r 6"aoha Riosh Bipeann, 271 

In — Ceabhap na 5-Ceapc: .1. 

I. Oligheaoh TC15I1 Chaipil, 274 

II. Oligheabh Rijh Chpuachan, 278 

III. 1. t)li 5 heaoh Ri 5 h CIili 5 h, 280 

III. 2. Dlisheaoh Ri S h Oip 5 hiall, 281. 

III. 3. Olisheabh TCi 5 h Ulabh, 282 

IV. Oligheaoh Righ Ueamhpach, 283 

V. tDlijheaoh'Rijh^aijhean, crjup Ciomna Chachaeip 

ITIhoip, 284 

VI. 6eannache phaopuij, ugup Ceapt Riojh Gipeann 

a b-Ueamhpaigh, 287 

Additional Remarks on the MSS., 290 

Corrigenda, 294 

Index, 295 

Taqe 6, notes, col. 1, line 7, for in the first century, read A. D. 130. 

„ 9, col. 1, line 15, after sub tine, add and Trius Thaum, p. 133. 

„ 20, col. 2, line 4, for 1585 read 1505. 

„ 30, col. 1, line 3, add Holiday's Ed., p. 136. 

„ 31, text, line 19, and in note h , for Alplainn, read Alplann. 

„ 32, notes, col. 1, line 9, for all that part read all that part of Leinster. 

„ 40, col. 2, line 9, for Sliabh liludhma read Sliahh Uladhma. 

„ 46, col. 2, lines 19 and 21, for O'Eidirsceoill and Darfhiiie, read h-Eidirsceoill and 


„ 50, col. 1, line 1, for Fiacha Luighdhe, read Fiacha Suighdhe. 

„ 53 and 59, text and note, for Kaithlcann, read llaithlinn. 

,, 58, notes, col. 2, at the eiid, for .Mac Cuilleanain, read .Mac Cuileannain. 

„ 59, col. 2, line It,/"/' Kilcrobane, read Kilcrohane. 

„ 71, text, lines lii, 17, for Ye and If ye are read Oh and If thou art. 

„ 72, notes, col. 2, line 21, for the son of, &c., read second son of Daire Cearba, and add See 

Ogygia, Part in. c. 81. 
„ 74 and 75, text ami mites on Dairbhre, far Dairfliine, read Duibhnc. i.e. Corca Duibhne. 
„ 79, notes, col. 2, line 10, for Eile Fhogartaigh read Kile Ui Fhogartaigh. 
„ 81, text, line 4, for Ye learned read Oh learned man. 
„ 88, notes, col. 1, line 7, dele which was called Laighin Deas-ghabhair bv the ancient Irish. 

„ 94, col. 2, line 5, for A. M. 305, read A. M. 3501. 

„ 108, col. 1, line 7, for Mae Diarmaid read Mac Diamiada. 

„ 143, notes, col. 2, line, 7, for pp. sol, 802, read 301, 302. 

„ 165, col. 1, line '.>,for Maigh lnis, read- Magli Inis. 

,, 174, col. 1, lines 7 and 10, for Tuath, read Tuatha. 

„ 193, col. 2, line 5, for Clann Maeiliagh'ra read Clann Maelughra. 

„ 237, line 25, for Let him not be an old rusty vessel read That he be not a vessel of old words. 

„ 256, notes, line I, for 184, note n > read 49, note k - 


Of Leabhar na g-Ceart. 

Two ancient vellum copies of this work are in existence, one in the 
Leabhar Leacain (Book of "Lecan") which was compiled from various 
other MSS., by Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbisigh of Leacan, in the county 
of Sligo, chief historian to O'Dubhda (O'Dowda) in the year 1418. 
This copy begins at folio 184, and ends at folio 193, comprising thirty- 
eight closely written columns of the book. The other copy is preserved 
in Leabhar Bhaile an Mhuta (Book of " Ballymote") which was com- 
piled by various persons, but chiefly by Solamh O'Droma, from older 
MSS., about the year 1390, for Tomaltach Mac Donnchadha (Mac 
Donough), then chief of the territories of Tir Oiliolla, Corann, Airteach, 
Tir Thuathail, and Clann Fearn-mhaighe, extending into the counties 
of Sligo, Roscommon, and Leitrim. This copy begins at folio 1 47 and 
ends at folio 154 a, col. 2, comprising thirty columns of that book. 

Various modern paper copies are extant and accessible, but they 
have been found, on comparison with the two vellum ones just referred 
to, to be of no authority, as they were evidently made, primarily or se- 
condarily from either of them, with several corruptions of the respec- 
tive scribes, none of whom thoroughly understood the language, as is 
quite evident from the nature of the corruptions (or, as they fancied, 
corrections) of the text made by them. 

ii Introduction. 

An abstract of this work was published by Hugh Mac Curtin in his 
Brief Discourse in Vindication of the. Antiquity of Ireland, pp. 173-175, 
and pp. 221-240. An abstract of it is also given by Dr. John O'Brien, 
li. C. Bishop of Cloyne, in his Dissertations on the Laws of the ancient 
Irish, a work which was published by Vallancey, in 1774, in the third 
number of the Collectanea de Rebus Hibernieis, where this abstract occu- 
pies from p. 374 to p. 389- The suppression of O'Brien's name in the 
publication of this has caused confusion. Thus, when the author says, 
" in my copy of the Annales Innisfallenses, I find," &c, all subsequent 
writers took for granted that this referred to Vallancey's copy of these 
Annals, whereas the fact turns out to be that the "my copy of the 
Annates Innisfallenses,'''' throughout this work, refers to a compilation of 
Annals made for Dr. John O'Brien, by John Conry, in 1760, at Paris, 
from all accessible Irish, Anglo-Irish, and English sources, of which 
the autograph is now preserved in the Library of Trinity College, 
Dublin, with various marginal condemnatory notes in the hand-writing 
of Charles O'Conor of Belanagare. In consequence of the suppression 
of O'Brien's name in connexion with that work, it has been quoted as 
Vallancey's own by all those who have since treated of the subject, 
but more particularly by Mr. Moore, who frequently quotes Val- 
lancey's Dissertation on the Laws of Tanistry, in his History of Ire- 
land, as a work of authority. 

The original Irish of the present work, however, never saw the 
light before the present edition, and writers have been quoting from 
it as the genuine work of Benean or St. Benignus, who was the disci- 
ple of St. Patrick, and his comharba or successor at Ard Macha 
(Armagh), but without letting the public know where the best 
copies of it are preserved, or what real claims it has to be considered 
the genuine work of St. Benean. 

Benean Avas of a Munster family, being descended from Tadhg mac 

Introduction. iii 

Cein a (the grandson of Oilioll Olum, king of Minister), to whom king 
Corraac mac Airt, about the year 254, had granted the territory of 
Cianachta Breagh, which comprised the district around Daimhliag 
(Duleek), and all the plain from thence to the hills of Maeldoid at the 
River Life (Liffey). The occasion of his conversion to Christianity is 
described in all the old Lives of St. Patrick, and in Benean's own Life 1 '- 
St. Patrick being at Leath Chathail (Lecale in Ulster), and having de- 
termined on celebrating the Easter of the year 433 near Teamhair or 
Tara, where, he knew, the Feis Teamhrach was then to be celebrated 
by the king and all his toparchs, took leave of his northern friend and 
convert Dicho, and, sailing southwards, put into the harbour of In bhear 
Colpa (Colp), the mouth of the Boinn or Boyne. There he left his 
boat in care of one of his disciples, and set out on foot through the 
great plain of Breagh (Bregia), in which the palace (of Tara) was situ- 
ate. On their way, and not long after landing, they went to the 
house of a respectable man (viri nobilis) named Sescnean, where they 
were entertained and passed the night. St. Patrick is said on this 
occasion to have converted and baptized this Sescnean and all his family, 
among whom was Benean, then seven years old, to whom, at the bap- 
tism, Patrick gave the name of Benignus, from his benign disposition. 
This boy became so attached to St. Patrick, that he insisted on going 
along with him. St. Patrick received him with pleasure into his so- 

a According to the genealogies of the his Supplement to the Lives of St. Patrick, 

saints collected by the O'Clerighs, Benean, Trias Thaum, p. 203. From these it would 

bishop and primate, was the son of Sesgnean, appear that the Life was in Irish, and 

son of Laei, son of Tadhg, son of Cian, son translated into Latin by Colgan, who in- 

of Oilioll Olum. See Leabharnag-Ceart, tended publishing it at the 9th of Novem- 

post, p. 50, where he is said to be of the her. There is an Irish Life of this saint iu 

Cianachta of Gleann Geimhin, of the race the Burgundian Library at Brussels, ac- 

of Tadhg, son of Cian. cording to Mr. Bindon's Catalogue of the 

b Considerable extracts from the Life of Irish MSS. in that Library, printed in the 

Benignus have been printed by Colgan, in Proceedings of the R. I. A , vol. iii. p. 485. 

a 2 

iv Introduction. 

ciety, and Benignus thenceforth became one of his most favorite dis- 
ciples. According to the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, however, the 
apostle met Sescnean when he first landed at Inis Phadruig, near Dub- 
lin (lib. i. c. 45); but Doctor Lanigan thinks that this date is contra- 
dicted by the whole tenor of St. Patrick's proceedings. Be this as it 
may, we are informed in one of the chapters of the Life of St. Be- 
nignus, which Colgan has published in his Trias Tliaum., p. 205, that 
when he became qualified to preach the Gospel, he was employed in 
various parts of Ireland, and particularly in those regions which 
St. Patrick had not visited in person. Among these is particularly men- 
tioned " Iar Momonia", or "West Munster, and " Corcomrogia" Corcum- 
ruadh (Corcomroe, in the county of Clare). But he became in a special 
manner the patron of Connacht, where he erected his principal church, 
called in the time of the writer Cill Benein, at Dun Lughaidh, in the 
territory of Conmaicne Chineil Dubhain ("Kilbanan" in the barony 
of Dunmore and county of Galway, where the remains of a round 
tower still indicate the ancient importance of the place) ; and it is 
added that he blessed the province of Connacht " from the River Dro- 
bhaeis to Muireasc Eoghain near Luimneach, and from Leim Lara to 
Druim Snamha in the district of Gabhal Liuin" (Galloon, at Lough 
Erne), in which region the inhabitants paid him and his successors, 
yearly, " lacticiniorum, vitulorum, agnorum, idque generis animan- 
tium primitias." — Trias Thaum., c. 32, p. 205. 

But the relatives of St. Benignus, to wit, the race of Eoghan of 
Caiseal, the descendants of Oilioll Olum," and other Munster tribes, 
hearing that he had blessed the province of Connacht in preference to 
Munster, of the royal stock of which he was himself descended, though 
St. Patrick wished him to bless the south, were in no small degree 
offended; but St. Benignus, to make some amends for this obvious 
dereliction of provincial duty, commenced and composed that famous 

Introduction. v 

Chronicon, called the Psalter of Caiseal , in which are described the 
acts, laws, prerogatives, and succession, not only of the monarchs of all 
Ireland, but also those of the kings of Minister. 

The passage runs as follows in the Latin of Colgan : — 

" Cognati Sancti Benigni, vt populus Eoganiai Casselensis, Olil- 
diana progenies, et alij Momonienses, audito preedicto eius facto, non 
parum offensi et contra virum Dei indignati dicuntur. S. autem Be- 
nignus, vt istam oftensam aliquo grato dilueret obsequio, famosum 
illud Chronicon, quod Psalterium Casselense nuncupatur, inchoauit et 
composuit: in quo non solum totius Hibernias Monarcharum, sed spe- 
cialiter regum Mumonias acta, jura, praerogativse, et successio con- 
scribantur."— Trias Thaum., c. 33, p. 205. 

Benignus afterwards, in 455, upon St. Patrick's retirement, suc- 
ceeded him, and, having himself resigned his bishopric in 465, died on 
the 9th of November, 4G8, and was buried at Ard Macha (Armagh) d . 

The passage, which we have just cited out of Colgan's extracts from 
the Life of St. Benignus, has been overlooked by our writers. It es- 

'' It is usually supposed that this work 
•was called Psalter because it was princi- 
pally written in verse. Doctor Lanigan, 
however, informs us (Eccl. Hist. vol. iii. 
p. 356, note 58), that '■ his deceased worthy 
friend, General Vallancey," informed him 
that this was a mistake, as the original title 
of the work was Saltair, " which, he said, 
signifies chronicle; and that lie states the 
same in his Prospectus of a Dictionary of 
t lie ancient Irish, at Taireae." Dr. Lanigan, 
however, though he would wish to agree 
with Vallancey in everything, was too pro- 
found a scholar to be led astray by his vene- 
ration for the memory ofhis departed friend, 
and, too honest to pass any opinion without 
SDnte authority, he had the courage to add 

'• Yet Saltair signifies also Psalter, .and 
the Psaltaxr, or Saltair -na-rann, was not a 

ll Dr. Lanigan remarks (vol. i. p. 377): 
" How a story about Benignus having died 
at Koine, got into the Annals of lunisfallcn, 
I cannot discover." The Doctor was not 
aware that what he quotes throughout his 
Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, as the 
Annals of Innisfallen, is only a compilation 
made at Paris, A. D. 17<i(), from old Irish 
stories, the Caithreim Thoirdhealbkaigh, 
Giraldus Cambrensis, Pembridge's Annals, 
and Ware's Annals, by John Conry and 
Dr. O'Brien, author of the Irish Dictionary. 
We are indebted to the Irish Archaeologi- 
cal Society for this discovery. 

vi Introduction. 

tablishes the important fact that Benean commenced (inchoavit) the 
celebrated PsaJterium Casselense ; and as it is a matter of extreme inte- 
rest to examine the existing evidence as to that record, of which only 
a small fragment is known to exist, we shall collect what can be stated 
respecting it in a subsequent part of this Introduction. 

That passage further proves that Benean put together and entered 
in the Psalter an account of the rights (jura) of the monarchs of all Ire- 
land, and especially of the kings of Munster. Now, one of the poems in 
our book, in treating of those rights says (p. 52), that Benean put in the 
Psalter of Caiseal the history of each Munster king, and his income; and 
the conclusion reasonably follows that Benean commenced and composed 
some such Book of Rights as this, and placed it in the Saltair Chaisil. 

Edward O'Reilly (in his Irish Writers, p. 28), saw the fallacy of 
attributing the authorship of the Book of Rights, in its present form, 
to St. Benean, and expressed his doubts as to the fact, as the " language, 
and some internal evidences in the composition, show it to be at least 
enlarged and altered in a period nearer to our own times." In fact, 
though it cannot be denied that there was a Leabhar na g-Ceart drawn 
up after the establishment of Christianity, which received the sanction 
of St. Benignus, it cannot be pronounced that any part of the work, in 
its present form, was Avritten by that bishop. 

It gives an account of the rights of the monarchs of all Ireland, and 
the revenues payable to them by the principal kings of the several 
provinces, and of the stipends paid by the monarchs to the inferior 
kings for their services. It also treats of the rights of each of the 
provincial kings, and the revenues payable to them from the inferior 
kings of the districts or tribes subsidiary to them, and of the stipends 
paid by the superior to the inferior provincial kings for their services. 

These accounts are authoritatively delivered in verse, each poem 
being introduced by a prose statement; and of those joint pieces, 



twenty-one in number, seven are devoted to Minister, and the rights of 
the ctpo pi£, or monarch of all Ireland, are treated of under this head ; 
for it first supposes the king of Minister to be the monarch, and then 
subjoins an account of his rights, when he is not king over all Ireland. 
Two pieces are then devoted to the province of Connacht, two to each 
of the three divisions of Ulster, two to Midhe or Meath, and two to 
Leinster, with an additional poem on the Galls or foreigners of Dublin, 
and a concluding piece on the rights of the kings at Teamhair or Tara. 

The prose usually purports to be a short statement or summary of 
the poem which follows, and Avhich it treats as a pre-existing docu- 
ment. These prose introductions almost uniformly conclude with an 
allegation that Benean said or sang as follows, de quibus Benean dixit, 
. . . avhuil ab peao 6enean . . . . uo beapc .... po cheac .... 
po cacain .... pop pio . . . . po jni . . . . po can 6enean; see pp. 32, 
42, 52, 62, 70, 80, 88, 98, 112, 118, 128, 136, 144, 156, 168, 
176, 184, 204, 218, 224, 238. Some of them go farther, and call 
him in c-iijoup, the author, p. 32, and in pill, the poet, p. 70. 
Nor is this direct allegation of Benean's authorship confined to the 
concluding prose lines ; it occurs in an opening at p. 97, and it is 
put almost as strongly at p. 50, ipiao po beop cecupca 6enen, " these 
are, further, the inculcations, or instructions of Benean;" and the in- 
troduction to the whole work in the Book of Baile an Mhuta, p. 30 
(which has not a corresponding passage in the Book of Leacan), uses 
an expression but slightly different .... umcul po opoaij 6eneun, 
i. e. " the tribute and stipends of Ireland as Benean ordained,'''' . . . and 
it refers to the Book of Gleann da Loch as the authority. 

Now, it is curious that the poein^ themselves, in general, do not 
profess to be the productions of Benean; and the additional rann <>r 
stanza at p. 68, infra (.which is only found in the Book of Leacan), can 
scarcely be viewed as an exception to this. On the internal evidence 

viii Introduction. 

oi' the poems, as to the authorship of them, it will become very clear 
that he was not the author; and those who have "fathered" the Book 
on St. Benean, to use O'Reilly's expression (Ir. Writ. p. 109), must have 
confined their reading to the prose. 

It will appear upon careful consideration that most of the stipends 
and tributes mentioned in Leahhar na g-Ceart were traditional, and 
many of them of great antiquity. The tributes of Midhe (Meath) 
are said (p. 1 84), to be related as they were rendered from the time 
of Conn of the Hundred Battles. It is probable, indeed, that the 
accounts were originally digested, and perhaps put into metre, by 
St. Benean; but that the work was afterwards, towards the beginning 
of the tenth century, altered and enlarged by Cormac Mac Cuileannain, 
bishop-king of Caiseal or Munster, assisted by Sealbhach the sage, 
and Aenghus, so as to agree with the tribes and subdivisions of Ire- 
land at that period. This appears quite plain from the notices of 
Sealbhach and Aenghus, at p. 60, and of Mac Cuileannain, at p. 86. 

The poet Sealbhach was secretary to Cormac, " Seluacius S. Cor- 
maco a secretis vir eximia? pietatis et doctrine." — Acta SS. p. 5 ; and 
in the same place Colgan says that he survived Cormac for some years, 
and that he wrote concerning his virtues and death: "Vixit autem 
Seluacius aliquot annis post S. Cormacum, de cuius morte et virtu- 
tibus inter alia multa, pulchre scripsit." — Ibid. As Cormac, accord- 
ing to the Annals of Ulster, and to Ware, vol. i. p. 465, began his reign 
A. D. 901, and was killed at the battle of Bealach Mughna, A. D. 908, 
we can very nearly fix the date of the composition. 

We shall presently find further evidence to show that the poems, 
in their present form, cannot be ascribed to so early a period as the time 
of St. Benean; but there is every reason to believe that the older 
Book of Eights, which was said to have been written by St. Benean, 
was in existence in the time of Cormac. 



Now, let us look closely through these several pieces. 

We have seen that the writer of the pr:ose attributes the first piece 
to the gifted author Benean, the son of Sescnean ; but the commence- 
ment of the poem immediately following leads to the inference that it 
was the composition of one who had arrived at the station of chief poet 
of Ireland ; for he claims for the men who held that office, and wore the 
Taeidhean, or ornamented mantle, made of the skins and feathers of 
various coloured birds (Cormac's Glossary), the true knowledge of the 
rights of Caiseal, which, to bards e , should be a question for ever. 

In the second poem there is a similar allusion, p. 42, for the poet 
sings that it is his duty to record the right of Caiseal, and that it is 
pleasing to the king of Gabhran to find it acknowledged by his poet. 

In the third piece the writer of the poem actually addresses Benean 
as a third person, and implores a blessing on him ; asserting that it was 
he who put in the Saltair Chaisil the tradition or history of the king 
of Caiseal and of his income. That was evidently an antecedent Saltair, 
which the writer afterwards refers to (p. 60), as the Psalter of the God 
of Purity, in which he had found it recorded that Benean had remained 
at Caiseal from Shrovetide to Easter. 

The writer of the prose, as usual, ascribes this poem to St. Benean, 
the son of Sescnean the Psalmist, but the poem itself furnishes internal 
evidence that it was not composed by him, or for centuries after his 
time. It refers to the cursing of Teamhair (Tara) by Saint Ruadhan, 
A. D. 563; see p. 53, n. u , infra; it mentions the Galls or foreigners of 
Dublin, and the duty of driving them out from Leinster and Munster 
(p. 54); and if those foreigners were the Northmen, such an allusion 
could not have been made before the eighth or ninth century. It states 
the great dignity and prerogatives of Caiseal, and complains that the 

e See page 183, and note ' there. 

x Introduction. 

people of Leinster and race of Conn did not subscribe to those preroga- 
tives; and in the concluding stanza the poem requests Sealbhach the 
Saei, or learned Doctor, to maintain those privileges. 

We have already, p. vii., mentioned the fourth piece, and its conclud- 
ing verse, p. 68, wherein Benean is made to speak in the first person. 

The fifth poem refers to Benean as the one who had shaped the 
stipends of Caiseal, and it does not say that he wrote the piece. 

Again, in the sixth poem, which begins at p. 80, and ends at 
p. 87, distinct mention is made of Mac Cuileannain himself, from which 
we must conclude that these poems were written during his time, and 
indeed possibly this particular poem was written by himself, for the 
writer pledges the support of Mac Cuileannain to the sage or ollamh 
who maintains the system he is expounding, as it is. 

Again, the poem which begins on p. 98, and ends on p. 11 1, plainly 
betrays a later age by mentioning (see p. 107, infra) the free tribe of 
" Siol Muireadhaigh," for the progenitor of this tribe, Muireadhach 
Muilleathan, king of Connacht, died, according to the Four Masters, 
in the year 700, rede 701 (see Tribes and Customs of Ui Maine, p. 73, 
note f ), and of course was unknown to Benean, though the prose, as 
usual, attributes the composition to him. He died in the year 468, 
i. e. 233 years before the ancestor whose race is mentioned in the 
poem. The language of the poem is, however, very different from 
the prose, and in its concluding rann the writer plainly distinguishes 
himself as the follower of Benean, not Benean himself, as follows: 

" Well has Beneun exactly found 
This knowledge — it is no injustice, 
/ shall state it as it is, 
Ye noble people, hear it !" 

The mention of Leath Chathail in the poems, on Cladh, pp. 164 and 
172, is decisive to show that they could not have been written by 



Benean in the filth century. We have shown (p. 165, n. f ) that an an- 
cestor of Cathal, from whom the territory took its name, was slain in 
the year 627. In the splendid volume on the Ecclesiastical Antiqui- 
ties of Down, Connor, and Dromore, by the Rev. Mr. Reeves, pp. 201, 
257, n. u , and 365, n. x , now published, the reader will find the mate- 
rials for fixing the era of this Cathal to the middle of the eighth century, 
and of the adoption of the territorial name to the middle of the ninth, 
A. D. 850. 

So, the frequent references to the Galls, and to Tomar, as prince 
of Dublin, pp. 41, 206, demonstrate that the poems in which they 
occur could not have been written before the end of the ninth century, 
as will appear from a subsequent part of this Introduction. 

The writer of the poem, at p. 134, says that he had found the history 
of the race of Niall in books where Benean's faithful hand had traced it, 
making it as plain as language can, that the writer composed his poem 
founded upon previous books of which Benean was author. 

The allusions to Benean at pp. 155, 168, 178, all are to the like 
effect; that at p. 168 speaks of Benean as having inculcated the matter 
in his day, i. e., as if he were then dead; and that at p. 178, when it 
alleges that a Latin scholar had fully observed the right, must mean, 
either that Benean had composed his book in Latin, or that some other 
Latin scholar had intervened, and written on the subject in Latin. 

The language of the poem which commences at p. 204, is remark- 
able; viz., that "Benean related the right of the king of Laighin ; in 
the decision of an author he found it;" intimating the writer's testi- 
mony that Benean had recorded this right in conformity with the 
judgment of a previous author. 

Even the poem on the Galls of Atli Cliath does not purport to be 
written by Benean; for the writer says: 

'• The profits cf Alh Cliath / will not conceal, 
As Benean has fixed them." 

xii Introduction. 

This poem on the Galls or foreigners of Dublin, pp. 224, &c, and 
their conversion to Christianity by St. Patrick, may possibly have been 
produced about the same period of Cormac Mac Cuileannain, though it 
is difficult to believe that it was allowed to be transcribed into the Sal- 
tair Chaisil by Cormac and his secretary, who, living so near the period 
of the first Northman or Danish settlement in Dublin, could not be 
Supposed to lend their authority to such a story. 

It is much more likely that this poem was written and circulated 
at a much later period, when the Christian Danes refused to submit to 
the ecclesiastical jurisdiction or authority of Armagh; and when it was 
found useful by the Danish party to have it believed that their ancestors 
had been settled in Dublin as early as the fifth century, and converted 
to Christianity by St. Patrick, immediately after his having cursed 
Teamhair or Tara. The Danes of Dublin, on that occasion, placed 
themselves under Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury ; and the jea- 
lousy that existed between the two races at that period is manifest 
from the letter addressed to Ealph, Archbishop of Canterbury, by the 
clergy and burgesses of Dublin, published by Ussher (Syllog. No. 40), 
in which they tell him that the bishops of Ireland, and most of all the 
one who resided at Armagh, entertained a very great jealousy against 
them. " Sciatis vos revera, quod Episcopi Hibernia? maximum zelum 
erga nos habent et maxime ille Episcopus qui habitat Ardimacha?; 
quia nos nolumus obedire ordinationi* sed semper sub vestro dominio 
esse volumus." 

How early this Iberno-Danish figment was copied, as an authentic 
document, into the historical books of the nation, it is now difficult to 
determine, but it is quite obvious it had found its way into Leahhar 
na (j-Ceart long before the period of the compilation of the Books of 
Leacan and Ballymote, for it had been interpolated in the MSS. from 
which the copies as they now stand were made. 

This fiction also attempts to pull down the veneration for the Ne- 

Introduction. xiii 

potes Neill, by making St. Patrick curse the monarch of that race, 
from which it looks probable that some of the rival race of Oilioll 
Olum had a hand in the production of it; for it certainly was intended 
to raise the dignity of Caiseal above that of Teamhair, and to exalt the 
race of Oilioll Olum above that of Conn of the Hundred Battles. As 
this controversy respecting the claims of the northern and southern 
Irish kings to supremacy and renown gave origin to a great number 
of Irish poems by Tadhg Mac Daire (Teige Mac Dary) and the Mini- 
ster poets, which were replied to by Lughaidh O'Clerigh (Lewy 
O'Clery) and the northern literati, the Editor will offer a few thoughts 
on the subject in this place. See O'Reilly's Irish Writers, p. 149, un- 
der the year 1600. 

Dr. O'Brien appears, from various notices throughout his Irish Dic- 
tionary, to have thought that the race of Oilioll Olum never submitted 
to the race of Conn of the Hundred Battles ; for he speaks of Conn him- 
self, and of his grandson Cormac, and even of Flann Sionna, who de- 
feated Cormac mac Cuileannain in 908, as kings of Meath, and of the 
two northern provinces. But in this and other respects Dr. O'Brien 
has been led to make assertions relative to the Irish monarchs 
which cannot stand the test of true criticism, for though it must be 
acknowledged that the Irish monarchs had little influence in Leath 
Mhogha, or the southern half of Ireland, still we must believe that, 
since the introduction of Christianity the Irish monarchs were princi- 
pally of the race of Niall of the Nine Hostages, the ancestor of the 
O'Neills and their correlative families. In the ancient Lives of St. 
Patrick it is stated that when the Irish apostle came to Aileach, he 
predicted that sixteen of the race of Eoghan, the son of Niall, would 
become kings of all Ireland; and though we need not believe in this as 
a prediction, it is reasonable to conclude that those kings were well 
known and acknowledged ; and the fact is that they are mentioned and 

xiv Introduction. 

called kings of all Ireland even by the Minister writers themselves, 
whatever authority they may have exercised over the chieftains of 
Munster. Connell Mageoghegan, in his translation of the Annals of 
Clonmacnoise, gives us his idea of what was understood by " King of 
Ireland," in the following observation under the reign of Mael na 
m-Bo, ancestor of the family of Mac Murchadha of Leinster : 

" A. D. 1041. Dermott MacMoylenemo was king nine years. 

" The kings or chief monarches of Ireland were reputed and reck- 
oned to be absolute monarches in this manner : If he Avere of Leath 
Con, or Con's halfe in deale, and one province of Leath Moye, or Moy's 
halfe in deale, at his command, he was coumpted to be of sufficient 
power to be king of Taragh, or Ireland ; but if the party were of 
Leath Moye, if he could not command all Leath Moye and Taragh 
with the lordshipp thereunto belonging, and the province of Ulster or 
Connought (if not both), he would not be thought sufficient to be 
king of all Ireland. Dermott Mac Moylenemo could command Leath 
Moye, Meath, Connought, and Ulster; therefore, by the judgement of 
all, he was reputed sufficient monarch of the whole." 

According to the old Annals of Innisfallen none of the kings of Cai- 
seal or Munster attained to the monarchy of all Ireland, since the intro- 
duction of Christianity, except the five following : " 1. Oengus, son of 
Nadfraech ; 2. Eochaidh, son of Oengus, son of Nadfraech ; 3. Cathal, 
son of Finguine ; 4. Felim, son of Crimhthann ; 5. Brian, son of Cinn- 
eide." Of these the first was contemporary Avith St. Patrick, but there 
seems to be no authority for making him monarch of all Ireland, except 
this Munster chronicle, which Avas compiled in the monastery of Innis- 
fallen. According to the Book of Leacan, Laeghaire, son of Niall of 
the Nine Hostages, was monarch of Ireland for thirty years after the 
arrival of St. Patrick, and, according to all authorities, Laeghaire was 
succeeded by his relative, Oilioll Molt, son of Dathi, and Oilioll was sue- 

Introduction. xv 

eeeded by Laeghaire's own son, Lughaidh, who died, according to the 
Annals of Tighearnach, in the year 508. After the death of Lughaidh 
there was an interregnum of five years, and the Munster annalist 
seems to have taken the opportunity of this interregnum, which was 
acknowledged by the UiNeill annalists, of placing the monarchical crown 
on the head of Eochaidh, the son of Aenghus, king of Caiseal, and 
making him wear it for thirteen years after 513, when Muircheartach 
Mor Mac Earca, the great grandson of Niall of the Nine Hostages, 
had, according to the other annalists, mounted the throne. 

The kings of Caiseal appear to have put forward no claims to the 
monarchy of all Ireland till the year 709, when Cathal, the son of 
Finguine, ancestor of the family of O'Caeimh (O'KeefFe), and king of 
Munster, plundered the plain of Breagh or Bregia, and compelled 
Fearghal, the son of Maelduin, monarch of Ireland, to give him hos- 
tages; in consequence of which he was looked upon by his own people 
as monarch of Ireland till his death, which occurred in the year 742. 
But the northern writers do not acknowledge him as monarch, for 
during the period which elapsed from the year 709, when he could 
have had some pretension to the monarchy, till 742, the other annalists 
set down as monarchs of all Ireland the following : 

1. Fearghal, son of Maelduin, who died, according to Tighear- 
nach, on Friday, the lGth of December, 722. 

2. Fogartach, son of Niall, who was monarch of Ireland for one 
year and some months. 

3. Cinaeth, son of Irgalach, who was monarch of Ireland three years. 

4. Flaithbheartach, son of Loingseach, seven years. 

5. Aedh Ollan, son of Fearghal, nine years. 

From the death of Cathal, the son of Finguine, the Munster histo- 
rians claim no monarch of all Ireland down to the year 840, when 
Feidhlimidh (Felimy), the son of Crimhthann, king of Munster, and 



Niall, the son of Aedh, monarch of Ireland, had a meeting at Cluain- 
Fearta Brennain (Clonfert) in Connacht, where the monarch submitted 
to Feidhlimidh (Felimy), who was considered, at least by his own people 
of Munster, monarch of Ireland from that period till his death, ■which 
occurred in 847 f - From this year, however, the kings of Caiseal had 
no pretensions to the monarchy till the year 1002, when the great 
Brian Borumha mounted the throne of Ireland. 

Mr. Moore, however, will not allow any monarch of all Ireland to 
the race of Eibhear, or the people of Leath Mhogha, or Munster, 
from the time of St. Patrick till the accession of Brian in 1002. This 

f Mac Curtin, in his Brief Discourse in 
Vindieatkm of the Antiquity of Ireland, 
p. 175, asserts that this Feidhlimidh was 
not king of Ireland, as Cambrensis erro- 
neously styles him, in his History of Ire- 
land, but that he was king of Munster for 
twenty-seven years. But Mac Curtin should 
have known that this should not have 
been attributed as an error to Cambrensis, 
as the older Munster annalists mention 
Feidhlimidh as one of the five Munster 
kings who obtained the monarchy of all 
Ireland, subsequently to the introduction 
of Christianity ; and it is quite evident 
from Mac Curtin's own account of Feidh- 
limidh's regal visitation of the provinces 
of Connacht, Ulster, Meath, and Leinster, 
to whose kings he made the usual mo- 
narchical presents, and from whom he 
received the entertainments due to the 
Irish monarchs, that he was considered the 
apo pij, or sole monarch of all Ireland. 
Mac Curtin's remark, that his progress 
through Ireland "had success upon ac- 
count of the union and amity the Irish 
princes had among themselves at this time," 
is beneath criticism ; for it is distinctly 

stated in the old Annals of Innisfallen, that 
Feidhlimidh, the son of Crimhthann, re- 
ceived homage from Niall, the son of Aedh, 
king of Teamhair, in the year 824 (a mis- 
take for 840), when Feidhlimidh became 
full king of Ireland, and sat in the seat of 
the abbots of Cluain Fearta (Clonfert) ; 
and in an Irish poein purporting to give 
a regular account of Feidhlimidh's circuit 
through Ireland, it is distinctly stated that 
he remained half a year in the plain of the 
River Finn, plundering the Cineal Chonaill, 
and that he also plundered Dal Riada and 
Dal Araidhe, and that he remained a whole 
year at Ard Macha, during which he preach- 
ed to the people every Sunday. The words 
of Giraldus are as follows : 

" Igitvr a tempore Felmidii Regis, et 
obitu Turgesii, vsque ad tempus I'otherici : 
Conactia? regnum durauit (Qui vltimus de 
hac gente monarcha fuit, & vsque hodie 
Conactia; prsesidet: Cuius etiam tempore, 
et per quern Rex Lageniae Dermitius 
scilicet Murchardi filius, a regno expulsus 
fuerat) septendecim Reges in Hibernia reg- 
nauerunt." — Topographia Hibernice, Dist. 
iii. c. 44. 

Introduction. xvii 

is a fact on which he frequently and emphatically speaks. See espe- 
cially his History of Ireland, vol. ii. pp. 142, 143. 

It is probable that the tributes paid to the Irish monarchs and 
provincial kings remained nearly the same as those described in the 
present form of Leabhar na g-Ceart till the destruction of the Irish 
monarchy- After the English invasion, the power of the provincial 
kings was very much limited ; the great Anglo-Norman families im- 
posed various tributes unknown to the ancient Irish, and in course of 
time the Irish chieftains who retained their power began to imitate 
them, and the old order of the country was disturbed and broken. 

Of this kind of exaction the following is quoted by Dr. 0' Conor, 
from an Irish MS. preserved in the Library of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham at Stowe, Codex iii. fol. 28. Stowe Catalogue, p. 168. It appears 
to have been taken from a poem by Torna O'Maelchonaire, chief poet of 
Connacht, who attended at the inauguration of Feidhlimidh CConcho- 
bhair on the hill of Cara Frasigh, A. D. 1315. 

" Qp iao po imoppo cuapapcail na pig-caoireac 6 Lla Conchobaip 
.i. od pp. beag mapc, acup oa pp. oeaj caopa i m-6eallcuine do 
mhajjj Oipeachcuij; oa pp. oeaj mapc, acup od pp. oeaj cope ja- 
cha Sarhna 66, acup a e-cabac a h-UBall. Ddpcjc. oeaj loil^each, 
acupod^. Oeaj caopa i m-6eallcuine o' O PionOaceaig ; Oct pp. 
oeag cope, acup od pp. oeag mane jacha Sarhna oo, acup a c-cabac 
a £uijnib Connachc bo. Xia pp. oea£ loil^ioch, acup od pp. oea-r 
caopa o' O TTIaoilbpenumn jacha 6eallcuine; oo pp. oeajjj mapc 
acup od;tx. cea^ cope gacha Sarhna 66, acup a c-cabac a Cip Piach- 
pac acup a Oviil Cndrha acup a Chuil Cheapnarha 66. Xia pp. oeag 
loil^each acup od pp. oeaj caopa ftheallcaine oo Lla piannagdin, 
acup od pp. oea^ mapc acup od pp. osaj cope jacha Sarhna 66, 
acup a c-cabach a Op Gmaljaio acup a h-loppup. 

" These are the stipends of the royal chieftains of Connacht from 


xviii Introduction. 

O'Conchobhair [O'Conor], i. e. twelve score beeves*, and twelve score 
sheep on May-day to Mac Oireachtaigh [Mageraghty] ; twelve score beeves 
and twelve score hogs to himself [O'Conor] every AllhalloAvtide, 
and these are levied from Ubhall h . Twelve score milch cows', and 
twelve score sheep on May-day to O'Fionnachtaigh ; twelve score hogs 
and twelve score beeves every Allhallowtide to himself, and these are 
levied for him from Lnighne Chonnacht [Leyny]. Twelve score milch 
cows and twelve score sheep to O'Maoilbhrenuinn [Mnlrenin] every 
May-day; twelve score beeves and twelve score hogs every Allhallow- 
tide to himself, and these are levied for him from Tir Fhiachrach 
[Tireragh], and from Cuil Cnamha k , and from CuilCearnamha. Twelve 
score milch cows and twelve score sheep on May-day to OTlannagain; 
and twelve score beeves and twelve score hogs every Allhallowtide to 
himself, and these are levied in Tir-Amhalghaidh [Tirawley] and in 
lrrns [Erris]." 

It will be seen by comparing the stipends and tributes in this ex- 
tract with the two poems printed infra, p. 99 to 111, and from 113 to 
1 17. that the tributes and stipends paid by these territories do not at 
all agree; and it is, therefore, evident that they were remodelled after 
the English invasion. 

The subsidy mentioned in the tract on Di Maine, preserved in the 
Book of Leacan, as paid by the king of Connacht to the chief of Ui 
Maine, will also appear to have belonged to a later period, for, accord- 
ing to that Tract (see Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many, p. 93), the king 

s Twelve scorebeeves.—T>T O'Conor trans- ' Milch- Cows. — Dr. O'Conor renders 

lutes this •• fifty cows and fifty sheep." but this sucking calves, but without any au- 

t>a pp. oeng is not fifty, but Oct picic thority. 

Dear. i. e. twelve score, i. e. two hundred k Cuil-Cnamha. a district in the east of 

and forty. the barony of Tireragh, in the county of 

6 Ubliall. recti Vmhall. see page 98, SMgo, comprising the parish of Dromard. 

note ' 

ifn). See Ui Fiachrach, pp. 265, 4-24. 

Introduction. xix 

of l'i Maine is entitled to ten steeds, ten foreigners [slaves], ten stan- 
dards, and ten mantles [niatals] ; whereas, according to Leabhar na 
g-Ceeui, ut infra, p. 115, he was entitled only to -even, cloaks, -even 
horses, seven hounds, and seven red tunics. 

TDli^io pi£ h-Ua niaine, an mal. 
oech n-eic, cap paeb ppocaib pal, 
oech n-gode, pe gnim pepji a 5 pum, 
oech triepji ocup oech macail. 

[11 Maine, p. 92. 

Some curious specimens of these remodelled exactions are given 
by Mr. Hardiman in his Irish Deeds, published in the Transactions 

of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xv., Xos. xiv. and xv., with the 
Rentals of O'Brien and Mac Namara, in the fourteenth century, and 
No. xxix., detailing some exactions of Mac Carthy More. The lasl 
Earl of Desmond seems to have raised these tributes and exactions to 
a most exorbitant extent, as appears by a list of his '• rents, victuals, 
and other revenues," in a MS. at Lambeth, Carew Collection, No. 617, 
p. 212. The same collection, No. 611, contains a list of "services and 
duties due to Mac Cartie More from Sir Owen O'Sullevan." More of 
these Irish exactions will be found detailed in the will of Domhnall 
O'Galchobhair, who was steward to Hugh Roe O'Donnell, who died 
in Spain, in the year 1602; and in a paper MS. in Marsh's Library, 
Class V., 3, Tab. 2. No. 20, which gives a list of the rents, services, 
customs, &c, due to O'Duinn (O'Doyne, now Dunne), chief of Iregan, 
in the Queen's County, and in various Inquisitions, amongst the most 
curious of which is one taken "apud the King's ould castle in the city of 
Cork, decimo septimo die Octobris, 1636, coram Willielnmm Fenton 
et alios," in which the rents and customs due to Daniel Mac Carty, of 
Kilbrittan, alias Mac Carty Reogh, then lately deceased, are minutely 


xx Introduction. 

detailed. The following account of the duties and customs of East 
Breifny, furnished to Her Majesty's Commissioners at Cavan, by Sir 
John O'Reilly, on the 1st of April, 1585, will afford a fair specimen of 
modern Ilibemia Anglicana exactions. It is preserved in the Carew 
Collection at Lambeth, No. 614, p. 162. 

" By Her Majesty's Commissioners at Cavan, the 1st of Apriell, 

" Sir John O'Reily sett down the limites of your territories, and 
the baronies accordinge the new Indentures. 

" Item what rents, duties, and customs you ought to have out of 
every pole in the five baronies," &c. 

To the second of these questions he replies : 

"The Dewties and Customes, &c. 

" Orely by auncient custom and usadge of the country had always 
out of the baronies of the Cavan and Tullaghgarvy, and out of every of 
the other thre barronies which he hath lost by the division, yearly out 
of every barrony xlv. li. [i. e. £45], as often as he had any cause to 
cesse the said barronies, either for the Queene's rents and dewties, or 
for any charge towards Onele, or other matter, which sometimes was 
twise or thrise a yeare, and every time xlv. li. to his owne use, besides 
the charge of the cesse. 

" Item, he had lykewise by the said custome and usadge all manner 
of chargis that either his son, or any other of his men or followers, 
weare put into by reson of their beinge in pledge or attendinge by com- 
mandment of the Lord Deputy in Dublin, or otherwhere for matter of 
the said Orely. 

" Item, by the said custom Orely had all manner of fees and pen- 
sions, and recompenses given by the said Orely to any learned counsell 
or other solicitor or agent for the cause of the contry, borne and payed 
by the said contry. 

Introduction. xxi 

" Item, by the said custom Orely had yearely over and beside all 
other dewtis and customes towards his chargis in going to Dublin out 
of every pole, xvi d . star. 

" Item, by the said custom he had yearely out of every viii. pooles 
of lande through the whole fyve barronis, one fatt beef for the spendinge 
of his house. 

" Item, by the said custom he had one horse for himselfe, one horse 
for his wife, and one horse for his son and heir, with one boye attend- 
inge uppon every horse kept through the whole fyve barronis yearely. 

"Item, by the said custom it was lawfull for Orely to cesse uppon 
the Mac Bradis, the Mac Enroes, the Gones, and the Jordans, by the 
space of iii. quarters of a yeare yearely, one foteman uppon every poole 
which the said sirnames had, to kepe his cattell, to repe and bynd his 
come, to thrashe, hedge and diche, and do other husbandry and mer- 
sanary work for the said Oreley. 

" Item, by the said custom the said Orely had upon the Bradis, the 
Gones, the Mac Enroes, and the Jordans, out of every poole of land 
yearely, thre quarters of a fatt beefe, and out of every tw r o pooles one 
fatt porke, and also the cessinge of strangers, their men and horses, as 
often as any did come in frendship to the country. 

"Item, by the said custom the said Orely had by dewty all manner 
of chardgis both for workmen rofe and laborers and victualls for the 
buildinge and maintaininge of his castell of the Cavan and all other 
necessary romes and offices about the same, borne and payed by the 
gentill and others of the barrony of the Cavan. 

" The dewtis of the towne of the Cavan also by the said custom, as 
rents, dringk, and other dewtis now takin and not denied. 

"Item, Sir Hugh Oreley, father unto the said Sir John, had in 
morgadge from divers of the gentill of Clonmahon xlviii. pooles in 
Gawne, 1. mylche ky-ne w cU morgage discended upon Sir John, and he 

xxii Introduction. 

was seised of the said xlviii. pooles untill the divission, which he desi- 
reth to continue possession of or els that he may be payed the said 1. 
milche kyne." 

Of the Saltair Chaisil. 
The Psalter of Caiseal is particularly referred to in the Bonk of 
Rights as the work in which St. Beneau entered the traditional history 
of the tributes of the kings of M mister : 

6enen — beanoachc pop in n-jen, 
oo pao po a Salcaip Chcnpil, 
peancup each pi£ lp a pach, 
lp oeuch imcheic cip lllumcm. — Infra, p. 52. 

This passage occurs in a poem which we may take to have been 
the composition of Sealbach and Aenghus, to which Corinac Mac 
Cuileannain adds his approval, recording his direction that his secre- 
tary and scribe should preserve the privileges of Munster as Benean 
had left them. In another part of the poem the same document 
is evidently referred to under the name of the Psalter of the God of 
Purity, in which it was found that Benean remained at Caiseal from 
Shrovetide to Easter. — p. 60. 

There is another entry in our work, in an addition to the prose 
in the copy contained in the Book of Baile an Mhuta, alleging that the 
Psalter of Caiseal had said that Benean sang or wrote the song which 
follows: " hoc carmen nt Psalterium Caisil dixit." p. 238. It is clearly 
a mistake to attribute that poem, at least in its present state, to Be- 
nean; but it is not clear what particular document the writer of the 
prose meant to designate as the Psalterium Caisil. 

Therefore we proceed to lay before the reader some information 



respecting the Psalter or Psalters so called ; and this may seem the 
more requisite, as we have already, in giving the grounds for believing 
that Beuean or Benignus framed the original Book of Rights, shown a 
most ancient testimony, proving that he commenced and composed 
a Psalterium Casselense, in which the rights, or jura, of the Irish mo- 
narchs, &c, were stated: see Colgan's extracts from the Latin Life of 
Benignus, quoted above, p. v. 

It is remarkable that Colgan, who had that notice in the Life of 
Benignus before him, takes no notice of it, but in another place (Trias 
Tkaum., p. 205), ascribes the writing or compiling of the Psalterium Cas- 
« liaise to Cormac Mac Cuileannain. His words are as follows: 

" S. Cormacus Rex Momonia?, Archiepiscopus Casselensis, et mar- 
tyr, qui in patriis nostris annalibus peritissimus Scotorum appellatur, 
scripsit de Genealogia, Sanctorum Hibernia?, lib. i., et, de Regibus aliis- 
que antiquitatibus ejusdem, nobile opus quod Psalterium Cassellense 
appellatur, et in magno semper habetur pretio. Passus est S. Corma- 
cus an 903, vel ut alii 908." Keating, in his History of Ireland, Hali- 
day's edition, Preface, p. xcvi., makes a like allegation in a passage 
which we shall presently cite. 

Notwithstanding this testimony of Keating and Colgan, who seem 
to have been well acquainted with the literary monuments of their 
native country, we are informed by Council Mageoghegan, in the dedi- 
cation of his translation of the " Annals of Clonmacnoise" to Terence; 
Coghlan, dated April 20th, 1627, that the ''Psalter of Cashel" was 
compiled by the order of the great Irish monarch, Brian Borumha. 
His words are: 

" Kinge Bryen seeinge into what rudeness the kingdome was fallen, 
alter setting himself in the quiet government thereof, and restored 
cadi one to his auncient patrimonve, and repaired their churches and 
houses of religion, he caused open schools to be kept in the several 

xxiv Introduction. 

parishes, to instruct their youth, which by the said warres were growen 
rude and altogether illiterate. He assembled together all the nobilitie 
of ihe kingdome, as well spirituall as temporall, to Cashed in Minister, 
and caused them to compose a booke, containing all the inhabitations, 
events, and septs that lived in this land, from the first peopleing and 
inhabitation and discoverye thereof, after the creation of the world, un- 
till that present time, which booke they caused to be called by the 
name of the Psalter of Cashell; signed it with his owne hand, toge- 
ther with the hands of the kings of the five provinces, and also with 
the hands of all the bishoppes and prelates of the kingdome ; caused 
several copies thereof to be given to the kinges of the provinces, with 
strict charge that there should be no credit given to any other chro- 
nicles thenceforth, but should be held as false, disannulled, and quite 
forbidden for ever. 

" Since which time there were many scepts in the kingdome that 
lived by itt, and whose profession was to chronicle and keep in memo- 
rie the state of the kingdome, as well for the time past, present, and 
to come; and now, because they cannot enjoy that respect again by 
their said profession, as heretofore they and their auncestors received, 
they sett nought by the said knowledge, neglect their bookes, and 
choose rather to putt their children to learn English than their own 
native language; insomuch that some taylors do cutt with their scis- 
sars the leaves of the said bookes which were [once] held in greate 
account, and sleice them in long peeces to make measures of, so that 
the posterities are like to fall into grose ignorance of any things which 
happened before their time." 

Now these accounts look rather conflicting, but the probability is 
that they are all true: i. e. that St. Benean commenced the Psalter; that 
Cormac continued it down to his own time, and remodelled the Book 
of Rights so as to state the tributes and stipends of the country, as they 

Introduction. XXV 

then stood; or, to use the words of our text (pp. 107, 169, 190), map 
ucu ; and that King Brian had a further continuation framed to his 
time. It cannot be proved that the prose introductions in the present 
work were composed when King Brian compiled his Psalter; but they 
must have been written not very far from his time ; for it is plain that 
they were composed long after the poems of Cormac's day, to which 
they are prefixed, and there is every reason to believe from the entire 
context, that they were written before the Anglo-Norman invasion, 
and while the Northern Galls were masters of Dublin. 

Keating, and others of his day, whom we shall presently cite, men- 
tion the Psalter of Caiseal and the Book of Eights as separate works ; 
but we must recollect that the Book of Eights stood separate in the 
MSS. from which we print it, and no doubt in other MSS., some centu- 
ries before his time. 

The Psalter of Caiseal is constantly referred to by the Irish writers 
of the seventeenth century as the work of Cormac Mac Cuileannain, 
and as then extant. Keating (iibi supra) mentions it as the first and 
most important of the historical books extant in his time. The follow- 
ing are his words : 

k ' Gjup an m£ib a Beanup pe peancup Gipeann lp inmeapca 50 
paib bapancariiail, 00 bpij 50 n-glancaoi 1 b-Peip Ceuinpac juc 
rpeup bliaoain e, do lucuip uaiple, ea^laipe, ujup olluriian Gipeann. 
6106 a piubnuipe pin ap na ppimleubpuib po plop ard pe na B-paicpin 
pop 1 n-Gipmn, map aca, falcuip Chaipil, bo pcpioB Copmac naorii- 
ra ITluc Cuileannain, pij oa coigeao Hlunmn a 5 u P cupb-eappoj 
Chaipil; CeaBap Gpbu fTlaca; CeaBap Chluana h-Gioneuc Pionn- 
cain, 1 fAioijip, Sulcaip nn Rann, 00 pcpiob Oonjup Cede t)e ; 
teuBap ^hliiine t)u f,oc; CeaBap nci 5-Ceupc, 00 pcpfoB 6enen 
niioiiicu ni'ic Seipjnein; Uibip Chiapam, 00 pjpioBub 1 5-Cluain rinc 
Noip; 6eaBap 6uibe miioling; ajup f -euBap Dub mholaju." 

xxvi Introduction. 

Wliicli may be translated as follows : 

" As to what belongs to the history of Ireland, it should be consi- 
dered that it is authentic, because it used to be purged at the Feis 
Teamhrach every third year, in the presence of the nobility, clergy, and 
ollamhs ; in evidence of which remain the following chief books, which 
are still to be seen in Ireland, viz. : Saltair Chaisil, written by the holy 
Cormac Mac Cuileannain, king of the two provinces of Munster, and 
Archbishop of Caiseal ; the Book of Ard Macha (Armagh); the Book 
of Cluain Eidhneach Fionntain, in Laeighis ; Saltair na Rann, written 
by Aenghus Ceile De; the Book of Gleann Da Loch; Leabhar na 
g-Ceart, written by the holy Benean, son of Sesgnean; Uidhir Chia- 
rain, which was written at Cluain mic Nois; Leabhar Buidhe Mholing; 
and Leabhar Dubh Mholaga." 

Doctor John Lynch, who was contemporary with Keating, men- 
tions these books in a different order, in his translation of Keating's 
History of Ireland: 

" Haec cum ita sint, et insignium etiam exterorum authorum testi- 
moniis comprobata, si vel leviter ad ea aspicerent recentiores Angli 
authores, amplain profeeto bene potius quam male de Hibernis lo- 
quendi ansam haberent; et quidem amplissimam, sidomestieaHilxTiiia? 
documenta legerent, et intelligerent, fidem enim ilia exigunt indubita- 
tam, quandoquidem tertio quoquo anno in Comitiis Teamorensibus 
a regni proceribus, prgesulibus, et literatis accurate excuterentur. Ilia 
quidem post Catholicam fidem ab insula susceptam, episcoporum custo- 
dia? tradebantur. Et sunt sequentes libri etiamnum extantes : Liber 
Armachauus'jPsalteriumCasselense, a sanctoCormacoCulenano, utrius- 

' Liber Armachanus. — It is doubtful contains only some notices of the life of 

whether this is the MS. now called the Si. Patrick, and which was called Canoin 

Book of Armagh, which could scarely he Phadruig by the Irish. It was probably 

called a ppirhleub> ip peancupu, as it a historical Manuscript of the same sort as 




que MomonisE Rege, Cassiliasque Archiepiscopo conscriptum : Liber 
Nuachongbhala™ ; Liber Cluain Egnach Fintoni" in Lesia ; Psalterium 
Rithmorum Aengi cognomento Dei familiaris, sive Colideus, (Clonjup 
Cede De); Liber GlindalochensisP ; Liber per Sanctum Benignum 
Seisgneui filium, confectus, inscriptus Jurium Liber'i (f.eaBap na 
5-Ceapc); Uioip Chiapain r Cluanmacnosise perscriptus; Liber Fla- 
vus de Moling s ; Liber Niger de Molagga 1 ." 

Sir James Ware also mentions the Psalter of Cashel (in his Irish 
Writers, at Cormac Mac Cuileannain, and in his Archbishops of Cashel, at 
Cormac), as extant in his time, and held in high esteem; and adds that 
he had some genealogical collections which had been extracted from it 
about three centuries before his time. 

Lhwyd, Nicholson, and Dr. O'Conor (Epist. Nunc. p. 65), have all 
mentioned that there is a part of the Psalter of Cashel in an old 

Leabhar na h-Uidhri, or the Annals of 

111 Liber Nuachongbhala. — There are at 
least six churches of this name in Ireland, 
one in Mayo, one in Westmeath, one in 
Londonderry, one in Clare, one in Cork, 
and we are informed by Colgan that it was 
the ancient name of "Navau,"in the county 
ofMeath. Nothing, however, remains, or 
at least is known to the Editor, to tell 
which of these places the book belonged 
to, or what became of it. 

" Liber Cluain Egnach Fintoni, i. e. 
the " Book of Clonenagh," a monastery 
near Mountrath, in the Queen's county, 
erected by St. Fintan. Keating elsewhere 
calls this the Annals of Cluain Eidhneach, 
and gives a long quotation from it, which 
treats of the Synod of Bath Breasail, and 
L'.ives tlie boundaries of the Irish dioceses 
as established by that Synod. This MS., 

which was one of great importance, is now 

Psalterium Rithmorum A copy of 

this, on vellum, is preserved in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin. 

I' Liber Glindalochensis A consider- 
able fragment of this MS. is now preserved 
in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. 

n Jurium Liber Tin's is the 6eab))(ip 

na j-Ceapc, now for the first time 

r Uidhir Chiarain, now called Leabhar 
na h-Uidhri. A considerable fragment of 
this MS., in the handwriting of Maelmuire, 
son of Celiochair Mac Cuinn na m-Bocht, 
is now preserved in the Library of the 
Royal Irish Academy. 

s Liber Flavus de Moling. The Yellow 
Book of St. Moling is now unknown. 

1 Liber Niger <l< Molagga — Now un- 

xxviii Introduction. 

MS. on parchment, in the Bodleian Library" at Oxford, consisting 
of 292 pages in large folio. This MS. was examined by Dr. Todd, 
who published an account of its contents, with observations on its 
age and history, in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 
vol. ii. p. 336. In the year 1844, and again in 1846, the Editor went 
over it with the most anxious care, to see how much of the Psalter it 
might preserve; and he has come to the conclusion that it contains 
a vcrv considerable fragment of that work. This MS., as it now stands, 
consists of 146 folios or 292 pages folio, paged consecutively in modern 
figures, though it is evidently defective by many folios in various 
places. When perfect it must have been very voluminous, as it appears, 
from various notices of the scribes, that it contained a transcript of 
all that could be then read of Saltair Ckaisil; Leabliair an Phreabain 
Chunga, i. e. the Book of the "Shred" of Cong; the Book of Rathain 
[Rahen, near Tullamore, King's county] ; the Leabhar Buidhe Fearna, 
i. e. the Yellow Book of Ferns. It was transcribed in 1453 by Seaan 
(John) Buidhe O'Cleirigh, and others, at Rath an Photaire (now called 
in Irish Rdc a' phocaip, and Anglice Pottlerath, a townland in which 
are some ruins of a castle, situate in the parish of Kilnamanagh, barony 

11 O'Reilly states, in his Irish Writers, it by himself, though he never saw the 
p. lx., that the Psalter of CasheJ was ex- Psalter of Cashel. Dishonest compilers of 
taut in Limerick in 1712, as appears by a this description have imposed dignified 
large folio MS. in the Irish language, pre- names upon their own compilations, to un- 
served in the Library of Cashel, written in pose ou the credulity of purchasers. A 
Limerick in that year, and partly bran- copy of the Book of Ballvmote, with some 
scribed from the original Psalter of Cashel; additions made by Teige O'Naghten, now 
and he adds, that the original Psalter of preserved in the Library of Trinity Col- 
Cashel was long supposed to be lost, but lege, Dublin, H. 1. 15, bears the title of 
that it is now said to be deposited in the Sulruip nu Uectrhpac, i.e. the Psal- 
British Museum. The Cashel MS. here ter of Tara, and the Editor has frequently 
referred to by O'Reilly is a compilation heard it positively asserted that the Psal- 
made in 1712, by Dermod O'Connor, the ter of Tara is preserved in the Library of 
translator of Keating, who calls it the the University of Dublin, but there are no 
Psallei of Cashel; but this name was given other grounds !or saying so. 

Introduction. xxix 

of Cranagh, and county of Kilkenny), for Edniond, the head of a sept 
of the Butler family, who assumed the Irish chieftain name of Mac 
Richard. This MS. remained in the possession of Mac Richard till 
the year 1462, when he was defeated in a battle fought at Baile an 
Phoill, now anglicized " Piltown,' 1 in the barony of " Iverk," county 
of Kilkenny, the property of the Earl of Bessborough, by Thomas, 
Earl of Desmond, to whom he was obliged to give up this very copy of 
the Psalter of Cashel (which was then more perfect than it is at pre- 
sent), and also another MS. called Leabhar na Carraige, i. e. the Book 
of Carrick [on Suir]. This appears from a memorandum in the mar- 
gin of folio 110 p. b. of which the following is a literal translation: 

" This was the Psalter of Mac Richard Butler, until the defeat at 
Baile an Phoill was given to the Earl of Ormond and to Mac Richard 
by the Earl of Desmond (Thomas), when this book and the Book of 
Carrick were obtained in the redemption of Mac Richard ; and it was 
this Mac Richard that had these books transcribed for his own use, 
and they remained in his possession until Thomas, Earl of Desmond, 
wrested them from him." 

This memorandum was written in the MS. while it was in the pos- 
session of Thomas Earl of Desmond, whose name " Thomas of Des- 
mond," appears in English, in his own handwriting, on folio 92, a. For 
a very curious account of this battle fought between the Butlers and 
the young Earl of Ormond, see the Annals of Dubhaltach Mac Fir- 
bisigh, " Dudley Firbisse," published in the Miscellany of the Irish 
Archaeological Society, p. 247, and the Editor's notes, pp. 295, 296. 

As Dr. Todd has already published a long account of this ma- 
nuscript, the Editor deems it necessary only to notice such parts of it 
as he thinks were transcribed from the Psalter of Cashel. It is not 
here intended to give the reader an idea of the general contents of the 
MS., for that would occupy many pages, but to show how much of that 

xxx Introduction. 

Psalter is preserved as it was copied foi Edmond Mac Richard Butler 
in 1453. 

At fol. 14, a. a., line 29, the transcriber states that there ends the 
part copied from the Book of Cong, called Leabhar an Phrcabain. The 
first notice of the Saltan' Chaisil occurs at fol. 42, b., where the limits 
of Ur Mhumha or Orraond are given. 

At fol. 58, b., the scribe writes that he had then transcribed all 
that he found together (consecutive, or without chasms) in the Psalter 
of Cashel (a Solcuip Chaipil), and much from Leabhar Rathain, and 
from Leabhar an Phreabain. 

At fol. 59, a. a., commences the Feilire Aenghuis or FestUogium of 
Aenghus Ceile De, which is accompanied, as usual, by an interlined 
gloss. This, which is in very good preservation, ends on fol. 72. It 
was evidently copied from the Saltair Chaisil. This is immediately 
followed by a poem headed Fingin cecinit oo Chopmac mac Cuile- 
nain, Finghin sang for Cormac Mac Cuileannain, and beginning: 

" t)u mab mipi ba pi peil." 
" Were I a king manifestly." 

Fol. 73, a. a. A poem on the genealogy of the kings of Munster, 
beginning : 

" Cain cuic maccu Cpimchuino ppeivh?" 
" Who were the five sons of Crimhthann Sreimh ?" 

This is undoubtedly copied from the Saltair Chaisil. 
Fol. 73, a., line 16, begins a poem on the descendants of Oilioll 
Olum, king of Munster : 

"Clann Qilella Oluim uill." 
"The sons of the great Aileall Olum." 

Between the folios now consecutively marked 74 and 75 there is an 
evident chasm. 

Introduction. xxxi 

Fol. 75, a. a., line 16, begins the genealogy of the race of Eir- 
eamhon (Heremon), undoubtedly copied from the Saltair Chaisil. 
" II Hernia insola inter duos filios principales Militis, id est Herimon et 
Eber, in duos partes divisa est.'''' This article is also to be found, totidem 
verbis, in the Books of Leacan and Baile an Mhuta (Ballymote), in which 
it is distinctly stated that it was transcribed from the Saltair Chaisil. 

At fol. 78 there is a chasm of many folios, though the modern 
pagination runs consecutively. 

Fol. 79, a. A part of Cormac's Glossary, beginning with the word 
imbup popopnoi. The remainder is perfect, but two folios are mis- 
placed. On the folio marked 8 1 is a short account of the seats of the 
kings of Caiseal. The glossary ends on folio 86, col. 3, where Seaan 
Buidhe O'Cleirigh writes a memorandum that he had finished the 
transcription of the Sanasan or Etymologicon of the Saltair Chormaic, 
on the fifth day of February and eighth of the moon, for Edmund But- 
ler Mac Richard. 

Fol. 80, b. A tract on the derivations of names of places in Ire- 
land, stated on the second last line of col. b., to have been transcribed 
from Leabhar Buidhe Fearna, i. e. the Yellow Book of Ferns. The 
matter, from this down to fol. 93, was probably taken from the 
Leabhar Buidhe Fearna, but from thence to folio 123 is evidently 
from the Saltair Chaisil. The principal contents are as follows: 

Fol. 93, a. a. Genealogy of the Race of Eibhear. The language 
very ancient. 

Fol. 93, b. a. line 29- A curious account of the sons of Eochaidh 
Muigh-mheadhoin, monarch of Ireland in the fourth century, and of 
their father's bequest to each of them. 

Fol. 93, b. b. An account of the cause of the expulsion of certain 
families from the north of Ireland, and their settlement in the south, 
beginning in Latin thus: " De causis qitibus exules Aquilonensium ad 

xxxii Introduction. 

Fol. 9-1, b. b., line 17. A historical tale relating to Mac Con, mo- 
narch of Ireland, and Oiliol Olum, king of Munster. 

Fol. 96, a. a. An account of the Battle of Magh Mucrnimhe, fought 
near Athenry, County Galway, between the ex-monarch Mac Con, and 
Art, monarch of Ireland in the third century. 

Fol. 98, a. a., line 22. Curious historical stories, in very ancient 
language, relating to Crimhthann Mor Mac Fidhaigh, monarch of Ire- 
land, and other Munster kings of the race of Eibhear. 

Fol. 99, b. b. An account of the expulsion of the people called 
Deise from Midhe (Meath), and their settlement in Munster. The 
language is very ancient. 

Fol. 106, b., col. 3. A genealogical account of the Race of Ir, se- 
venth son of Mileadh or Milesius. This is very copious, and the lan- 
guage very ancient, as is manifest from its grammatical terminations 
and obsolete idioms. 

Fol. Ill, b. a. A list of the Milesian or Scotic kings of Ireland, 
from Eireamhon (Heremon) down to Brian Borumha. This affords 
strong evidence that the Saltair Chaisil was enlarged or continued by 
that monarch. 

Fol. 115, a., cols. 2, 3. A list of the bishops of Ard Macha (Ar- 
magh), synchronized with the kings of Caiseal. Colgan has published 
this list in his Trias Thaum., p. 292, as " ex Psalterio CasselensV It 
is carried down to Domhnall, who succeeded A. D. 1092, and who was 
living when this list was made out. Lanigan remarks, in his Ecclesias- 
tical History of Ireland, vol. iii. p. 357, note 59, that some writers 
pretend that Cormac was not the author of this, and that it was com- 
piled after his times ; and he acknowledges that " there are some cir- 
cumstances mentioned as taken from it, which belong to a later period; 
for instance, the latter part of the catalogue of the archbishops of 
Armagh (apnd Tr. Th., p. 292), which comes down to the latter end of 

Introduction. xxxiii 

the eleventh century. But this proves nothing more than that some 
additions have been made to the original work of Cormac, as has been 
the case with regard to numbers of historical works, particularly those 
written in the middle ages." 

Fol. 115. A list of the kings of Dal Araidhe, which is followed 
by a list of the Christian kings of Ireland, down to Maelseachlainn II., 
who died in 1022. 

Fol. 116, a., col. 2. A list of the Christian kings of Connacht. 

Fol. 1 19, a., col. 3. A list of the kings of Aileach. 

At the bottom of this folio the scribe writes, 

"^ach ni peomuie o'pajbail 'pu penleBup .i. u Sulccnp Caipil 
aea againn 'p a leabap po na "Rura." 

i.e. "Everything we could find in the old book, i.e. the Saltair 
Chaisil, we have [preserved] in this book of the Rath." 

From thence down to fol. 146 would appear to have been taken 
from a different MS. 

It is quite evident from the notices in this MS. that the Saltair 
Chaisil was not then perfect, and that even of what was then tran- 
scribed from it the Bodleian MS. contains but a small fragment. It 
affords no evidence whatever as to Leahhar na g-Ceart, except the fact 
that the Psalter of Caiseal, in which a certain form of it must have 
been preserved, was continued down to about the year 1020. 

Of the Will of Cathaeir Mor, and other pieces introduced into 
Leabhar na g-Ceart. 

The rights of the king of Leinster are introduced by a piece which 
is called the Will of Cathaeir Mor. It has no apparent connexion 
with the Book of Rights, save that some of the principal tribes of 

xxxiv Introduction. 

Leinster descended from the sons of Cathaeir, and that the rights and 
stipends of those descendants are treated of. Cathaeir was monarch of 
Ireland in the second century, and it was one of the great glories 
of the Leinstermen, that their kings had held that station. At a much 
later period Diarmaid Mac Murchadha (Dermot Mac Murrough) in 
haranguing his Leinster troops, is reported to have said, in reference 
to king Rudhraidhe O'Conchobhair (Roderick O'Conor): " Sed si Lage- 
niam quserit, quoniam alicui Connactensium aliquando subiecta fuit: 
ea ratione et nos Connactiam petimus quia nostris aliquoties cum totius 
Hibernia; subdita fuerat monarchia." — Hibernia Expugnata, Dist., c. viii. 

The king of Caiseal's right to be king of all Ireland is stated in 
our text (pp. 28, 51, 52, infra), as to which, and the controversy on 
the subject, we have already said so much (pp. xiii.-xvii.) So are the 
rights of the kings of Aileach (pp. 125, 127, 129) and of Teamhair 
(p. 177), to be monarch, i.e. the rights of the northern and southern 
Ui Neill. A similar recognition is given to the king of Laighin 
(p. 205). 

Of the will of Cathaeir Mor, in the shape in which it has been 
edited, there are extant three copies on vellum, i. e. besides those 
inserted in our two copies of the Book of Rights, there is another in 
what is called the Book of Leinster, or Leabhar Laighneach (Leacan, 
fol. 92), with which the text of the present edition has been compared. 
Besides these we have another vellum copy, or, we might say, another 
will, in the Book of Baile an Mhuta (Ballymote), fol. 74, a. b. It is very 
different from the text which we have adopted, but evidently less 
authentic, being longer, and very verbose and rhapsodical. There 
is also a paper copy in the O'Gorman collection, in the Library of the 
Royal Irish Academy. It is in the handwriting of Peter O'Connell, 
who made a translation of it into English for the use of O'Gorman, 
who prided himself on his descent from this great monarch. This 

hit rod art ion. xxxv 

jopy, which professes to have been taken from the Book of Gleanu 
Da Loch (Glendalough), accords in arrangement with the copy in B., 
but it appears, from some verbal differences, that it was not taken 
from it. The copy consulted by O'Flaherty, Ogygia, p. hi. c. 59, was 
different from any of these. 

This will has been mentioned by O'Flaherty and most modern 
writers on Irish history, as an authentic document contemporaneous 
with the testator. See p, 192. But the Editor is of opinion that it 
was drawn up in the present form some centuries after the death of 
Cathaeir Mor, when the race of his more illustrious sons had definite 
territories in Leinster. Whether there was an older form of this will, 
or whether it was committed to Avriting in Cathaeir's own time, are 
questions which the Editor is not prepared to settle. 

The Editor does not know of any copy of the Benedictio Patricii, 
save those from which our text has been printed (p. 234). But there 
is in Leabhar Breac (fol. 14, b. a.) a blessing of the saint on Munster, 
which bears some resemblance to that here given. 

Dubhthach Mac Ui Lughair, the author of poems quoted at p. 236, 
is noticed by O'Reilly in his Chronological Account of the Irish 
Writers under the year 433, Avhere it is stated that he was the poet 
and druid of Laeghaire, monarch of Ireland, at the commencement of 
St. Patrick's mission, and that he was converted to Christianity by 
that apostle. The reader will there find some account of him and his 
writings. But O'Reilly there assumes that the poem in the Book of 
Rights, commencing Cearhcnp ceac a m-bi mac Cuinn, is ascribed to 
Dubhthach; and he says that some doubts may be reasonably enter- 
tained that this poem is the production of Dubhthach. But nothing 
is found in our text ascribing the poem in question to him. The copy 
in the Book of Baile an Mhuta says that it was found in the Psalter 
of Caiseal. 


xxxvi Introduction. 

A poet, Lughair, is named and quoted at p. 204, and called f,un 
File, or full poet. 

On the References to Tomar u as King or Prince of the Galls of 

We have reserved to this place a discussion upon these very curious 
references, and they appear to us worthy of a separate consideration, 
as the investigation may lead to fix the exact period at which the Norse 
or Danish tribes settled in Dublin. 

In Mr. Lindsay's View of the Coinage of Ireland, where a great 
deal of information respecting the succession of the Hiberno-Danish 
kings of Dublin, Cork, Limerick, and Waterford is collected, nothing 
is found with regard to the name Tomar. The royal pedigree is traced 
up to the brothers Amlaf I. 853, 870, and Imar or liars I. 870, 872, 
but no higher. 

In our work (at page 40) the monarch, in making a circuit of Ire- 
land, arrives at the entrenched Ath Cliath (Dublin), where, it is stated, 
he is entitled to a month's refection, 6 maiciB Comaip, from Tomar's 
chieftains, and to have the king of the bounteous ford (Ath Cliath), to 
accompany him to the Leinstermen, viz., to Liamhain (Dunlavan). 

The Galls of Dublin, within the jurisdiction of the kings of Laighin 
or Leinster, were liable to pay heavy tribute to him, pp. 218-220, and 
on the other hand the stipends of the king of Leinster to them for their 
services were also large. These are said to be payable do rhupc Cho- 
maip, to the prince Tomar. 

The Four Masters, under the year 942, quote some lines, from 
Avhich it would appear that " Race of Tomar," was a kind of patrony- 
mic for the Galls, foreigners, or Danes of Dublin. 

11 Pages 40 and 220, infra. 

Introduction. xxxvii 

" Ro copccpuo CIch Cliadi cluiobeuch 
co n-imuc pciac pceo ceajlac; 
po cpaibeab TTluincip Chomaip, 
1 n-iapcap borhain, bebpao. 

" Ath Cliath of swords was plundered 
Of many shields and families ; 
The Race of Tomar were tormented 
In the western world, it has been manifested," 

The earliest reference to a Danish prince Tomar occurring in the 
Irish annals is at the year 847, where the Annals of Ulster contain the 
following notice of a Danish prince Tomrair, which is decidedly the 
same name as Tomar : 

"A. D. occcpclun. Car pe lTluelpechnaill pop jennci 1 Popaijjj, 
in quo cecioepunc pecc cee. 6ellum pe n-Olchobup, pi lTlurhan, 
acup pe 6opjan mac Ceallaij co 6cnjmu occ Sciac Nechcain in 
quo cecioic Uompaip v 6pell, canaipe pi£ Caiclinne, acupbcr cec bee 

Thus rendered in the old translation of these Annals preserved in 
the Library of the British Museum. Clarend. torn. 49. Ayscough, 

" A. D. 847. A battle by Maelsechnaill vpon the Gentyes" (_i- e. 
Gentiles or Pagan Danes] " at Fora, where 700 fell. Bellum by 011- 
chovar, king of Mounster, and Lorgan mac Cellai into Leinster [rectc, 
with the Leinstermen] vppon Gentiles at Sciah Nechtan, where fell 
Tomrair Erell, the next or second in power to the king of Laihlin, 
and 1200 about him." 

' Compaip. Dr. O'Conor prints this MS- more correctly "Tomrair." Queen 
Domrair. The old translator reads the Corhap or Com pap, see p. xli. 



The same events are recorded by the Four Masters, under the year 
846, as follows: 

"Qoip Cpiopc, 846. Car ppaoineo pia ITIaelpeachlainn mac 
JTIaolpiianaio pop jallaio i Popaijou in po mapbab un. c. laip biob. 

"Car oile pju n-Olcobap pi lTluman, ajup pia Copcan mac 
Ceallaij pi Cuijean co Cuijnib agup TTIumain lompa pop £allaib 
ace Sceie Neccain, in po mapbao Uompuip w Gpla, canaipe T2i£ 
Coclainne, ajup bu ceo oec uime." 

" The age of Christ 846. A battle was gained by Maelseachlainn, 
the son of Maelruanaidh over the Galls [Danes] at Forach, where seven 
hundred of them were slain by him. 

" Another battle [was gained] by Olchobhar, king of Munster, and 
by Lorcan, the son of Ceallach, king of Leinster, with the Leinstermen 
and Munstermen about them, over the Danes at Sciath Neachtain, 
where Tomrair Erla, Tanist of the king of Lochlann, was slain, and 
twelve hundred about him." 

It Avill appear from a passage in the Annals of the Four Masters, 
at the year 994, that this earl or prince's ring, and the sword of 
Carlus, his contemporary, were preserved in Dublin, from which, 
coupled with the references* in Leabhar na g- Cea?% and the poem cited 

« Tomrair. — Dr. O'Conor prints this 
Tomrair, and the name is so written in the 
MS. copy made for the Chev. O'Gorman, 
now in the Royal Irish Academy. 

x This argument is much strengthened 
by the fact that Tomar is called cope in 
Leabhar nag-Ceart, see page 206. This 
term, which is also written ope is explain- 
ed "a king's son" in Cormac's Glossary, and 
by Michael O'Clery. Tore Tomar of Ath 
Cliath is then clearly the Tomrar, Earl, 
Tanist of the long of Lochlann, who was 

killed at Sciath Neachtain, in 847, and 
whose chain or ring was preserved at Dub- 
lin, in 994. The pedigree of Imhar, the 
ancestor of the Danish kings of Dublin, is 
given in none of the Genealogical Irish 
works hitherto discovered ; and in the ab- 
sence of direct evidence it is reasonable to 
assume that, as the Danes of Dublin had 
his ring or chain in 994, this ring or chain 
descended to them as an heir-loom from 
him ; and as they are called Muintir Thomair, 
in the Annals of the Four Masters, at the 

Introduction. xxxix 

by the Four Masters at the year 942, it may be inferred with much 
certainty that this Tomar or Tomrar was the ancestor of the Danish 
kings of Dublin, and very probably the father of Amhlaf and Imhar, 
the first of these kings, by whom his sword was preserved. The passage 
is as follows : 

" Qoip Cpiopc 994. pail Comaip agup claioeab Chaplupa bo 
cabaipc bo ITIuolpechlainn mac Domnuill ap eiccin 6 £allaib Qca 

" The age of Christ 994. The ring of Tomar and the sword of 
Carlus were carried off by Maelseachlainn^, the son of Domhnall, by 
force, from the Galls of Ath Cliath (Dublin)." 

This Tomar is clearly the Erla and Tanist of the king of Lochlann, 
slain at Sciath Neachtain in the year 847 ; and Carlus, whose sword 
was carried away by Maelseachlainn, was the son of Amlaff I., king 
of Dublin, and the person who was killed in the battle of Cill Ua 
n-Daighre (Killoderry) in the year 866, as thus recorded by the Four 
Masters : 

"CIoip Cpiopc 866. piano mac Conaing cijeapnu 6pej uile, oo 
cionol peap m-6peu$, Caijen, agup jail, co Cill Ua n-t)aijpe, cuig 
mile lion a pocpaibe inb acchaib an picch Cloba Pmnleic. Nf paibe 
Gob ace aon mile nu mu, im Concobap mac Uaiog, pi Connacc, T?o 
peapab an car co biocpaib bucpaccac ecoppa, a^uy po rheabuib po 

year 942, it may be further inferred that descended respectively from the ancestors 

they were also his descendants ; for if we whose names enter into the latter part of 

examine the Irish tribe-names to which the tribe names. The word Muintir is, how- 

Muintir is prefixed, we will find that the ever, now more extensive in its application, 

second part of the compound is the name and means people or family. 

of the progenitor, as Muintir Macmordha, ? Maelseachlainn, called Malachy II. 

Muintir Murchadha, Muintir Eoluis, Muin- monarch of Ireland. This entry is the 

tir Chionaetha, &c, which were the tribe- theme on which Moore founded his bal- 

names of the O'Reillys, O'Flahertys, Mac lad, 

Kannalls, and Mac Kinaws, all of whom " Let Erin remember the days of old." 

xl Introduction. 

beoib cpia neapc lomjona ajup lomaipecc pop piopa 6pej pop tai- 
jin a^up pop jallaib, ajup po cuipeao a n-ap, «£up ropcpabap po- 
caioe mop oo jallaib lp in c-car pin. Copcaip cinn piann, mac 
Conainj, cijeapna 6pe£, agup Oiapmaib mac Gcceppceoil, cijeap- 
na Coca ^abap, agup Caplup mac Qmlaib mac eijeapna jail. 
Uopcaip b'on leic apaill Paccna mac IDaoilebiiin, "Riojoamna an 
Phocla h-i ppicjuin an caca. TTlannacan cijeapna Lla m&piuin 
na Sionna po mapb piann, oia n-ebpao: 

"fflop an buaio oo TTIanoacan 
Oo jlonn an ^aipccib juipg 
Cenb mic Conainj 1 n-a laim 
Oo baij pop loncaib mic Caiog." 

" The age of Christ 866. Flann, the son of Conaing, lord of all 
Breagh, collected the men of Breagh, Laighin, and the Galls, to Cill 
Ua n-Daighre, five thousand being the number of his force, against the 
king Aedh Finnliath. Aedh had but one thousand only, together with 
Conchobhar, son of Tadhg, king of Connacht. The battle was vigor- 
ously and earnestly fought between them, and at length the victory 
was gained through dint of fighting and conflict over the men of Breagh, 
over Laighin, and over the Galls, who were slaughtered, and great num- 
bers of the Galls were slain in that battle. In it fell Flann, son of Co- 
naing, lord of Breagh, and Diarmaid, son of Eidersceal, lord of Loch 
Gabhair* ; and Carlus, son of Amhlaibh, son of the lord of the Galls. 
There fell on the other side, in the heat of the conflict, Fachtna, son of 
Maelduin, prince of the north (i. e. of Aileach). Mannachan, lord of 
Ui Briuin na Sionna was he who killed Flann, of which was said : 

* Loch Gabhair. — The territory of this name Logore to this day. See Proceedings 

chieftain lay around Dunshaughlin. See of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. i. p. 424, 

Colgan's ActaSS., p. 422, note 14. The Mr. Wilde's Account of Antiquities found 

lake is now dried, but the place retains the there. 

Introduction. xli 

"Great the victory for Mannachan, 
For the hero of fierce valour, 

[To have] the head of the son of Conaing in his hand 
To exhibit it before the face of the son of Tadhg." 

There was another Tornar or Tainar at Limerick about a century 
later. He is mentioned in the work called Cogadh Gall fri Gaedh- 
alaibh (an important and curious tract, the publication of which has 
been contemplated by the Irish Archaeological Society), under the 
name of Tamar Mac Elgi. In the copy of that work preserved in the 
Library of Trinity College, Dublin, H. 2, 17, p. 359, he is said to have 
come with a royal great fleet, some time after the death of the monarch 
Niall Glun-dubh, who was slain in the year 916, and to have put 
in at Inis Sibtond, at Limerick. The same person is mentioned in 
Mageoghegan's translation of the Annals of Clonmacnoise, under the 
year 922, where the following strange passage occurs : 

" A. D. 922. Tomrair Mac Alchi, king of Denmarck, is reported to 
go [to have gone] to hell with his pains, as he deserved." 

This is evidently the Tamar mac Elgi of H. 2, 17. 

The name Tomar and Tomrar became common as the proper name 
of a man among the Gaeidhil or Milesian Irish in the tenth and ele- 
venth centuries, like Maghnus, Raghnall, Amhlaeibh, Imhar, and other 
Danish names ; and a family of the Cineal Eoghain took the surname of 
O'Tomhrair from an Irishman who was baptized by the name of Tomh- 
rar from his mother's people. This family were seated near Lough 
Swilly, in the county of Donegal, where they built a family church, 
called from their surname Cill O'Tomhrair, i. e. church of the O'Tomh- 
rairs. This family still remains in many places in the province of Ul- 
ster, reduced, and obscure, and disguised under the anglicized name 
of Toner or Tonry. 

xlii Introduction. 

Of the Tract prefixed to the Book of Rights, entitled " Geasa agus 
Buadha Riogh Eireann." 

The Tract on the Geasa and Urghartha, and the Buadha and Adha, — 
i. e., as we have rendered the words, the Restrictions and Prohibitions, 
and the Prerogatives of the Kings of Eire or Ireland, — is curious for 
the glimpses which it aifords into the notions that prevailed in this 
country in the eleventh century, in the time of Cuan O'Lochain. 

Cuan O'Leochan or O'Lothchain, as he is sometimes called, or, as the 
name is more generally spelt, O'Lochain, was chief poet to Maelseachlainn 
(Malachy) II., monarch of Ireland, Avho died in 1022. After the death 
of this monarch there was an interregnum of twenty years, and we are 
informed that Cuan O'Lochain and Corcran Cleireach were appointed 
governors of Ireland; but Cuan did not long enjoy this dignity, for 
he was slain in Teabhtha (Tenia), A. D. 1024. Mr. Moore states, in 
his History of Ireland, vol. ii. p. 147, that " for this provisional govern- 
ment of Cuan he can find no authority in any of our regular annals ;" 
and it is certain that no authority for it is found in any of the original 
Irish annals, nor even in the Annals of the Four Masters ; but the fact 
is stated as follows in Mageoghegan's translation of the " Annals of 
Clonmacnoise" [Cluain mic Nois], a work which professes to be a faith- 
ful version of the original, although in some instances it has been ob- 
viously interpolated by the translator. 

"A. D. 1022. After the death of king Moyliseaghlyn, this king- 
dom was without a king twenty years, during [a portion of] which 
time the realm was governed by two learned men, the one called Cwan 
O'Lochan, a Avell learned temporall man and chiefe poet of Ireland, the 
other Corcran Cleireagh, a devoute and holy man that was [chief] 
anchorite of all Ireland, whose most abideing was at Lismore. The 

Introduction. xliii 

land was governed like a free state and not like a monarchic by 

"A. D. 1024. Cwan O'Loghan, prime poet of Ireland, a great 
chronicler, and one to whom, for his sufficiencie, the causes of Ireland 
were committed to be examined and ordered, was killed by one of the 
land of Teaffa ; after committing of which evill fact there grew an evill 
scent and odour of the party that killed him, that he was easily known 
among the rest of the land. His associate Corkran lived yett, and sur- 
vived him for a long time after." 

The death of Cuan O'Lochain is also recorded by Tighearnach, who 
died in the year 1088, and who may have seen him in his youth. His 
death is also entered in the Dublin and Bodleian copies of the Annals 
of Ulster as follows : 

"A. D. 1024. Cuan h-Ua Corcan ppirheicep Gpfnn do rhapbab i 
(o)-Uebra b' peapuib Ceabra pein: bpenaic a n-aen uaip in luccpo 
rhapb: pipe pile inpein." 

Thus translated by Dr. O' Conor, who has sadly mangled, if not 
falsified, many curious passages in the Irish annals : 

" Cuan O Lothcan, prcecipuus sapiens Hibernian occisus in Teffia. 
Judicium vseh cecidit in eos qui eum occiderunt.'' 

But the old translator of the Annals of Ulster, who was infinitely bet- 
ter acquainted with the Irish language than Dr. O'Conor, paraphrases 
it as follows, evidently from a text different from the two above re- 
ferred to: 

"A. D. 1024. Cuan O'Lochan, archpoet of Ireland [was] killed 
treacherously by the men of Tehva, ancestors of [the] Foxes ; they 
stunk after, whereby they got the name of Foxes, a miracle shewed of 
the poett." 

The notice of the killing of him, and the consequent visitation upon 
the murderers, is thus given in the Annals of Kilronan : 

xliv Introduction. 

"A. D. 1024. Cuan Ua £,6cam .1. ppirh-eijepp Gpenn, do rhapbuo 
la Cecpa. t)o pijne t)ia pipe pileb co pollup ap an luce po vinapb, 
oip po b&ppaijeb a n-opoch-oijeo lao, -| ni po h-aonaice6 a (j)-cuipp 
$up po£uil poeil 1 poluarham iao. 

"A. D. 1024. Cuan Ua Lochain, chief poet of Ireland, was killed 
by the Teffians. God wrought a miracle for the poet manifestly upon 
the party who killed him, for they met their deaths in a tragical man- 
ner, and their bodies were not interred until the wolves and birds 
preyed upon them." 

For a brief account of the poems ascribed to O'Lochain the reader 
is referred to O'Reilly's Irish Writers, pp. 73, 74. The first poem 
there mentioned has since been published in Petrie's Antiquities of 
TaraHill, Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xviii. pp. 143. 

Charles O'Conor of Belanagare, in an anonymous pamphlet written 
by him in 1749, against Sir Richard Cox's Appeal on the Behaviour of 
Dr. Charles Lucas, writes as if he had in his possession some MSS. of 
Cuan O'Lochain. It appears from the Memoirs of his Life and Writings, 
written by his grandson, the late Dr. Charles O'Conor, p. 211, that 
Mr. O'Conor would never have acknowledged this pamphlet to be his 
production, were it not that his correspondence with Reilly, the pub- 
lisher of it, obliged him to acquiesce. In this pamphlet Mr. O'Conor 

"What I have advanced on this subject I have extracted from our 
ancient MSS., the only depositories of the form of our ancient consti- 
tution, and particularly from the MSS. of Cuan O'Loghan, who ad- 
ministered the affairs of Ireland on the death of Malachy II. Anno 
Domini 1022." 

Having premised thus much with regard to the author of the 
poem, we may now say something as to the subject of the tract; and 
first of the words used. 

Introduction. xlv 

^eapa: in the Sing., Norn, jeip, Gen. jeipe (fern) — This word is 
in common use in the sense of conjuration or solemn vow; cuipim yd 
jeapctiti ru, " I conjure thee," is a common saying. — See tale of Deir- 
dre, in the Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Dublin, p. 23, where 
O' Flanagan translates it '■'■solemn vow,'''' and "injunctions," in a note 
mi the word. In this tract, however, the word is clearly used to de- 
note " anything or act forbidden, because of the ill luck which would 
result from its doing:" " Aruspex vetuit ante brumam aliquid novi 
negotii accipere." — Terence. It also means a spell or charm. 

It is used here as the opposite or antithesis of buabct, and synony- 
mous with 

Up^apca : O'Reilly gives a word upjcipc (s. m.), which he ex- 
plains, "bad hick, misfortune, fatality;" but this word is rather to be 
formed from the verbal noun upjapao (mas.), signifying prohibition, 
interdiction, hindrance; see also eapjapao, in O'Clerigh's Glossary 
of ancient Irish words. It is used here as the antithesis of aba. 

6uaoa : in the Sing, buaio (fern.) This is still the living Irish 
word for victory. When applied to plants or herbs in medical MSS. 
it denotes virtue, power, &c. See the Battle ofMagh Rath, pp. 84, 85, 
280, where the three victories or remarkable events of the battle are 
called epf buaoa in cacha ; and see p. 239, infra, where it is translated 

Goct: in the Sing., Nom. ctb., Gen. aba (mas.) In a MS. in Tri- 
nity College, Dublin, H. 3, 18, this is explained by bucuo, and it is 
evidently here used instead of it: the things which will insure good 
luck and success. The word 66 is still used in every part of Ireland 
to denote good luck or success. 

Whether the customs and popular beliefs or superstitions, recorded 
in this poem, had ever been drawn up into a code before O'Lochain's time, 
it would now be difficult to determine ; but we find a collection of the 

xlvi Introduction. 

kind in the concluding piece of Leabhar na g-Ceart {infra, p. 238, &c), 
where some of the prohibitions are identical with O'Lochain's. Many 
of those matters are clearly of Pagan origin, and the reference to the 
king of Leinster drinking by the light of wax candles in the palace of 
Dinn Riogh, shows that the poet considered some of these customs as in 
existence from the most remote period of Irish history, as the kings of 
Leinster had not resided at Dinn Riogh since the introduction of Chris- 
tianity, for they deserted it for Nas (Naas) at a very remote period. 
The prohibition, " that the sun should not find him in his couch at 
Teamhair," has also reference to a period many centuries anterior to 
O'Lochain's time; for the monarchs of Ireland had not resided at 
Teamhair or Tara since about the year 565, when it was cursed by 
St. Ruadhan, or Rodanus, of Lothra. See MS. Trin. Col. Dub., H. 1 . 1 5, 
and Vita Sancti Rodani in the Codex Kilkenniensis, now preserved in 
Marsh's Library, Class v. 3, Tab. i. No. 4, F., and as published by the 
Bollandists at 25th April; and see also Connell Mageoghegan's trans- 
lation of the Annals of Clonmacnoise, MS. Trin. Col. Dub., F. 3. 19, 
p. 45, and Petrie's Antiquities of Tara Hill, p. 101-103. Its abandon- 
ment is also mentioned in the Danish work called the Konungs-Skugg- 
sio quoted in Johnstone's Antiq. Celto-Scand., p. 287. From these facts 
it is quite obvious that some of those customs were regarded by the 
poet as derived from the most remote periods, and that the observ- 
ance of them in his own time was reckoned absolutely necessary to the 
welfare of the monarch and the provincial kings. 

We recollect little in Irish history to guide us to the origin of 
many of the curious restrictions here recorded ; but it is quite ob- 
vious that some of them have arisen from precaution, others from a 
recollection of mischances. Look at the following restrictions of the 
monarch of Ireland : 

To alight on a Wednesday in Magh Breagh ; to traverse Magh Cuil- 

Introduction. xlvii 

linn after sunset; to incite his horse at Fan-Chomair; to go on Tuesday 
into North Teabhtha ; to go on a ship upon the water the day after 
Bealltaine (May day). 

Such restrictions are not without parallels in the observances of 
other nations, and there are many maxims of a similar kind known to 
prevail even among wealthy classes in the present day, to an extent 
that is seldom acknowledged. The prohibition against beginning any 
new under taking on a Friday is quite a gets of the class mentioned in 
our text. The prohibition against sitting down to dinner, thirteen at 
table, is particularly remarkable, and every shift is commonly made to 
avoid or escape from it, with a real apprehension that, if the fatal number 
be complete, one of the party will surely die within the twelvemonth. 
So the prohibition that the bridegroom's mother shall not go to church 
with the bridal party is strictly submitted to ; she must not be present 
at the marriage ceremony anywhere — at church or at home ; and 
though the parties concerned be in the habit of caning such beliefs 
" superstitious," yet, when it comes to the point in this matter in 
their own case, it will be found that the geis will not be violated. 

Addison, in the Spectator, has a paper relevant to this point, in 
which he adduces curious instances of English superstitions, and tracts 
of the present day are not wanting, giving particular evidence on the 
same subject. 

Observances of a like nature were common among the Pagan na- 
tions of what is considered classical antiquity, as we learn from their 
writers : 

" Saepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non lreva fuisset, 
De csbIo tactas memini prredicere quercus. 
Saepe sinistra cava praedixit ab ilice comix." — Virg. Eclog. i. 1C. 

" Ipsa dies alios alio dedit online Lima 

Felices operum : quintain fnge ; pallidas Oreus 

xlviii Introduction. 

Eumenidesque satse ; turn partu Terra nefando 

Caeumque Iapetumque creat, saevumque Typhoea, 

Et conjuratos caelum rescindere fratres." — Id. Georg. i. 280. 

The origin of the adha or buadha may be similarly accounted for. 
Some of them savour strongly of Pagan notions. 

On the Division of the Year among the ancient Irish. 

As the seasons of the year are frequently mentioned in this book, it 
will be well here to add a few words on the divisions of the year among 
the ancient Irish. Dr. O'Conor has attempted to show, in his Rerum 
Hibernicarum Scriptores, Epistola Nuncupatoria, lxxi. et seq., and in the 
Stowe Catalogue, vol. i. p. 32 : 1. That the year of Pagan Irish was 
luni-solar, consisting, like that of the Phoenicians and Egyptians, of 
365 days and six hours: 2. That it was divided by them, as it is at 
present into four rathaov quarters, known by the names of Samh-ratha, 
Foghmhar-raiha, Geimk-ratha, and Iar-ratha, now corruptly Earrach, 
or summer, autumn, winter, and spring ; the first of these quarters 
commencing at the vernal equinox, the second at the summer solstice, 
the third at the autumnal equinox, and the fourth at the winter sol- 
stice; 3. That at the beginning of each of these ratha a religious festi- 
val was celebrated, but that the periods when they were celebrated were 
changed by the early Christians, to agree with the Christian festivals, 
and to obliterate the recollection of the origin of the Pagan rites which 
they were not able utterly to abolish. That such a change was made 
he infers from a passage occurring in all the old Lives of St. Patrick, 
which states that Patrick lighted the Paschal fire at Slane in 433, at 
the same time that King Laeghaire was celebrating the festival of 
Bealltaine at Teamhair ; which would be fair enough if the fire were 

Introduction. xlix 

called Bealltaine by any of Patrick's ancient biographers ; but it is 
not, and therefore Dr. O'Conor's inference wants the vis consequential. 
In the oldest Life of St. Patrick extant, namely, that by Mocutenius, 
preserved in the Book of Armagh, the fire lighted by the king of 
Teamhair, and Patrick's Paschal fire, are mentioned as follows : 

" Contigit vero in illo anno, idolatries sollempnitatem quam gentiles 
incantationibus multis, et magicis inventionibus, nonnullis aliis idola- 
trias superstitionibus, congregatis etiam regibus, satrapis, ducibus, 
principibus, et optimatibus populi, insuper et magis, incantatoribus, 
auruspicibus, et omnis artis omnisque doli inventoribus doctoribusque 
vocatis ad Loigaireum, velut quondam ad Nabcodonossor regem, in 
Temoria, istorum Babylone, exercere consuerant, eadem nocte qua 
Sanctus Patricius Pasca, illi illam adorarent exercentque festivitatem 

" Erat quoque quidam mos apud illos per edictum omnibus inti- 
matus ut quicumque in cunctis regionibus sive procul, sive juxta, in 
ilia nocte incendissent ignem, antequam in domu regia, id est, in pala- 
tio Temoria?, succenderetur, periret anima ejus de populo suo. 

" Sanctus ergo Patricius Sanctum Pasca celebrans, incendit divinum 
ignem valde lucidum et benedictum, qui in nocte refulgens, a cunctis 
pene plani campi habitantibus vissus est." — Book of Armagh, fol. 3, b. 

It is also stated in the Leabhar Breac as follows : 

"Ceicpdcpaic lap pincn Pepca pep Peicc. Gbancap eemio occa 
lp in inub pin pepcop na Cape. Pepgaichep Coejaipe 60 chi in cenio, 
ap ba h-ipin geip Uempach oc^oe&el'Uib; ocup nt larhao nech cenio 
b'pacob 1 n-Gipino lp ino lou pin, no cu n-abanca h-i Cempaij ap cup 
lp in pollamain." — Fol. 14, a 1. 

" Patrick goes afterwards to Fearta Fear Feicc. A fire is kindled by 
him at that place on Easter eve. Laeghaire is enraged as he sees the 
lire, for that was the gets [prohibition] of Teamhair among the Gaedhhil ; 


1 Introduction. 

and no one dared to kindle a fire in Ireland on that day until it should 
be first kindled at Teamhair at the solemnity." 

Now, however these two passages may seem to support Dr. O'Conor's 
inference, it is plain that the fire lighted at Teamhair is not called 
Bealltaine in either of them. It should be also added that it is not so 
called in any of the Lives of Patrick. According to a vellum MS. in 
the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, H. 3. 17, p. 732, the fire from 
which all the hearths in Ireland was supplied was lighted at Tlachtgha 
[at Athboy] in the Munster portion of Meath, and not on the first of 
May, but on the first of November; while, according to Keating, the 
author of the Dinnseanchus, and others, the fire called Bealltaine 
was lighted at Uisneach, in the Connacht portion of Meath, on the 
first of May, which for that reason is called La Bealltaine to the pre- 
sent day. The probability then is, that the fire lighted at Teamhair, 
on Easter eve, A. D. 433, was not the Bealltaine, but some other 
fire, and it is stated in the second life of St. Patrick, published by 
Colgan, that it was the Feis Teamhrach, or Feast of Teamhair, that 
Laeghaire and his satraps were celebrating on this occasion ; while the 
author of the Life of St. Patrick in the Book of Lismore, asserts that 
Laeghaire was then celebrating the festival of his own nativity, which 
appears to have been the truth, and if so it was not the regular sep- 
tennial Feis a , which met after Samhain, but one convened to celebrate 
the kings birth-day. From these notices it is quite clear that O'Conor's 
inference, that the Bealltaine was lighted on the 21st of March by the 
Pagan Irish, is not sustained. In the accounts given of the Bealltaine 

a This is usually called triennial, as in of L., p. 22, though the other reading there 

the passages quoted from Keating, &c, in B. makes it every fifth year, p. 273, 

above, p. 25, 26, jac rpeap bliuoain; n. 46 . See also the poem, p. 240, infra, 

but it is every seventh year in this work, where both copies, L. & B., have each 

in the prose of L. at p. 6, and in the Various peaclicrhuo San na, i. e. every seventh 

Readings of B., p, 272 ; and in the poem Samhain. 

Introduction. H 

in Cormac's Glossary, and in H. 3. 18, p. 596, as quoted in Petrie'a 
Antiquities of Tara Hill, no time is specified for the lighting of it, nor 
could we be able from them, or from any other written evidence yet 
discovered, to decide in what season it was lighted, were it not that 
the first of May is still universally called in Irish La Bealltaine. But 
Dr. O'Conor argues that this name was applied in Pagan times to 
the 21st of March, and that it was transferred to the first of May 
by the early Christians, to agree with a Christian festival. This, 
however, is contrary to the tradition which still prevails in many 
parts of Ireland, namely, that the fires lighted in Pagan times, on 
the first of May, were transferred by St. Patrick to the 24th of 
June, in honor of St. John the Baptist, on the eve of whose festival 
they still light bonfires in every county in Ireland, and not on the first 
of May, except in Dublin, where they continue to light them on the 
1st of May also. The observances still practised on May-day (which 
have no connexion whatever with Christianity) and the traditions pre- 
served in the country respecting it, found a strong argument that it 
must have been a Pagan festival, while the 21st of March is not remark- 
able for any observances. The same may be observed of Samhain, the 
1 st of November, on which, according to all the Irish authorities, the 
Druidic fires were lighted at Tlachtgha. The Editor is, therefore, con- 
vinced that Dr. O'Conor has thrown no additional light on the division 
of the year among the Pagan Irish, for his conjecture respecting the 
agreement of the Paschal fire of St. Patrick with the Bealltaine of the 
Pagan Irish is visionary, inasmuch as it is stated in the second life by 
Probus that it was the Feis Teamhrach that Laeghaire was then cele- 
brating. The words are given in very ancient Irish, as follows, by the 
original author, who wrote in the Latin language : " If ip ino aim) lp 
pin tun bo pignebh peip Cempaohi la ^oejaipe mac Weill -| la 
f ipu Gipeann," i. e. " It is in that time indeed that the Feis Temh- 


lii Introduction. 

radhi was made by Loegaire, son of Niall, and by the men of Eire." — 
See Colgan's Trias Thaum., pp. 15, 20. 

The fact seems to be that we cannot yet determine the season with 
which the Pagan Irish year commenced. As to Dr. O'Conor making 
earrach, the spring, the last quarter, because, in his opinion, it is com- 
pounded of iar and ratha, postremus anni cursus, it can have no weight 
in the argument, because there is not the slightest certainty that 
this is the real meaning of the term, for in Cormac's Glossary the 
term is explained urughadk, i. e. refreshing, or renewing, and it is con- 
jectured that it is cognate with the Latin ver: it may be added that it 
is almost identical with the Greek 'lap, tapog. 

That the Pagan Irish divided the year into four quarters is quite 
evident from the terms Earrach, Samhradh, Foghmhar, and Geimhridh, 
which are undoubtedly ancient Irish words, not derived from the Latin 
through Christianity ; and that each of these began with a stated day, 
three of which days are still known, namely, Bealltaine, otherwise called 
Ceideamhain, or beginning of summer (see p. 20, infra), when they 
lighted fires at Uisneach, in the beginning of Samhradh ; Lughnasadh, 
the games of Lughaidh Lamh-fhada, which commenced at Taillte on 
the first clay of Foghmhar, the harvest ; and Samhain, i. e. Samh-fhuin, 
or summer-end, when they lighted fires at Tlachtgha. The beginning 
of Earrach, the spring, was called Oimelc, which is derived from oi, 
ewe, and melc, milk, because the sheep began to yean in that season, 
but we have not found that any festival was celebrated. 

In a MS. in the Library of the British Museum (Harleian MSS., 
H. I. B., No. 5280, p. 38), the names of the days with which the sea- 
sons commenced are given in the following order : 

"O Sctrhpucm co h-Oimelc, h-o Oimelc co 6elcine, h-o 6elcine 
co 6pon-rpojain," i. e. "from Samhsuan to Oimelc, from Oimelc to 
Beltine, from Beltine to Bron-troghain." And the following explana- 
tions are then given by way of gloss : 

Introduction. liii 

" Sarhain bno .1. pampum .1. puin in e-pampaio ann, ap ip oe poinn 
no bib pop an m-pliaoam ano .1. in pampab o 6eilcine co Sarhpuin, 
acup in ^eirhpeo 6 Sariipuin co 6elcine," i.e. "Samhain, i. e. Samh- 
f huin, i. e. the end of Samradh [summer] is in it, for the year was 
divided into two parts, i. e. the Samradh, from Beltine to Samfhuin, 
and the Geimhredh, from Samfhuin to Beltine." 

A similar explanation of Sampuin is given in H. 3. 18, p. 596, and 
in O'Clery's Glossary. 

Oimelc is derived from imme-folc, and explained eaioe an eap- 
pai£, i. e. the beginning of Spring, or from oi-melc, sheep-milk: " lp hi 
aimpip innpenn a cicc app caeipiuc acup 1 m-bleagaup coipicch," i. e. 
" This is the time when the milk of sheep comes, and when sheep are 
milked." In Peter O'Connell's MS. Dictionary, oimelc is also written 
imbuLc, and explained Peil 6pijoe, i.e. St. Bridget's festival, 1st 
February, which day has for many centuries been called La Feile 
Briglide, the older name being obsolete. 

Beltine, the name of the first day of summer, is thus explained : 

"6elcine .1. bil cine .1. cene poinrhech .1. 06 ceneo bo jnfbfp la 
h-aepp peccai no opui co cinceclaib mopaib, -| 00 lecbfp na cecpa 
ecappae ap ceomannaib cecha bliabna; no 6elbine ; 6el bin ainm 
t)e loail; ip ann oo[c]ap pelbc! oine gaca cerpa pop peilb 6eil." 

" Beltine, i. e. biltine, i. e. lucky fire, i. e. two fires which used to be 
made by the lawgivers or druids, with great incantations, and they 
used to drive the cattle between them [to guard] against the diseases 
of each year. Or Bel-dine ; Bel was the name of an idol god. It was 
on it [i. e. that day] that the firstling of every kind of cattle used to be 
exhibited as in the possession of Bel." See a similar passage quoted 
in Petrie's Antiquities of Tara Hill, p. 60. 

Bron-troghain, the name of the first day of the next season is ex- 
plained Lughnasadh [Lammas], i. e. " Came Pojamaip .1. ip ant> 00 

liv Introduction. 

bpome rpo^ain .1. ralarh po coiprip. Cpoj^an bin ainm bo cdlarii," 

i.e. "the begining of Foghamhar, i.e. in it Troghan brings forth, i. e. 
the earth under fruits. Troghan, then, is a name for the earth." 

In the Book of Lismore, in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, 
(fol. 189, a) mip cpojcnn is explained, Cujnapa, Lammas. 

In Cormac's Glossary (as we have already intimated), eppac, the 
spring, is explained upujab, i. e. refreshing, and derived from the 
Latin ver; but it is much more like the Greek 'U% sccpos. 

Sampan is thus explained in Cormac's Glossary: 

" Sampab, quapi path ip inb 6bpa pol lp in 6aicm unbe bicicup 
Sampon .1. pol eopum. Sampab oin .1. piao picep 3r ,an 5 1 T unb a P 
mo bo [c]aicne a poillpe acup a h-aipoe, i. e. Samhradh, quasi samh 
in the Hebrew, which is sol in the Latin, unde dicitur Samson, i. e. Sol 
eorum. Samhradh, then, a riadh, i. e. a course which the sun runs, and 
it is in it that its light and its height are the most resplendent." 

In O'Clery's Glossary, the monosyllable samh is explained by Sam- 
pao, summer. It is clearly the same word as summer. 

In the same Glossary the harvest is defined as the name of the last 
month, oo'n mip bei^enaij po h-ainmnijeao, and derived quapi Po- 
£amup .1. pora mip n-^aim, the foundation of the month of Gamh or 
November. It has a close resemblance to, and perhaps the same origin 
as, the Greek onaipx, for if we prefix the digamma, and aspirate the w, 
we have Foipapct. This, and the relationship of e«p, e#gos with eappuc, 
have never been remarked before. 

In Cormac's Glossary, Geimhredh, winter, is conjectured to be from 
the Greek Gamos (Tcifios), and this conjecture is attempted to be 
strengthened by the remark, "hide [in eo] veteres mulieres duxeriint /" In 
the same Glossary, voce Cpoicenn, as well as in O'Clery's, the mono- 
syllable 5am is explained hiems, jeimpeao, and it is quite evident that 
this, or geirh, is the primitive form of the word, and it is cognate with 

I ii traduction. lv 

the Welsh gauaf, the Greek %sificc, and the Latin hjems. Tlie proba- 
bility, therefore, is, that the terminations radh or readh, added to the 
simple samh and </amA, or geimk, are endings like the er in the Saxon 
summ-cr, wint-er, though there is a possibility that they may be 
compounded of samh, and gamh or geimh, and re, time. There is not 
the slightest probability that the terminations rack, radh, ar, readh, in 
the terms earrach, samradh, foghmhar, geimhreadh, are corruptions of 
ratha, a quarter of a year, as Dr. O'Conor takes for granted. 

It might at first sight appear probable that the year of the Pagan 
Irish began with Oimelc, the spring, when the sheep began to yean 
and the grass to grow, but this is far from certain ; and if there be no 
error of transcribers in Cormac's Glossary, we must conclude that the 
last month of Foghamhar, i. e. that preceding Mis Gamh or November, 
was the end of their summer, and of their year, Pojorinap .1. oo'n mip 
beijenai$ po h-ammni jeao, i. e. Foghamhar, was given as a name to 
the last month. Since the conversion of the Irish to Christianity they 
began the year with the month of January, as is clear from the Feilire 

Besides the division of the year into the four quarters, of which we 
have spoken, and into two equal parts called 5am or genii (Welsh 
gauaf) and p ctrh (Welsh haf), it would appear from a gloss on an ancient 
Irish law tract in H. 3. 18, p. 13, T. C. D., it was divided into two 
unequal parts called Samh-fucht [cucc, i. e. time'], or summer-period, 
and Gamh-fucht or Geimh-fucht, i. e. winter-period ; the first comprising 
five months, namely, the last month of Spring, and the three months 
of Summer, and the first month of Autumn; and the other the two 
last months of Autumn, the three months of Winter, and the two first 
months of Spring. This division was evidently made to regulate the 
price of grazing lands. 

lvi Introduction. 

On the Chariots and Roads of the ancient Irish. 

The mention of chariots in this work requires some observations. 
St. Patrick, according to his Tripartite Life, published by Colgan, vi- 
sited most parts of Ireland in a chariot. The carbad is also men- 
tioned in the oldest Irish stories and romances, as in the Tain Bo 
Cuailghne, in which Cuchullainn's carbad (chariots), and his ara, or 
charioteer, are constantly mentioned. There was a locality at Teamh- 
air or Tara, called Fan na g-Carbat, or slope of the chariot, and it is 
distinctly stated in the Life of St. Patrick preserved in the Book of 
Armagh, that the Gentile or Pagan Irish had chariots at Tara before 
their conversion to Christianity. 

According to the ancient Irish annals, and other fragments of Irish 
history, the ancient Irish had many roads which were cleaned and kept 
in repair according to law. The different terms used to denote road, 
among the ancient Irish, are thus denned in Cormac's Glossary, from 
which a pretty accurate idea may be formed of their nature : 

""Roc .1. pouc .1. po-pec .1. mo oloap pec .1. pemica umup ani- 
malip. Gcaic cpa ll-anmanna pop conaipib .1. pec, poc, pamuc, 
plije, lam-pocae, cuaD-pocae, bocap. 
Sec cecamup uc ppeoipcimup. 

"Roue .1. Da pacac no Da cuac cappac 00 aenach Dae imme 00 
ponao ppi hecpaice menooca pop meoon, 

Rariiac .1. mo oloap poc .1. uppcup bfp pop up ouniB pij. Cac 
comaijcecln a cip 00 po cuice olejap oe a jlanao. 

Slije oin 00 pcucao cappac pech apaile 00 ponca ppi h-imco- 
mapc ba cappac .1. cappac pig ocup cappac eppcoip co n-oechaio 
cac ae oib pech apaile. 

^ampoca .1. icep oa plijiD, pbje Dap cuaipcepc menooca, apade 
Dap a oepcepc ppi leppu ppi cae do ponao. 

Introduction. lvii 

Uuujpoca pop alien pep cpeBap conaip ooapcnurh poicoi nopleibe. 

&6chap cpa .1. calla 01 bom alanae pop poc, apaile pop cappna 
pop a calluc a laeij no a n-jariina ma pail, ma6 1 n-a n-biai£ bepp 
upcup in bo bep oa eppi. 

Gccuc ceopa glunca 00 cac ae. Cpf haimpepa 1 n-glancap .1 
ampep echpuachaip, cumpip chuae, aimpep cochca. Ice a cpi glanca 
.1. glanao a peoa ocup a uipce -\ a coclaib. Ice aicpi pop a nglan- 
cap .1. rip nellneo a cappac oc oul pop coe ap nellneo a ech- 
pame oc cechc bo aenach -|ca." 

" Rot, i. e. rout, i. e. ro-shet [a great set, or path], i. e. greater 
than a set. i. e. semita unius animalis. There are many names upon the 
roads, i. e. sed, rot, ramhat, slighe, lamh-rotae, tuadh-rotae, bothar : 

"Set, imprimis, ut prcediximus [i.e. semita unius animalis']. 

" Rout [ro-shet, great path], a chariot goes upon it to the fair; 
it was made for the horses of a mansion in medium. 

" Ramhat, i. e. wider than a rot, i. e. an urscur, an open space or 
street, which is in front of the forts of kings. Every neighbour whose 
land comes up to it is bound to clean it. 

" Slighe : for two chariots pass by each other upon it ; it was made 
for the meeting of two chariots, i. e. the chariot of a king and the cha- 
riot of a bishop, so that each of them might pass by the other [with- 
out touching]. 

" Lamhrota, i. e. [it extends] between two slighes, one to the 
north of a mansion, and the other to the south ; it was made for forts 
and for houses. 

" Tuaghrota [farm road], for the passage of the husbandman, a 
passage which reaches to a rot, or a mountain. 

" Bothar: two cows fit upon it, one lengthwise, the other athwart, 
and their calves and yearlings fit on it along with them ; for if they 
were behind them the cow that followed would wound them. 

lviii Introduction. 

" There are three cleanings for each. Three periods at which they 
are cleaned, i. e. time of* horse-racing, time of cua, time of war. These 
are the three cleanings, i. e. cleaning of wood [brushwood], of water, 
of weeds. These are the causes for which they are cleaned : on account 
of their dirtying of the chariot going on a journey, for dirtying of the 
horses coming from the fair, &c." 

According to the ancient Irish topographical work, called Dinn- 
seanchus, there were five great roads in Ireland, called by the fol- 
lowing names, viz., Slighe Dala, Slighe Asail, Slighe Midhluachra, 
Slighe Cualann, and Slighe Mor. Lughaidh O'Clerigh, in his poeti- 
cal controversy with Tadhg Mac Daire, urges in support of the dig- 
nity of Conn of the Hundred Battles, the ancestor of the dominant 
families of Leath Chuinn, that these five roads, which led to the 
fort of Teamhair, were first discovered on the birth-night of this 
great monarch, and he is borne out in this assertion by the autho- 
rity of the Dinnseanchus, though neither of these great authorities, 
nor O'Flaherty, who reiterates the same wonderful fact (Ogygia, 
page 314), tells us the meaning of discovering these roads. It may 
be a bardic mode of recording that these roads were completed by 
Feidhlimidh the Lawgiver, on the day before Conn was born, and 
that the people travelled by them on the next day. But old stories of 
this kind are found among every ancient people, and are worthy of 
preservation for the historical facts which they envelope. At whatever 
period these great roads were made, they indubitably existed, and are 
frequently referred to in Irish historical tales, from which their posi- 
tions may be pretty accurately determined. Slighe Dala was the great 
south-western road of Ireland, which extended from the southern side 
of Tara hill, in the dh-ection of Ossory. Slighe Asail was a western road 
extending from the hill of Tara in the direction of Loch Uair (Lough 
Owel), near Mullingar, in Westmeath. A part of this road is distinctly 

Introduction. lix 

referred to in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, as extending from Dun na n-Airbhedh 
to the cross at Tigli Lomain. Slighe Midliluachra was a northern road, 
hut nothing has been yet discovered to prove its exact position. Slighe 
Cualann extended from Tara, in the direction of Dublin and Bray, and 
Slighe Mor was the great western road, the lie of which is defined by 
the Eiscir Eiada, a line of gravel hills extending from Dublin to Meadh- 
raighe, near the town of Galway. See Petrie's Antiquities of Tara Hill, 
p. 205, and see the 6ealac t)uiblmne mentioned in our work at p. 14. 
Besides these great highways there are various others of inferior 
character mentioned in the Irish annals, and in the bardic histories of 
Ireland, at an early period. Keating mentions the following: Bealach 
Cro, Bealach Duin Bolg, Bealach Chonglais, Bealach Dathi, Bealach 
Gabhrain, Bealach Mughna, Bealach Mor, in Osraidhe [another name 
for Slighe Dala], Bealach na Luchaide, in North Munster. The fol- 
lowing roads are referred to in the Annals of the Four Masters, at 
various years. The dates are added to such as are mentioned before 
the English Invasion: Bealach an Chamain, Bealach an Chluainin, 
Bealach an Chrionaigh, Bealach an Diothruibhe, Bealach an Fhiodhfail, 
Bealach an Fhothair, Bealach an Mhaighre, Bealach Bodhbha, A. D. 
866 ; Bealach Buidhe an Choirrshleibhe, Bealach Chille Brighde, Bea- 
lach Coille na g-Cuiritin, Bealach Chonglais, Bealach Cro, Bealach 
Duin, Bealach Duin Bolg, A. D. 594 ; Bealach Duinn Iarainn, Bealach 
Ele, A. D. 780; Bealach Eochoille, A. D. 1123; Bealach Fedha, A.D. 
572; Bealach Fele, A.D. 730; Bealach Gabhrain, A. D. 756; Bealach 
Guirt an Iubhair, A.D. 1094; Bealach Ithain, Bealach Leachta, A. D. 
976; Bealach Lice, A. D. 721; Bealach Mor Muighe Dala, Bealach 
Mughna, A. D. 903; Bealach Muine na Siride, A. D. 1144; Bealach 
na Bethighe, Bealach na Fadhbaighe, Bealach na g-Corr-ghad, Bealach 
na n-Gamhna, Bealach na h-Urbhron, Bealach natha, A. D. 866 ; Bea- 
lach Ui Mhithidhein, Bothar Mor Cnamhchoille, Bothar na Mac Riogh. 

lx Introduction. 

Various other roads are mentioned in the lives of the Irish saints, 
and in the Irish historical tales, but it would be out of place to dwell 
further upon the subject in this place. There is, however, one road, 
the position of which it is necessary to fix before we can determine the 
boundary between Laighin Tuath-ghabhair and Laighin Deas-ghabhair, 
or north and south Leinster, namely, that of Gabhair. This seems to 
have been the name of a road somewhere near Carlow, but its exact 
position and extent have not as yet been ascertained. The following 
reference to it in a historical tale preserved in the Book of Leinster, a 
MS. of the twelfth century, preserved in Lib. Trin. Col. Dub., H. 2. 
18, may help to fix its position, or at least direction. The champions 
conversing are Lughaidh mac na d-tri Con and Conall Cearnach, who 
are introduced as standing on the banks of the River Liffey: 

" \ia jac-pa, ap Cujaio, pop 6elac ^abpucnn co n-becup pop 6eluc 
Smechuin. Clipg-piu [.1. eipij-piu] amne pop jabuip pop TTlaipj 
£aijen co corhcuppem i lTlaij CTipjec TCoip." — Fol. 78, b. 

" I shall go, said Lughaidh, upon Bealach Gabhruain till I get on 
Belach Smechuin. Now go thou upon Gabhair on Mairg Laighean, 
that we may meet on Magh Airgead-Eos." 

Mairg Laighean is the mountain of Sliabh Mairge, Anglice Slew- 
margue, a barony on the west side of the Barrow, in the south-east 
of the Queen's County, across which, doubtlessly, this road extended. 
Magh Airgead-Ros, where the champions appointed to meet, was the 
ancient name of a plain on the River Eoir, Anglice, the Nore, in Ossory ; 
and its position is marked by the fort of Rath Bheathaidh op 6oip i n- 
Ctipjec-'Rop, now Rathveagh, on the Nore. 

See Annals of the Four Masters, Anno Mundi, 3501, 3516 ; and 
Tighe's Statistical Account of the County of Kilkenny, Antiquities, 
p. 629. 

Introduction. lxi 

Of Chess among the ancient Irish. 

The frequent mention of chess in this Avork shows that chess-play- 
ing was one of the favorite amusements of the Irish chieftains. The 
word piccectll is translated " tabula? lusorige," by O'Flaherty, where 
he notices the bequests of Cathaeir Mor, monarch of Ireland, Ogygia, 
p. 311. In Cormac's Glossary, the picceal is described as quadran- 
gular, having straight spots of black and white. It is referred to in 
the oldest Irish stories and historical tales extant, as in the very old 
one called Tochmarc Etaine, preserved in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, a 
Manuscript of the twelfth century, in which the piccell is thus re- 
ferred to: 

" Cict c'ainm-peo ? ol Gochaio. N i apoaipc pon, ol pe, ITIioip 6pej 
Ceic. Cib ooc poacc? ol Gochaio? Do imbipc pibcille ppicpu, ol pe. 
Qm maic pe em, ol Gochaio, pop piccill ? Q ppomao bun, ol 
ITIioip. Gca, ol Gochaio ino pijran 1 n-a coclub, lp le in cech aca 
in piccell. Qca puno cenae, ol TTIibip piocell nao meppo. 6a pip 
on : clap napjic ocup pip oip, ocup puppunao [.i. lapao] caca huip- 
01 popp in clap 01 Inc lojmaip, ocup pep bolj 01 pigi pono cpeou- 
riiae. Gcpuio ITIibip in piocill lap pin. lmbip, ol TTIibip. Ni im- 
mep ace 01 jiull, ol Gochaio. Cio jell biapann? ol TDioip. Cumma 
lim, ol Gochaio. Roc bia lim-pa, ol TTIiDip, ma cu bepep mo co- 
cell caegac jabup n-bubjlap." 

" ' What is thy name?' said Eochaidh. ' It is not illustrious,' replied 
the other, ' Midir of Brigh Leith.' 'What brought thee hither?' said 
Eochaidh. ' To play fithcheall with thee,' replied he. ' Art thou good 
at fithcheall?' said Eochaidh. 'Let us have the proof of it,' replied 
Midir. ' The Queen,' said Eochaidh, ' is asleep, and the house in which 
the fithcheall is belongs to her.' ' There is here,' said Midir, ' a no worse 
fithcheall.' This was true, indeed: it was a board of silver and pure 

Ixii Introduction. 

gold, and every angle was illuminated with precious stones, and a 
man-bag of woven brass wire. Midir then arranges the fithcheall. 
' Play,' said Midir. ' I will not, except for a wager,' said Eochaidh. 
'What wager shall we stake?' said Midir, 'I care not what,' said 
Eochaidh. ' I shall have for thee,' said Midir, ' fifty dark grey steeds, 
if thou win the game.' " 

The Editor takes this opportunity of presenting to the reader four 
different views of the same piece, an ancient chess-man — a king — found 


in Ireland, which is preserved in the cabinet of his friend, George 
Petrie, LL.D. ; he has never discovered in the Irish MSS. any full or 
detailed description of a chess-board and its furniture b , and he is, 

b See the line in p. 242, poipne CO B. In another place, pa.ue 246, we have 

n-a b-pichchillaiB, MS. L the fa- pichchill acup bpunoub ban, 

mily, brigade, or set of chessmen,— a chessboard ami white chessmen; which 

poipne pinna is the reading in MS. words mav be considered to determine the 



i lien lore, unable to prove that pieces of different forms and powers, 
similar to those among other nations, were used by the Irish, but he is 
of opinion that they were. From the exact similarity, as well in style 
as in material, of the original, to those found in the Isle of Lewis, and 
which have been so learnedly illustrated by Sir Frederick Madden, in an 
Essay published in volume xxiv. of the Archasologia, the Editor is 
disposed to believe that the latter may be Irish also, and not Scandina- 
vian, as that eminent antiquary supposed. It would, at all events, 

seem certain that the Lewis chess-men and Dr. Petrie's are contempo- 
raneous, and belonged to the same people ; and no Scandinavian speci- 

color, white. The chess king in Dr. Petrie's 
cabinet is of bone, of very close texture, 
and is the same size as the above engraving. 
The Editor takes this opportunity of 
adding to the note on " swords," p. 32, 
the following extract from O'Flaherty : 

After quoting the passage in Cambren- 
sis, he adds, without any comment: " They 
wear, likewise, very sharp and long swords, 
sharp at one side only, wherefore they strike 
with the side only and not the point." — 
Ogygia, part iii. c. 39. 

lxiv Introduction. 

mens, as fur as the Editor knows, have been as yet found, or at least 
published, which present anything like such a striking identity in 
character. Dr. Petrie's specimen was given to him about thirty years 
ago by the late Dr. Tuke, a well-known collector of antiquities and 
other curiosities in Dublin; and, as that gentleman stated, was found 
with several others, some years previously, in a bog in the county of 

The peap pircdle, or chessman, is also frequently referred to in 
old tales, as in the very ancient one called Tain bo Cuailghne, in which 
the champion Cuchullainn is represented as killing a messenger, who 
had told him a lie, with a peap pibcille: 

kt 6a anoboi Cuchullainn oc imbipc piocille ocup £/Oej mac TCiun- 
jabpae a aupa peipin. lp com cuicbiuo-pa on, op pe, oo bepca 
bpec un nac meapaije. Capobuin bo Ueci bia pepaib piocilli oon 
rechcaipe co mboi pop lap a incinne." 

" Cuchullainn and his own charioteer, Loegh, son of Eiangabhra, 
were then playing chess. ' It was to mock me,' said he, ' thou hast told 
a lie about what thou mistakest not.' With that he cast [one] of his 
chessmen at the messenger, so that it pierced to the centre of his 
brain." — Leabhar na It- I "nhi. 

Again, in a romantic tale in the same MS., the Feap piocilli is 
thus referred to : 

"Ciap bo mop ocup ciap bo aipe^oa cpa Coejuipe cullapcaip i 
n-oen jlaic ino pip Dob painic p eiD callab mac bliaonu, ocup coc 
nomailc ecip a 61 Boip lappuibiu arhail eaipionioep pep piocdli pop 

" Though great and illustrious was Loeghaire, he fitted on the 
palm of one hand of the man who had arrived as would a one-year- 
old boy, and he rubbed him between his two palms, as the fear 
fitkchilk is drawn in a tairidin." See also Battle of Magh Rath 
pp. 36, 37. 

Introduction. lxv 

On the Irish Text and Translation. 

On a careful comparison of the two vellum copies of which we have 
spoken in the opening of this Introduction, it was found that the copy 
in the Book of Leacan, though not free from defects and errors, is by far 
the more correct one, and it has, therefore, been unhesitatingly adopted 
as the text of the present edition. 

Sentences, words, &c, omitted from the copy in the Book of Leacan, 
and found in the other copy, have been supplied [in brackets] to the 
Irish text ; and the more remarkable varies, lectiones have been added for 
the inspection and consideration of the critical scholar at the end of 
this volume. It has not been considered necessary to notice the omis- 
sions of the Book of Baile an Mhuta in all cases. 

The exact orthography of the Book of Leacan has been preserved 
throughout, but the contractions have been dispensed with ; and the 
grammatical marks, such as hyphens, apostrophes, and stops, and 
also the marks of long quantity, eclipsis, and aspiration, have been 
supplied according to the genius of the language and the most approved 
modern pronunciation, except in the first piece (which is not part of 
Leabhar na g-Ceart, though usually prefixed to it), which has been 
printed without these latter marks, as a specimen of the text, showing 
to what a small extent the dot, as a mark of aspiration, was used of 
old a . The letter h postfixed to consonants (being capital letters) to 
denote aspiration, and the 5- or other consonant prefixed to mark 
eclipsis have been enclosed (in parentheses) to point out to the reader 
the addition even of a letter made by the Editor, and to distinguish at 
once to his eye these latter from the additions [in brackets] obtained 

a See some further remarks connected Readings," at the end of the volume, p. 290, 
with this subject given with the " Various infra. 


lxvi Introduction. 

from the second copy of the text. The reason for supplying the aspira- 
tions and eclipses must be evident to all those who understand the gram- 
matical structure of the Irish language, for in many instances the 
sense of the language, and particularly the syntactical concord, is 
uncertain without them. The Irish text, stripped of its aspirations and 
eclipses, might be said to resemble the Hebrew text of the Old Testa- 
ment given without the Masoretic points which determine the sounds ; 
but the use of the Irish marks is still more important. It is true that 
if the language became a dead one it could be understood without the 
aspirations used at the middle and end of words, as, papugao, benam, 
mncub, which might be as intelligible to the eye as papujab, Denarii, 
mncnb; but the aspirations and eclipses which, at the beginning of 
words, point out the gender and number of words, and determine the 
force of particles, can never be dispensed with without obscuring the 
sense. For example, the letter a, as a possessive pronoun, denotes some- 
times his, sometimes her, and at another time their: as, if it be required to 
say her head, the c will have its radical sound, a ceunn; if his head, the 
c will be aspirated, a ceann ; and if their head, the c will be eclipsed, 
a 5-ceann ; from which it is quite evident that, if the aspiration and 
eclipsis were omitted, the meaning of the word a could not be seen. 
It has been asserted that the ancient pronunciation differed from the 
modern in retaining the sounds of many consonants which are now 
aspirated ; but there is no proof of this, as the same letter in the 
same grammatical situation is found sometimes aspirated and some- 
times not, in the most ancient Irish MSS. extant; and it is quite fair 
to conclude from this fact, that these marks of aspiration were omitted 
as one might neglect to dot an i, or to cross a t, and the omission took 
place through the mere haste of transcribers, though sometimes perhaps 
intentionally, especially on those consonants which were always pro- 
nounced as aspirate, as b in the termination of the dative or ablative 



plural, and 5 and b in the termination ujsjuo, and o in ut>, the ter- 
mination of active participles, or progressive active nouns. The eclips- 
ing consonants are also equally necessary to the sense, for when they 
are omitted, the sense is sometimes so obscured that the meaning can 
only be guessed at, or discovered by investigation too troublesome to 
impose at all times on a reader. 

geasa agus buaoha 
Ribgh eipeaNN. 

geasa agus buaoha 
pfogh eireeaNR 

^6QSQ -] upjapca pig 6penb -\ pig na cuiceao annpo pip. 

Seachc n-upjapca pij h-6pino anopo .1. 

Uupcbail 5peni paip ina I0151 1 lTluij 1 Uheampach; cuplaim* 
Cheacaine 1 TTluij 6peag; lmcheachc TTIuiji Cuillino lap pumeao 
n-jpene; plaioi a each 3 1 Pan 4 -chomatp ; ceachc 01a fflaipc pop 
Ueaehpa 5 chuaipcepc; bpoineach 6 pop beachpa in Cuan lap m-6eall- 
raine 7 ; plichc pluaij pop Gch Dlaijne [in TTlaipc] lap Samuin 8 . 

Ci peachc m-buaoa: 

lapc 6omoi [oa comailc]; piao 6uibniji; meap TManano ; 
ppaechmeap 6pij Ceichi 9 ; bipop 6popnaioi; uipce ehobaip Oilachr- 
5a; milpao Maipi 10 : h-i Calaino Quguipc oo poichoip pin uili oo 
pig Ueampach. Gn bliaoam 1 cemleao m&pin ni cheijeao 1 n-ai- 
peam paegail bo 11 1 lp piam no moijeao ap cac lear. 

Coic upgapca pij £aigean anopo .1. 

Uaipmchell Ceraine pop Uuaich ^aijean pop ruaichbeal; coo- 

1 The numerals refer to the various readings, which will be found at the end of the work. 

a Of the provinces cuiceao. This Now only four provinces are recognised, 

word literally means a fifth part, and is and still CU15 cuiceao na h-Gipeann 

translated Quintana by O'Flaherty in his is a common expression to denote all Ireland. 

Ogygia, p. 24, but it came to denote a b Magh Teamhrach This should be, 

province in Ireland, from the fact that that at Teamhair, as in the poem. 

kingdom was anciently divided into five c Left-hand-wise ruaichbeal, i. e . 

great divisions. See Keating's History of sinistrorsum. See Toland's Critical His- 

Ireland, Haliday's edition, p. 123-145. tory of the Celtic Religion, p. 143, where 


The restrictions and prohibitions of the king of Eire (Ireland), and of 
the kings of the provinces 3 down here. 

Seven are the " urgharta" (prohibitions) of the king of Eire, i.e. : 
The sun to rise upon him on his bed in Magh Teamhrach 1 ' ; to alight 
on Wednesday in Magh Breagh; to traverse Magh Cuillinn after sun- 
set; to incite his horse at Fan-chomair; to go on Tuesday against 
north Teabhtha (Tenia) ; to go in a ship upon the water the Monday 
after Bealltaine (May- day); [to leave] the track of his army upon Ath 
Maighne the Tuesday after Samhain (All-Hallows). 
His seven " buadha" (prerogatives): 
The fish of the Boinn (Boyne) to eat; the deer of Luibneach; the 
fruit of Manann (Mann); the heath-fruit of Brigh Leithe; the cresses 
of the Brosnach ; the water of the well of Tlachtgha ; the venison of 
Nas (Naas). On the calends of August all these things reached the 
king of Teamhair (Tara). The year in which he used to eat of these 
was not reckoned as life spent, and he was wont to rout his enemies 
before him on every side. 

The five prohibitions of the king of Laighin (Leinster) here, viz. : 
To go round Tuath Laighean left-hand-wise on Wednesday ; to sleep 

he writes : " This sanctified tour, or round, land, p. 20. In the Leabhar Brcac, fol. 126, 
by the south, is called Deiseal, as the un- the word CUCtlchbel is used as follows: 
hallowed contrary one by the north, Tua- 

pholl (sinistrorsum)." See also Martin's " Uai P T P a P bo ' a 'S e0 C PTC 

Description of the Western Islands of Scot- in a cpoich .1. ppip in carpaij 

B 2 

4 5 ec T a a 5 u T' fructoha 

icip Oochpa i t)uiblinb -| a cheanb pop a leach bpajaib; popbaipi 
nae cpach pop muijib Cualano; lmchecc 6uain cap bealach 
n-Ouiblinbi; each pulach peipeab 12 6ub pai cap Hlaj lTlaip- 

Qceac a aoa imoppo: 

Hleap Glmame ; piao ^ ln b' Seappaij; ol 13 ppi coinblib ciapcha i 
n-Dino-l^ij op 6eapba; cuipm Chualanb; cluichi Capman. 

Coic upjapca pijg TTUiman: 

Qippechc pia peip 14 Gaca £ein oo chaichim on Cuan co poili ; 
peip aiochi police Pojarhaip pia n-^eim ll-C-eicpechaib; popbaip 
nae cpach 15 pop Siuip; bal choiccpichaip lm ^abpan; opnab ban 
Plui^i Pemin 5a n-bochpaibi bo epceacc 00 16 . 

Q cuic buaoa .1. 

Cpob Cpuachnai la jaipm chuach; lopcao Caijean chuachja- 
baip; coijeabal chepca copjaip 1 Caipil 17 ; imcheacc Sleibi Cua 
caeca 18 lap pib bepcepc Gpenb; ceacc co pluaj lechobap 01a TTlaipc 
cap TTIaj n-Qilbe. 

Coic upjapca pij choicib n-Oilneajmacc 19 anopo .1. 

Cop im M Chpuachain [lap piocain] bia Samna; ceachc a m-bpuc 
bpic pop eoch jlap bpic 1 ppaech Cuchaib 1 n-t)al Chaip; ceachc 1 
m-bannoail a Seajaip; puioi pojamuip 1 peapcaib 21 mna ITIaine ; 
comluch 22 pia mapcach eich leich leacl^uill in n-Qch ^jallca 53 
icip oa chleich. 

Q choic buaoa .1. 

Gllab ?4 giall [a copac] a h-Oipbpean; pealj Slebi £oja ; lach- 
aipc" chopma cee 1 TTluij lYIuipipce; ebiuo oaipbpi 6peici bia bpuc 
jap puachap na Upi T3op; oal choiccpichaip ppi cuachaib Ueam- 
pach ic Qch G-uain 26 ; macan Ceacpariiain 1 maenmaij ace na pa 
oeicci pop Dapmaj 27 . 

lepupalem, -| lp paip boi aijet) to him was bepp [dextrorsuni], to Christ." 

Gonjini 1 in ni po pu cuachbel ll Geim — A part of the year among the 

bopum ip peo on po bo bepp 00 ancient Irish, comprising seven months. 

Cpipc, i. e. For it is westwards Christ's See the Introduction, 

face was [turned] on his cross, i.e., to- e Lent, copjjap.. — This, like the French 

wards the city of Jerusalem ; and it is careme, anciently caresme, seems an abbre- 

eastwards Longinus's face was [turned], viation of Quadragesima, as is cincirep, 

and what was cuachbel [siniitrorsum] "Whitsuntide, of Quinquagesima. It is 

ftfogh Gipecinn. 5 

between the Dothair (Dodder) and the Duibhlinn, with his head in- 
clining to one side ; to encamp for nine days on the plains of Cualaim ; 
to travel the road of Duibhlinn on Monday ; to ride on a dirty, black- 
heeled horse across Magh Maistean. 

These are his " adha" (prerogatives), viz. : 

The fruit of Almhain ; the deer of Gleann Searraigh ; to drink with 
wax candles at Dinn Riogh over the Bearbha (Barrow); the ale of 
Cualann ; the games of Carman. 

The five prohibitions of the king of Mumha (Munster) : 

To remain to enjoy the feast of Loch Lein from one Monday to 
another ; to feast by night in the beginning of harvest, before Geim d , 
at Leitreacha ; to encamp for nine days upon the Siuir ; to hold a bor- 
der meeting at Gabhran ; to listen to the groans of the women of Magh 
Feimhin when suffering violation. 

His five prerogatives, i. e. : 

The cattle of Cruachan at the singing of the cuckoo ; to burn north 
Laighin (Leinster) ; to keep the obligation of Lent e at Caiseal (Cashel) ; 
to pass over Sliabh Cua with [a band of] fifty after pacifying the south 
of Eire ; to go with a greyish host on Tuesday over Magh Ailbhe. 

The five prohibitions of the king of the province of Oilneagmacht f 
(Connaught) here: 

To make a treaty respecting Cruachan after making peace on 
Samhain's day ; to go in a speckled garment on a grey speckled steed 
to the heath of Luchaid in Dal Chais ; to go to an assembly of women at 
Seaghais ; to sit in Autumn on the sepulchral mounds of the wife of 
Maine; to contend in running with the rider of a grey one-eyed horse 
at Ath Gallta, between two posts. 

His five prerogatives, i. e. : 

To take hostages first from Oirbsean ; the chase of Sliabh Lugha ; 
to drink hot ale in Magh Muirisce; the clothing of the oak of Breice 
with his cloak after a rout through the Tri Rosa; a border meeting at 
Ath Luain ( Athlone) with the tribes of Teamhair ; to be on Maen-mhagh 
on May morning, but so as that he goes not over upon Dar-mhagh. 

also written cap^ay 1 , which is not unlike province of Connacht, possibly the Nag- 

the French Cares-me. See Cormac's Glos- natse of Ptolemanis. See O'Conor, l)is- 

sary, voce Cincigep. sert. sec. xiii. ; Book of I.cacan, fol, 221 ; 

' Oilneagmacht was the old name of the Tigheamach. ad A. I). 33. 

6 J5 ea r a a 5 u r £> uc *t)ha 

Coic upjapea pij Ulao .1. 

Gachpaip "Raca 6ine icip 0501b t)al n-Qpaioe ; ecpeacc pe lua- 
main enjiall 58 Cinoi Saileach lap puineab n-gpeni 29 ; copouo peipi 
pop peoil caipb t)aipi mic Daipi 30 ; ceace 31 a mip lTlapca 1 TTIuij 
Choba; uipce 60 Nemm 00 ol lop Da Doipchi. 

CI choic buaoa .1. 

Cluichi Cuailnje ppi cpob m-bapc; maipi [a pluaij] pop TTlaij 
TTIuipcherhne; nnbpceaoala pluaijib 00 jpeap a h-Gamain TTIaichi ; 
pappach 32 giall co Oun Sobaipci ; h-uachap 33 Gamna TTlaici .1. pep 
puippi co n-ionu na ceopa ceac aiochi pia n-bul cap coicpich. ^uaj 
a puiji in n-Uipneach each peachemoo bliaoan -| ap cupcbail a 
maib: 1 ip cuma olejap be each coiceab 1 n-Gpinb. "Ro blijpeab- 
pom bin bo pij Ueampach pep Ueampach bo deanarh lappin, no 
bib peachc pij Ueampach pop Gpinb uili 1 ip ano no cheanbaijoip 
pij na coiceao a puioi a n-Uipneach; ba pi in chain 1 in ceanoach 
pin .1. buinoi ruub no bio ina lairh cacha placha inb Gpinb o'op 
beapg nop pacbao pin ma inab ola: ap in can no choimlibip na pij 
pin pep Ueampach no jleoip oala Gpinb co ceann peachc m-bliaoan 
cona puiglibip piaca na peicheamnapa na coiceapca co pin peip n-aili 
lap peachc m-bliabnaib. Ip bemin cpa 00 pijaib Gpenb bia peach- 
mallbip a n-geapa -| bia pacbabip a m-bua6a ni biab cuipel na 
cupbpoo popaib ni chicpab ceibm na caimleacca na plaich -\ ni buib- 
bibip upchpa aimpipi pe nochaio bliaoan 34 . Ni olij bin cuaipe no 
ceanoai^eacc in pill no in pai peanchaca nach piapapa aoa 1 upj- 
apca na pij po. 

v To pay for his seat at Uisneaeh This were celebrated annually on the first of 

name is retained to the present day, which May. See Keating's account of Uisneaeh, 

is that of a hill, now usually anglicized where it is added (in the words of the 

Usny hill, or Usnagh hill, parish of Killare, translation by Gratianus Lucius) " Census 

barony of Kathconrath, Westmeath. Ac- autem, qui Regi Conacia? (ut cujus impe- 

cording to Keating, Tuathal Teachtmhar, rio quondam Usnacha subjecta fuit) ex his 

monarch of Ireland, in the first century, en- nundinis provenerat, fuit, ut singuli dynast* 

larged the boundaries of the ancient Midhe qui ad nundinas accecissent, ad eum equum 

(Meath), by cutting oft' a portion of each cum paludamentis [eac 7 euppab] 

of the provinces, and erecting a royal pa- conferret." See also O'Flaherty's Ogygia, 

lace on each. According to him, King part iii. c. 56, and the Ordnance map of 

Tuathal erected a palace, and established the parish of Killare, on which the an- 

fairs or public marts at Uisneaeh, in cient remains of the hill of Uisneaeh are 

the Connacht portion of Meath, which shewn. For ma, qu. recti: 'ma laim. 

TCfojh Gijieann. 7 

The five prohibitions of the king of Ulaclh (Ulster), i. e. : 

The horse-fair of Rath Line, among the youths of Dal Araidhe ; to 
listen to the fluttering of the flocks of birds of Linn Saileach after 
sunset; to celebrate the feast of the flesh of the bull of Daire-rnic-Daire ; 
to go into Magh Cobha in the month of March ; to drink of the water 
of Bo Neimhidh between two darknesses. 

His five prerogatives, i. e. : 

The games of Cuailgne with the assembly of the fleet ; the mus- 
tering of his army on the plain of Muirtheimhne ; to commence his 
hosting always from Eamhain Macha; to send his hostages to Dun 
Sobhairce; " The terror of Eamhain Macha," i. e. to feast there for three 
nights armed before passing over the border. To pay for his seat at 
Uisneach 8 every seventh year on taking his place, and this is also the 
right of every provincial king in Eire. After this these required of 
the king of Teamhair to make the feast of Teamhair h ; the kings of the 
provinces used to purchase their seats at Uisneach, and the purchase 
and price they paid was this, i. e. the " hero's ring" of red gold which 
each prince wore on his hand, which he used to leave in his drink- 
ing seat; for when these kings had eaten of the feast of Teamhair, 
the assemblies of Eire were dissolved for seven years, so that they 
pronounced no decision on debts, debtors, or disputes, till the next 
feast, after [the expiration of] seven years. It is certain to the kings 
of Eire that if they avoid their " geasa" (restrictions), and obtain their 
" buadha" (prerogatives), they shall meet no mischance or misfortune ; 
no epidemic or mortality shall occur in their reigns, and they shall not 
experience the decay of age for the space of ninety years. The poet 
or the learned historian who does not know the " adha" (preroga- 
tives), and " urgharta" (prohibitions) of these kings, is not entitled to 
visitation or to sale' [for his poetry]. 

h The feast of Tara peiP Cearh- does not appear to be borne out by any of 

nach. This is translated " comitia Te- the old Lives of St. Patrick, the authentic 

morenaa," by Colgan, Lynch, O'Flaherty, Irish annals, or the older manuscript ac- 

and others, but it is more truly rendered counts of Tara - See Petrie's History and 

" cena Tamrech," by Tighernach, and the Antiquities of Tara Hill, pp. 58, 59. See 

original compiler of the Annals of Ulster. a' so Keating's account of the Feis Teumh- 

All the modern writers of the history of racA, as established by the monarch Tuathal 

Ireland assert that the Feis Teamhrach Teachtmhar. 
•was celebrated every third year, but this ' Sale, ceanocujeatc, literally, traffic. 

s 5 ea r a a s ii r t> ua ^ a 

De quibup Cuan Ua Ceochan, in pai, cecinic. 

CI pip am iaoap in c-each, 

lp me in c-O Ceochan 35 laioeach ; 
nom leic peachao lp reach ceano 
u puil aipbpij na h-Gipeano. 

CIp acum po gebchap do 
eolup — na ba h-imapjo — 
a peachc n-a6a imao m-bpij, 
la peachc n-upjapca aipopij. 

^ejchap peachc m-bua6a — cia beao? 
Do pij Uearhpach; oia coippeac 
bio coipcheach oo in calarh epic, 
bi6 cach-bua6ach caingen-jlic. 

tl-i Calamo Gujuipc oo'n pij 
do poichoip do ap each cip : 
meappao TTIanann monap n-jle ; 
acup ppaechmeap 6pij Ceichi; 

TTlilpab Naipi 36 ; lapc 6oinoi ; 
bipap 6popnai6i baioi; 

It alludes to the privilege which every m It will be no fiction, na ba h-imapjo, 

true poet enjoyed of selling his own com- which has not been fabricated by me, but 

positions. For a very curious reference to which has been handed down to me as 

this custom see the Tripartite Life of St. tested by the experience of ages. 

Patrick, published by Colgan, lib. iii. c. 21, n The ready earth shall be fruitful — It 

where it is stated that Dubhthach, chief poet was the belief among the ancient Irish, 

of Leinster, had sent his disciple Fiach to that when their kings acted in conformity 

present some poems of his composition to with the institutions of their ancestors, 

the princes of that province. the seasons were favourable, and that 

* Cuan (JLchan — See the introduc- the earth yielded its fruit in abundance ; 

tion. but when they violated these laws, that 

1 Who closest the house. — He addresses plague, famine, and inclemency of weather 

the door-keeper of king Maelseachlainn were the result. See Battle of Magh Rath, 

(Malachy) II., at his palace of Dun na p . 100-103. 

sgiath (fort of the shields), near the north- ° Manann.— This is the present Irish 

west margin of Loch Aininn (Lough Ennel, name of the Isle of Mann, which seems to 

near Mullingar, Westmeath). have anciently belonged to the monarch 

Rfojh Gipeann. 

Concerning which things Cuan 0'Lochan k the sage, thus sang: 

O noble man who closest the house 1 , 
I am the O'Lochan of the poems, 
Let me pass by thee into the powerful house, 
In which is the monarch of Eire. 

With me will be found for him 

The knowledge — it will be no fiction" 1 — 
Of his seven prerogatives of many virtues, 
With the seven prohibitions of a monarch. 

Let the seven prerogatives be read — what harm ? 
For the king of Teamhair; if he observe them 
The ready earth shall be fruitful" for him, 
He shall be victorious in battle, wise of counsel. 

On the calends of August, to the king 

Were brought from each respective district, 
The fruits of Manann , a fine present; 
And the heath-fruit of Brigh Leithe p ; 

The venison of Nas q ; the fish of the Boinn r ; 
The cresses of the kindly Brosnach s ; 

of Ireland; but there were many places in am or ppaocoja, not the berries of 

Ireland so called, so that it is not abso- the heath, but bilberries or whortleberries, 

lutely certain that it is the Isle of Mann Some of the old Irish suppose that this, 

that is here referred to. and not the heath, is the shrub from which 

p Brigh Leithe — This was the ancient the Danes brewed a kind of beer, 

name of Sliabh Calraighe (Slieve Goby), q Naas, in Kildare, where the kings of 

situated to the west of the village of Ard- Leinster had a residence till the tenth cen- 

achadh ( Ardagh, in Longford), as we learn tury, the site of which is still pointed out. 

from the Life of Bishop Mael, (Mel) 6 Feb. r Boyne. — This well-known river has its 

where it is stated that Bri Leith is situa- source in Trinity well, at the foot of a hill 

ted between Mael's church of Ard-achadh, anciently called Sidh Neachtain, Bar. Car- 

and the nunnery of Druimcheo, the for- bury, Kildare. It was the chief river of 

mer lying on the east, and the latter on the Irish monarch's territory of Meath, and 

the west side of it. Colgan, Acta SS. Hib. was always celebrated for its salmon. 

261. col. 2. cap. ix., sub fine. Possibly s Brosna, a well-known river which 

the fruit of the heath, ppaecrh ecq\ rises at Bunbrosna, Westmeath, and passes 

herereferredto.iswhatwenowcallppaoc- through Loch Uair (Owel), Loch Aininn 


geapa agup buaoha 

uipci robaip Clacrja be 37 ; 
acup piao luac Cuibnibe. 

C^chap peachc n-jepi — ni jab, 
bo pij Ceampach ; bia coippeab 

00 paipci pilleab 39 caca 
acup abgall apbpacha 39 : 

Sltchc pluaij in TTlaipc lap Samain 
cap Qc ITIaijne beapmajaip; 
bpuineach ap beachpa bpoine 
lp in 6uan lap m-6ellcaine ; 

ITlaipc mp, m bli£ plaich peipc, 

1 Ceachpa 40 cuac juipm chuaipcepr: 
imcheacc lap puinneab n-jpeni 
TTluiji Callainb 41 cpuaib plebe 

Uaipplim Ceacaine — ni ceal, 
ni bip bo pop opuimnib 6peaj; 

(Ennell), to the Shannon, a short distance 
to the north of the town of Banagher. 

1 Tlaclttgha This was the ancient 

name of the hill now called the Hill of 
Ward, which is situated near the town of 
Athboy, Meath. According to a vellum MS. 
preserved in the Library of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, H. 3, 17, p. 732, the hill of 
Tlachtgha is situated in that part of ancient 
Meath which originally belonged to Mini- 
ster, and in the territory of Ui Laeghaire, 
which, since the establishment of sur- 
names was the patrimonial inheritance of the 
family of the O'Cainnealbhains, now Quin- 
tans, the descendants of Laeghaire, the last 
Pagan monarch of Ireland. There is a 
remarkable earthen fort on the hill, said to 
have been originally erected by the mo- 
narch Tuathal Teachtmhar, towards the 
middle of the second century, where the 

Druids lighted their sacred fires on the 
eve of Samhain (All-Hallows). The well 
referred to in the text is at the foot of the 
hill, but not now remarkable for any sa- 
cred characteristics. 

>' Luibneach — This name is now ob- 
solete. It was applied to a place on the 
borders of ancient Meath and Monster. See 
the Book of Leacan, fol. 260, b. 

v Samhain Tliis is still the name for 

All-hallow tide, or 1st of November. It is 
explained by O'Clery as compounded of 
parh-puin, i. e. the end of Summer. 

" Ath Muighne — This was the ancient 
name of a ford on the river Eithne (Inny), 
parish of Mayne, Bar. Fore, Westmeath, a 
short distance to the west of the town of 
Castlepollard. It is mentioned in the An- 
notations of Tirechan in the Book of Ar- 
magh, as on the boundary between north 

TC105I1 Gipeann. 


The water of the well of Tlachtgha' too ; 
And the swift deer of Luibneach". 

Let his seven restrictions be read, — no reproach. 
To the king of Teainhair ; if he observe them 
It will guard against treachery in battle, 
And the pollution of his high attributes. 

The track of an army, on the Tuesday after Samhain v 
Across Ath Maighne w , of fair salmons; 
To put ship on the water of the ships 
On the Monday after Bealltaine; 

On Tuesday a true king ought not at all to go 
Into the dark country of north Teabhtha x ; 
Or traverse, after the setting of the sun, 
Magh Callainny of the hard mountain ; 

To alight on "Wednesday — I will not conceal it — 
It is not lawful for him, on the hills of Breach* ; 

and south Teffia. 

x North Teabhtha In the fifth century 

this name was applied to the region extend- 
ing from the river Eithne (Inny) to Sliahh 
Chairbre, a wild blue mountainous district 
on the northern boundary of the present 
comity of Longford ; in later ages this terri- 
tory was usually called Anghaile (Annaly). 
The apparent reason that the monarch was 
prohibited from entering this territory was, 
because Cairbre, the brother of the monarch 
Laeghaire, and this his territory of North 
Teffia, were cursed [on Tuesday] by St. Pa- 

• v In the prose it is called Magh Cuil- 
linn. This would be anglicized Moyculltn. 
It is difficult to decide what plain this was, 
;us there is more than one place of the name 
in Ireland. 

' Breagh — This is usually called Magh 

(the plain of) Breagh, and Latinized Bre- 
gia. It was the name of a plain in the 
eastern part of the ancient Meath, compris- 
ing, according to Keating and others, five 
triocha-cheds or baronies. In latter ages, 
as appears from the places mentioned as in 
this plain, it would seem that it was the 
country lying between Dublin and Drogh- 
eda, or between the river Liff'ey and the 
Boyne, but its exact boundaries are not de- 
fined in any of our authorities. Mageogh- 
egan states, in his translation of the An- 
nals of Clonmacnoise, at the year 778, that 
Moy Brey extended from Dublin to Bea- 
Iach Breck, west of Kells, and from the hill 
of Howth to the mountain of Slieve Fuaid 
in Ulster. Druimni Breagh, which means 
dorsa Bregia; would appear to be the name 
of a hilly part of this territory. In Mac 
Firbisigh's Genealogical work (Marquis of 


geapct agup buaoha 

jpian paip b'epji 1 Cearhaip choip: 
plaibe a each 42 i Pan-chomaip. 

Cuan h-Ua Ceochan co li 43 
^.aijin co[a]pi mab bia pi, 
ni chelpa 44 paip a aba 
naio a jeapa gopm-jlana: 

^eip do cuaipc, pia n-bul pop ceal, 
pop cuac 6aijean pop cuaic-bel; 
gep oo collab claine cinb 
lcip t)orpa acup tDuiblinb; 

^eip bo popbaip — peagchap anb, 
nae epach pop muijib Cualanb; 

Drogheda's copy), p. 172, Rath ochtair 
C uilinn is placed l n-Opuimnib 6ped^. 

a The sun to rise upon him — This £e ip, 
fir forbidden thing, is not unlike the so- 
lemn injunction laid by Mahomet on his 
successors, that they should be at prayer 
before the rising of the sun. 

b Comar. — There are countless places of 
this name in Ireland, which means the con- 
fluence of rivers. Perhaps the place here 
alluded to is the place called Comar near 
Clonard, in the south-west of the county of 
East Meath. Fan-ehomair is the slope or 
declivity of the Comar. 

c Before going to heaven, i. e. while alive 
in this world. This expression is often used 
in old Irish writings, as is also £up cian 
CO Ciap ap ceal, which means, serus 
in caelum redeas, or mayest thou live 
long, an expression evidently translated 
by the Irish from the classical writers. 
See Horat. Lib. i. Od. n., Ovid. lib. xv. 
lin. 8C8, Tarda sit ilia dies, &c, and 
Cormac's Glossary, voce Ceal. 

H Tuath Laighean, the north of Laighin 
or Leinster. 

€ Left-hand-wise — In Lcabhar na h- 

Uidhri, folio 59 (now folio 40), a. a, 
Ctiaicbil is used to denote northward, or 
to the left ; north and left are synonymous 
hi Irish. See above, p. 2, note c . 

f Dothair (fern.) Dothra — This !s the 
ancient Irish form of the name of the river 
Dodder, in the coimty of Dublin. The 
church of Achadh Finiche is described in 
the Feilire JEnguis, at 11th of May, and 
in the Irish calendar of the O'Clerys, as on 
the brink of the Dothair, in the territory 
of Ui Dunchadha, in Leinster— FOp bpu 
t)orpa i n-Llib Ounehaoa. 

s Duibhlinn. — This was the ancient 
name of that part of the river Life (Liffey) 
on which the city of Dublin stands. It 
is explained nigra; t her ma: by the author of 
the Life of St. Coemhghin (Kevin); so, Col- 
gan, " Pars enim Liffei jluminis, in cujus 
ripa est ipsa eivitas, Hibernis olim vocaba- 
tur Dubh-linn, i. e. nigricans alveus sive 
profundus alveus." — Trias Thaum., p. 112, 
n. 71. The city was and is called Ath 
Cliath, Ath Cliath Duibhlinne, and Baile 
Atlia Cliath, a name shortened into Blea 
Cliath. The above prohibition may have 
owed its origin to the fact of some king 

TCfojli Gipecmn. 


The sun to rise upon him east at Teamhair* 
Or to incite his horse at Fan-chomair\ 

Cuan O'Lochan am I, of fame. 

Should I reach the king of Laighin, 

I shall not conceal from him his prerogatives, 

Nor his clearly-defined prohibitions. 

'Tis prohibited to him to go round, before going to heaven 
Over north Laighin d , left- h and- wise e ; 
'Tis prohibited to him to sleep with head inclined 
Between the Dothair f and the Duibhlinn g ; 

It is prohibited to him to encamp, let it be minded, 
For nine days on the plains of Cualann h ; 

of Leinster having been found dead in his 
bed in the district, with his neck crooked. 

h Cualann The situation and extent of 

this territory have been strangely mistaken 
by modern Irish writers. But we have 
evidences which will leave no doubt as to 
its exact situation, for in the Feilire jEn- 
guis the churches of Tigh Conaill, Tigh 
mic Dimmai, and Dun mor, are placed in 
Cualann. And in an inquisition taken at 
Wicklow on the 21st of April, 1G36, the 
limits of Fercoulen, i. e. Feara Cualann, 
are defined as follows : 

" The said Tirlagh O'Toole humbly de- 
sireth of his Majestie to have a certain ter- 
ritory of land called Fercoulen, which his 
ancestors had till they were expulsed by 
the earls of Kildare. That the said terri- 
tory containeth in length from Barnecullen, 
by east and south, and Glassyn[. . .]kie to 
Pollcallon by west the wind gates, viz., five 
miles in length and four in breadth, being 
the more part mountaines, woods, and rocks, 
and the other parte good fertile lands. Within 
the said territory were certain villages and 
craggs [recte creaghts] of old tyme, being 

now all desolate excepte onely Powerscourt, 
Killcollin, Beanaghebegge, Benaghmor, the 
Onenaghe, Ballycortie, Templeregan, Kilta- 
garrane, Cokiston, Ancrewyn, Killmollinky, 
Ballynbrowne, Killeger, and the Mainster." 
From this description of the territory of 
the Feara Cualann it is quite evident that 
it was then considered as coextensive with 
the half barony of Rathdown, in the north 
of the county of Wicklow, and adjoining 
the county of Dublin. Harris, in his edi- 
tion of Ware's work, vol. ii. p. 48, places 
this territory several miles out of its proper 
locality, for he describes it as "a territoiy 
in the east and maritime part of the county 
of Wicklow, comprehending the north parts 
of the barony of Arcklow, and the south 
of the barony of Newcastle." But Ussher, 
in whose time the name was still in use, 
places the river of Bray and Old Court in 
Crich Cualann [Primordia, p. 846], in 
which it will be observed that he is per- 
fectly borne out by the petition set forth 
in the inquisition above quoted, which was 
taken about the same time that he was 
writing his Primordia. 


^eapa a^up buablia 

jep do oul pe pluaj malle 
tuan rap 6elach n-'DuiBlinoi ; 

^Jep do ap Hluij TTlaiprean oamuD 45 
pai each palac peipeao 46 6ub: 
acear pin — ni oenanD pean, 
coic upjapca pij Caijean 47 . 

C-aech 5a puileaD cuic a6a 
pij Cai^ean lip Cabpaoa: 
meap Qlmaine do '5a chij; 
acup pia6 ^linoi Seappaij; 

Ol ppi comolib ciappra cai6 

a n-[t)]inD-"Ri^ Do'n pi£ po jnairh, 
plan qiach cpiach cuamano Dinopain ; 
cuipm Chualann; cluicln Capmuin. 

Caippiul na pij paen in paich 
acaic cuic buaoa Dia plaich : 

' Bealach Duibhlinne The road or pass 

of the Duibhlinn. See p. 12, note S. 

i The plain of Maistin, i. e. the plain 
around the hill of Maistin, or, as it is 
generally called, Mullaghmast, parish of 
Naraghmore, and about five miles east of 
the town of Athy, in Kildare. For some 
curious notices of events which occurred at 
this place, the reader is referred to Keat- 
ing's History of Ireland, reigns of Cormac 
Mac Art, and Brian Borumha; Annals of 
the Four Masters, at the year 1577, and 
Philip O'Sullivan Beare's History of the 
Irish Catholics, fol. 86. 

k The fort of Labhraidh, i. e. of Labh- 
raidh Loingseach, monarch of Ireland of 
the Lagenian race, A. M., 3682, for some 
stories about whom the reader is referred to 
Keating's History of Ireland, and O'Fla- 
herty's Ogygia, part in. c. 39. His fort 

was Dinn Riogh, vide infra, note °. 

1 Almhain (Allen), a celebrated hill in 
the county of Kildare, situated about five 
miles to the north of the town of Kildare. 

ru Gleann Searraigh, i. e. the glen of the 
foal. The situation of this glen is unknown 
to the Editor. 

n Wax candles This is a curious re- 
ference, as it would appear that the kings 
of Leinster did not reside at Dinn Riogh 
since the period of the introduction of Chris- 

Dinn Riogh, i. e. the hill of the kings. 
This is the most ancient palace of the kings 
of Leinster. Keating describes Dinn Riogh as 
"ap bpuac 6eapba lDip Chear- 
aplac 1 6eic£linn, oo'n leir ciap 
Do'n 6heapba, i. e. on the brink of the 
Barrow, between Carlow and Leighlin, on 
the west side of the Barrow;" Keating's 

TCfogh Gijiecmn. I") 

'Tis prohibited to him to go with a host 
On Monday over the Bealach Duibhlinne' ; 

It is prohibited to him on Magh Maistean', on any account, 
To ride on a dirty, black-heeled horse : 
These are — he shall not do them — 
The five things prohibited to the king of Laighin. 

A hero who possesses five prerogatives, 

Is the king of Laighin of the fort of Labhraidh k : 

The fruit of Almhain 1 [to be brought] to him to his house ; 

And the deer of Gleann Searraigh™ ; 

To drink by [the light of] fair wax candles" 
At Din Riogh is very customary to the king, 
Safe too is the chief of Tuaim in that [custom] ; 
The ale of Cualann p ; the games of Carman 9 . 

Caiseal of the kings, of great prosperity, 
Its prince has five prerogatives : 

Hist. Ireland, Haliday's edition, preface, pig mime i n-Dmbpig TTIaige 

p. 42. This place is still well known. It Clilbe hi bpuoin Cuama Cen- 

is situated in the townland of Ballyknockan bach ralnpUDj \ a £ a bpaiO Coinj- 

about a quarter of a mile to the south of rech , p 1oen mQC a , Ulla a , ne 

Leighlin Bridge, to the west of the River m)c c c mlc u 

Barrow. Nothing remains of the palace , . . 

moip 1 n-oigail a arap -| a penarap 

but a moat, measuring two hundred and 

.... . . . „ . ., no mapb Cobrach Coel. Cocao 6 

thirty-seven yards in circumference at the ' ' 

base,sixty-nmefeetinheightfromthelevel ^ m e,C, P Ca, 5" iu 1 le ^ Cuino/' 

"CobhthachCaelbreagh, thesonofUgaine 

Mor, was burned together with thirty kings 

... ' . ', , .. about him at Dinn Riogh of Magh Ailblie, 

it presents a level surface, on which the & 

of the river Barrow, and one hundred and 
thirty- five feet in diameter at the top, where 

in the palace of Tuaim Teanbath, by Labh- 
raidh Loingseach, i. e. Maen, the son of 
Aileall Aine, son of Laeghaire Lore, son of 
Ugaine Mor, in revenge of his father and 
grandfather, whom Cobhthach Cael had 
slain. A war arose from this between 
Leinster and Leath Chuinn." 

" Cobcach Coelbpej mac Llj- p Cualann See p. 13, note ", supra. 

aine moip OO lopcub CO epichae 1 Carman This was the name of the 

king of Leinster's royal house evidently stood. 
In a fragment of the Annals of Tigher- 
nach preserved in the Bodleian Library at 
Oxford, Rawlinson, 502, fol. 1. b. col. 1. 
the following passage occurs relative to the 
burning of this palace : 

l(j 5 ea r a a 5 u r buaoha 

cpoo Cpuachna cui co corvjaip ; 
lopcao £,aijjn cuachjabaip; 

Caeca rap Sliab Cua na ceanb 
lap pichchain oepcepc 6peno; 
lmcheacc maiji — maich in moo, 
Qilbe pe pluaj leachooap; 

Ceabaij 1 Caipiul iap pcip 
co ceano caecaipi ap mip 48 
cacha bliaona pop — na ceil, 
aciao buaoa pij Caipil. 

TC15 Caipil, — ip cpao 01a cheill 
aippeachr pe pep £aca Ce\n — 
o'n Cuan co poili a caichim — 
ip copac 01a riujlaichiB 49 : 

^eip 00 aibcln poilc pia n-^eim 
pojariiaip il-6eirpeachaib ; 
popbaip nae cpach pop Siuip puam: 
oal choicpichaip im ^abpuam ; 

site now occupied by the town of Wexford. ' SHabh Cua — This was the ancient 

It appears from the Irish work called Dinn name of the mountain now called Cnoc 

Seanchus, that the kings of Leinster cele- Maeldomhnaigh, situated to the south of 

brated fairs, games, and sports at this place Clonmel in the county of Waterford. The 

from a very early period. name is still preserved, but pronounced 

r The cattle of Crnachan — This ob- Sliabh Gua, and now popularly applied to 
viously means that it would be a lucky or a district in the parish of Seskinan, in the 
success-insuring thing for the king of barony of Decies without Drum, lying be- 
Caiseal to plunder the plain of Rath Crua- tween Dungarvan and Clonmel. 
chan, and carry off the cattle of the king u The plain of Ailbhe, lTlajr, QilBe. 
of Connacht within the period during This was the name of an extensive plain in 
which the cuckoo sings. The Editor has Leinster, extending from the river Barrow 
not met anything to throw any light on the and Sliabh Mairge, to the foot of the Wick- 
origin of this extraordinary injunction. low mountains. From the places mention- 

8 The northern Leinster, i. e. Wicklow, ed in the Irish authorities as situated in this 

Kildare, south Dublin, &c, and part of the plain, it is quite evident that it comprised 

King's County. Meath, north Dublin, &c. the northern part of the barony of Idrone, 

were not considered part of Leinster at this in the county of Carlow, and the baronies of 

period. Kilkea and Moone, in the county of Kil- 

Ri'ojh Gipeann. 17 

The cattle of Cruachan 1 , when the cuckoo sings ; 
The burning of northern Laighin 8 ; 

By fifty attended o'er Sliabh Cua' to pass 
After the pacification of the south of Eire ; 
To cross the plain, in goodly mode, 
Of Ailbhe", with a light-grey host; 

A bed in Caiseal v , after fatigue 

To the end of a fortnight and a month 

Each year, moreover, — do not conceal it, 

Such are the prerogatives of the king of Caiseal. 

The king of Caiseal — it will embitter his feeling 
To wait for the feast of Loch Lein w — 
To stay from one Monday to another to enjoy it — 
It is the beginning of his last days ; 

'Tis prohibited to him [to pass] a night in beginning of harvest 
Before Geim x at Leitreacha y ; 
To encamp for nine days on the silent Siuir z ; 
To hold a border meeting at Gabhran a ; 

dare. The situation of this plain is thus > Latteragh is a parish in Lower Or- 

described byUssher: "Campus ad ripam mond, Tipperaiy. 

fluvii quern Ptolemeus Birgura, nos Bar- 7 - Suir. — This celebrated river, which has 

row vocamus, non procul a monte Margeo its source in Sliabh Ailduin, (the Devil's 

positus." — Primordia, pp.936, 937. The Bit mountain,) in the county of Tipperaiy, 

author of the Irish poem called Laoi na unites with the Barrow and the sea about 

Leacht, describing the monuments of Lein- one mile below Waterford. 

ster, asks exultingly, "Where is there in * GabJaran (Gowran), in Kilkenny 

any province of Ireland a plain like Magh According to Keating, the territory of Or- 

Ailbhe?" mond extended as far as this place, but 

v A bed at Cashel, i. e. wherever the this cannot be considered as its boundary 

king of Munster may have his palace, it is for the last thousand years, for then the 

absolutely necessaiy to his prosperity and greater part of Ossory would belong to 

good luck, that he should sleep at Cashel Munster ; but this we cannot believe on the 

for six weeks every year. authority of Keating, as Ossory is described 

" Loch Lein. — This is still the name in the oldest Lives of St. Patrick as the 

of the Lake of Killarney, in the county western portion of Leinster, " Occidentalis 

of Kerry. Laginensium plaga." See Ussher's Prtmor- 

x Geim, seep. 4, note rt . dia, pp. 805, 969. But it would appear 



J)eapa a^up buatoha 

lp $ep t>o cloipceachc iap pin 
ppi h-opna6aij ban Peimin 
ica n-oochpaibi na m-ban: 
lnao jepi pij ffluman. 

TTIapaiD punb — ni puaill in pmachc, 
buaba lp g-eapa pij Conbachc: 
pi£ Conoachc — cia nach cuala ? 
ni bill cean bicb buaba. 

6uaib ba buabaib pe 40 each m-buaio, 
allao 41 giall a h-Oipbpm puaip; 
pealg Slebi C-o ja male ; 
lachaipe chopma 1 VTIU15 ffluipppce ; 

TTlaich bo puachap na Cpi "Rop 
b'pacbail a bpuic ac 6eapnop 
lm baipbpi m-6peici m-bua6ach 
lp in cuaipceapc cpean cpuaoac; 

t)al choicpichaip urn Qch Cuain 

ppi eunthaib Ueampach cuach chluain: 

that the kings of Minister claimed jurisdic- 
tion over Ossory as far as Gowran, while 
the Ossorians, on the other hand, in right 
of the conquest of Magh Feimhin, made by 
their ancestor iEngus Osraigheach, con- 
tended that their country of Osraighe 
should comprise all the lands extending 
from the river Siuir to the Bearbha, and 
from the mountains of Sliabh Bladhma to 
the meeting of the Three Waters, in Water- 
ford harbour. But this claim was never 
established ; for the territory does not ap- 
pear to have comprised more than the pre- 
sent diocese of Ossory since the time of St. 
Patrick. See Keating, reign of Cormac 
Mac Airt. 

b Feimhin, more generally called Magh- 
Feimhin, was the ancient name of a plain 

comprising that portion of the present 
county of Tipperary which belongs to the 
diocese of Lismore. It is described as ex- 
tending from the river Siuir northwards to 
Corca Eathrach, otherwise called Machaire 
Chaisil, from which it is evident that it 
comprised the whole of the barony of IfTa 
and Offa east. See Colgan's Trias Thaum. 
p. 201 ; Heating's Histoiy of Ireland, reign 
of Cormac Mac Airt ; and Lanigan's Eccles. 
History of Ireland, vol. i. p. 282. 

c Oirbsean, i. e., to take the hostages of 
the Ui Briuin Seola, and other tribes seat- 
ed around Loch Oirbsean (Lough Comb 
in the county of Galway). 

d Sliabh Logha, more usually called 
Sliabh Lugha, a well-known mountain- 
ous territory in the county of Mayo, com- 

Piogb Gijieann. 


'Tis prohibited to him, after this, to listen 
To the moans of the women of Feimhin 6 
[Arising] from the violation of those women: 
Such are the prohibitions of the king of Mumha. 

Here are — not trifling the regulation, 

The prerogatives and prohibitions of the king of Connacht 
The king of Connacht, who has not heard of him ? 
He is not a hero without perpetual prerogatives. 

One of his prerogatives, which is before every prerogative, 
The taking of the hostages of the chilly Oirbsean ; 
The hunting of Sliabh Lugha d also ; 
The drinking of the fresh ale of Magh Muirisce e ; 

Good for him the rout of the Tri Rosa f , [and] 
To leave his cloak at Bearnas 2 
Around the victorious oak of Breice' 1 
In the strong, hardy north ; 

To hold a border meeting at Ath Luain' 

With the states of Teamhair of the grassy districts ; 

prising that part of the harony of Costello 
which belongs to the diocese of Achonry, 
viz., the parishes of Kilkelly, Kilmovee, Kil- 
leagh, Kilcolman, and Castlemore-Costello. 

c ' Muirisc, i. e. Sea plain There is a 

narrow plain of this name situated between 
the mountain of Cruach Phadraig (Croagh- 
patrick) and Cuan Modh (Clew Bay), in 
the west of the county of Mayo. It also 
became the name of a small abbey situated 
in this plain, on the margin of the bay, 
from which the barony of Murrisk received 
its name. This name was also applied to 
a district in the barony of Tir Fhiachrach 
(Tirtragh) and county of Sligo, extending 
from the river Easkey to Dunnacoy, and 
comprising the townlands of Rosslee, Cloon- 
nagleavragh, Alternan, Dunaltan, Bally - 

kilcash, Dunheakin, Dunneill, and Bally - 
eskeen. It is difficult to decide which of 
these plains is the one referred to in the text. 

f The three Rosses — It is difficult to de- 
cide what Rosses are here referred to, but 
the editor is of opinion that they are, either 
the district so called in the north, or that in 
the west of the county of Donegal. 

s Bearnas — This is evidently the re- 
markable gapped mountain called Barnis- 
more, and locally Bearnas, in the barony of 
Tirhugh and county of Donegal. 

h The oak of Breice. — The editor has 
discovered no other notice of this lucky tree. 

' Ath Luain (Athlone), a ford on the 
Shannon, from which the town of Athlone 
has taken its name. The ford is on the 
boundary between Connaught and Meath. 
c. -1 


^eapa ajjup 6uat>lia 

maicean Ceiceamon ceac m-bla6 
a niaen-ma^, na pig Dap-bao. 

Qcaic upgapca oo'n pij 
Conoachr, coimeab acip M : 
cop lm Chpuacham oia Samna 
ni h-a6a, ace lp eacapba ; 

lmchup pe mapcach eich leirh 
a n-Gch ^allca lop oa chleich ; 
banoal pop Seajaip co pe ; 
paiji 1 peapcaib mna fflaine ; 

CI m-bpuc bpic ni ciapcap leip 

a ppaecb Cuchaic in n-Dail Chaip : 
aciac pin ciap in each ran 
cuic upjapca pij Cpuachan. 

Cluineao pij Lllab 53 aoa 
oopom pe meap bo pala 54 : 
cluichi Cuailjne cpob m-bapc m-beo: 
mapi pluaij a TTluipcheThneo; 

J Maen-magh, a celebrated plain in the 
present county of Galway, comprising the 
lake and town of Loughrea, the townlands 
of Mayode and Fimnire, and all the cham- 
paign country around Loughrea. See Tribes 
and Customs of the Ui Maine, p. 70, note z , 
and p. 130. 

k Dar-nihugh This isprobably the place 

sometimes called Darhybrian, in the moun- 
tain of Sliabh Echtghe, on the southern 
boundary of the plain of Maen-magh. 

1 Cruachan. — This was the name of the 
ancient palace of the kings of Connaught, 
situated near Belanagare, in the county of 
Roscommon. The place is now called 
Rathcroghan, and contains the remains of 
several earthen forts. 

m Ath Gallta — This place was in Ui 
Maine, but the editor has not beep, able to 

identify it witli any name now in existence. 

n Seaghais. — This was the ancient name 
of the mountainous district now called 
Coirr-shliabh, or the Curlieu mountains, 
situated on the borders of the counties of 
Roscommon and Sligo. 

Fearta-mna-Maine, i. e. the grave of 
the wife of Maine. This monument is un- 
known to the. editor, unless it be the place 
called Tuaim mna, i. e. the tumulus of the 
woman, now anglicized Toomna, and situ- 
ated on the river Boyle, in the barony of 
Boyle, and county of Roscommon. 

p Luchuid. — This place still retains its 
ancient name among those who speak Irish, 
but it is anglicized Lowhid. It is situated 
near the hamlet of Toberreendoney in the 
barony of Inchiquin and county of Clare, 
and near the boundary of the barony of 

Rfogh Gipecmn. 21 

On May morning, of first flowers. 

To visit Maen-maghJ, but touch not Dar-mhagh k . 

These are things prohibited to the king 

Of Connacht — let him observe them in his country ; 

To form a treaty concerning Cruachan 1 on Samhain's day 

Is not prosperity, but it is misfortune; 

To contend with the rider of a grey horse 
At Ath Gallta™, between two posts; 
A meeting of women at Seaghais" at all; 
To sit on the sepulchre of the wife of Maine" ; 

In a speckled cloak let him not go 

To the heath of LuchaidP in Dal Chais: 

These are at every time, in the west, 

The five prohibitions of the king of Cruachan. 

Let the king of Uladh q hear his prerogatives, 
To him with honour they were given: 

The games of Cuailgne r , [and] the assembling of his swift fleet ; 
The mustering of his host in Muirthemhne s ; 

Kilianan, in the county of Galway. Keat- allgne mountains, and the district is thus 

ing, — in the reign of Diarmaid Mac Fear- described: "lp amlcno aca an cip 

ghusa Ceirbheoil, — describes the country of pm nu pinbe .1. an aioBeip cain- 

the Dal Cais, which was originally a part cede cuBpac cupaoioeac -| an 

of Connacht, as extending from Beam tri pul-rhuip pioblac pulBopb ap 

Carbad to Bealach na Luchaide, and from raob 01 -\ pleibce apoa aibBpeaca 

Ath n.i Borumha (at Killaloe) to Leim Con- iip-aoiBne Ian bo pporaiB pionn- 

chulainn (Loophead). cubpaca pfop-uipce, -\ bo jleann- 

*i Uladh, i. e. Ulster. ettib rairneariiaca caob-uame, -| 

r Cuailgne — This name is still pre- no cc-,U cl b' min-ciumpaca, coih- 

served, but corrupted to Cuailghe, in Irish, cocpoma ap an caob edi 61." — 

and anglicized Cooley. It is applied to a « This district is thus situated : the noisy, 

mountainous district in the barony i »f Lower f roa thy, wailing sea, and the flowing fierce 

Dundalk, in the county of Louth. In an brine on one side of it, and lofty towering 

Irish story, entitled, Toruidheacht Gru- delightful mountains, full of white-foaming 

aidht Grian-sholuis, written by a native pure -watered streams, of delightful green- 

of this district, the well-known mountains sidea v;1 n c . vs , and of smooth-skirted waving 

of Sliabh Fidhit and Sliabh Feadha, are woods on th<' other side" 
distinctly mentioned as two oi these Cu ■ Muirtheimhne. — This territory com- 


JJeccya a 5 l, f buaoho 

Cmopceabal pluaijio co pe 

do jpeap a h-Garhain TTlaichi; 
poppach giull — ip cian po clop, 
co Dun Sobaipci polop; 

Seoib ap cupcbail a maib 
a n-Uipneach lThbi mijio" 
in cac peachcmao 66 bliaoan bain 
uao bo pij Uipni£ lmlain 57 . 

Gcaic upgapca ana 
oo pi£ 59 Ulab imbana: 
ecpaip 59 [ille] Raca Cine 60 
tap ocaib Gpaioe ; 

Gicpeachc pe luamain en^iull 61 
Cinbi Saileach oia puin gpian ; 

prised that part of the present county of 
Louth, extending from the Cuailgne (Coo- 
ley) mountains to the river Boyne. Dun- 
dalk, Louth, Drumimsklin, now Drumiskin, 
Faughard, and Monasterboice are men- 
tioned as in this territory. See Annals of 
Tighernach ad arm. 1002. — Ussher's Pri- 
mordia, pp. 627, 705, 827, 902. This ter- 
ritory was also called Machaire Oirghiall, 
as being the level portion of the extensive 
country of Oirghiall, and the ancient inha- 
bitants were called Conaille Muirtheimhne. 
1 Eamhain Maichi, more usually writ- 
ten Eamhaiu Macha. This was the name 
of the ancient palace of the kings of Ulster, 
from the period of Ciombaeth, its founder, 
who flourished, according to the accurate 
annalist, Tighernach, about three hundred 
years before Christ, till A. D. 332, when 
it was destroyed by the three Collas, the 
ancestors of the people called Oirghialla 
(Oriels). From this period it remained 
without a house till the year 1387, when 
Niall O'Neill, presumptive king of Ulster, 

erected a house within it for the entertain- 
ment of the literati of Ireland. Colgan, 
who does not appear to have ever seen this 
place, describes the state of the ruins of 
the Ultonian palace as follows, in 1647: 
" Emania prope Ardmacham, nunc fossis 
latis vestigiis murorum eminentibus, et 
ruderibus, pristinum redolens splendorem." 
— Trias Thaum. p. 6. See also O'Flaher- 
ty's Ogygia, part iii. c. 36. 

Dr.Lanigan, in his Ecclesiastical History 
of Ireland, vol. i. p. 314, note 135, writes: 
" The growth of Armagh contributed to its 
downfall." But this observation is quite 
untenable, as Emania had been deserted 
for a whole century before Armagh was 
founded. The ruins of Eamhain, or, as it 
is now corruptly called, the Navan fort, 
are to be seen about two miles to the west 
of Armagh, to the right of the road as you 
go from Armagh to Kinard or Caledon. 
They are well described by Dr. Stuart in 
his Historical Memoirs of Armagh, pp. 578, 

TCfojli 6i]ieann. 


The commencement of his hosting, also, 
Always at Eamhain Macha 1 ; 

The confinement of his hostages — of old 'twas heard, 
At Dun Sobhairce 11 the bright ; 

A rich gift on taking his place 

At Uisneach v of Meath of the mead, 

In every seventh goodly year, 

To be given by him to the rightful king of Uisneach. 

There are noble prohibitions 
To the bold king of Uladh : 
The horse-race of Rath Line w , also, 
Among the youths of Araidhe x ; 

To listen to the fluttering of the flocks of birds 
Of Linn Saileach 5 " after set of sun ; 

The editor examined the site of Eamhain 
with great care in 1835, but could not 
find any trace of stone walls (vestigiis muro- 
rum cmincntibus) there ; the earthen works, 
however, are very extensive, and show that 
it must have been a place of considerable 

11 Dun Sobhairce, Sobhairce's fort (Dun- 
severick), an insulated rock containing 
some fragments of the ruins of a castle, 
near the centre of a small bay, three miles 
east of the Giant's Causeway, in the county 
of Antrim. See Colgan, Trias Thaum., 
p. 182, where its situation is described as 
follows : " Dunsobhairce est arx maritima 
et longe vetusta regionis Dal Riedise, quae 
nomen illud a Sobarchio filio Ebrici, Rege 
Hibernia?, primoque arcis illius conditore 
circa annum mundi 3668, desumpsit, ut 
ex Ouatuor Magistris in annalibus, Cata- 
logo Regum Hibernia; Ketenno, Lib. i., et 
aliis passim rerum Ilibernicarum Scriptori- 
bus colligitur." Charles O'Conor of Bela- 
□agare, and all the writers on Irish topo- 

graphy, down to the year 1833, had 
assumed that Dun Sobhairce was the old 
name of Carrickfergus, but the editor 
proved, in an article in the Dublin Penny 
Journal, p. 361-363, May 11th, 1833, 
that it is the place now called Diuiseve - 

v Uisneach See note ?, p. 6, supra. 

w Ruth Line. — This rath, which was 
otherwise called Rath mor Maighe Line, is 
still in existence in the plain of Magh Line 
(Moylinny), Lower Massareene, Antrim. 
See it referred to in the Annals of the Four 
Masters, at the year 680, and in the An- 
nals of Connaught, at 1315. 

* Araidhe, i. e. of Dal Araidhe, a large 
region in the east of Ulster, extending from 
Newry, in the south of the county of Down, 
to Sliabh Mis (Slemmish), in the barony 
of Lower Antrim, in the comity of Antrim. 
Magh Line, above described, is a portion 
of Dal Araidhe. It extended from Lough 
Neagh to near Carrickfergus. 

>' Linn Saileach, i. e. the pond of the sal- 


^eapct ct^uf buaolia 

copcao peipi pop peoil caipb 
Daipi mic t)aipi oono-jatpb ; 

Ueachc imp ITIapca a TTIaj Choba 
do pi j Ulao 62 m h-aoa ; 
uipci 60 o'ol — oopaib be, 
Merino icip oa ooipche. 

Gca punb ploinoceap co ceanb 62 
00 chuic pijaib na h-6peano, 
im pij Uearhpa cuchc ica 
a n-aoa 'pa n-upjapca. 

Ni 0I15 cuaipc cuicib co ceano 62 
na ollarhnachc na h-Gpeanb 
cacha pipi puaill nach 
an pili laip nach pajbaijcheap *. 

ITIab peapp lib pe 64 limb la 
beanao 65 uili aen eimna, 
beanaib bepeapc ap t)ia n-bil 
lp leop o'aoa[ib] each aen pip. Q pip. 

lows. This place is unknown to the edi- 

* Daire-mic-Daire, i. e. roboretum filii 
Darii. This name would be anglicized 
Derrymacdeny or Derryvicdary, but the 
editor is not acquainted with any place of 

the name. 

a Uisce Bo Neimhidh, i. e. the water of 
the cow of Neimhidh. This name would 
be anglicized Uskabonevy, but there is no 
stream, well, or locality in Ulster at pre- 
sent bearing the name, and the editor has 

Rfogh Gijiecmn. 25 

To celebrate the feast of the flesh of the bull 
Of Daire-inic-Daire 1 , the brown and rough ; 

To go in the month of March to Magh Cobha 
To the king of Uladh is not lucky ; 
To drink of the water, whence strife ensues, 
Of Bo Neimhidh 1 between two darknesses. 

Here are, let them be proclaimed boldly, 
To the five kings of Eire, 
With the king of Teamhair, through all time, 
Their prerogatives and prohibitions. 

He is not entitled boldly to make the visitation of a province, 
Nor to the ollamh-ship of Eire, 
Nor to what he asks, be it ever so trifling, 
The poet to whom they are unknown. 

If ye wish for a life of many days, 
Make ye all one will, 

Hold charity for the sake of the good God, 
Which is prerogative sufficient for every man. O man b , &c. 

never met any authority to show where in so closely written that it would not be 

Ulster it was situated. always easy to distinguish the end of one 

b O man, Q pip. — A part of the first poem from the beginning of another, with- 

liue is usually repeated at the end of every out some notice of this kind. It also serves 

separate poem. One reason evidently is to as an indication that the particular piece 

prevent mistake, as the vellum MSS. are is concluded. 

ceabhQR Na 5-ceaRU. 

ceabbaR Na 5-ceaRr. 

i._ t)ci^heat)h rci^h chaisit. 

[INCipiC oa £eabup na c-Ceapc moipceap oo cipaib -| cua- 
papclaib Gpeann ariiail po opbai^ 6enean mac Sepcnen pailm-cec- 
laio phuopuij, ariiail ac peb £ebap ^linne t)a taca.] 

X)o olijeaoaib chipc Chaipil, -| oia chfpaib, -| oia chdnaib, mo -| 
app, ano po pip, -| oo chuapapcalaib pij TTluman -| pij h-Gpino ap- 
cheana, 6 pij Caipil, in can oa pallna plaichip ino. 

Caipil Don caipil 1 .1. clocli Fopp a puipmibip geill, no cfp ail 
1 app an ail chipa 00 bepchea 6 peapaib Gpino 06. Sio-opuim Ono 
ba peao a amm an maib pin ppiup. 

t)o pdla bin oa mucaio 1 n-aimpip Chuipc meic 6uijoeach ic 
cacnai^i na culcha pin, ppf pe pdichi ic meappao a muc dp ba bpuim 
piobaioi h-e 2 . 6abap h-e a n-anmanoa na mucaioi .1. Oupopii, 
mucaio pij h-Gle, -| Culapdn, mucaio pij Hlupcpaibi. Co cappap 
boib oealb pa glomichip 3 gpein, 1 juch binoichip meano chpoc 

a Cis ail, i. e. tribute rent. This deri- c Core, the son ofLughaidh — The date 
vation is also given in Cormac's Glossary. of his death is not given in the authentic 
The term Caiseal, which is the name of Irish annals, but we may form a pretty 
many places in Ireland, as well as of the correct idea of his period from the fait that 
ancient metropolis of Minister, denotes a cir- his grandson, Aengus mac Nadfraech, was 
cular stone fort ; and there can be little doubt slain in the year 489. 
that Core, king of Minister, erected a fort '' Ele — At this period the territory of 
of this description on the rock, when he Jik- comprised, besides the country after- 
changed its name from Sidh-dhruim to wards called Ely O'Carroll in the King's 
Caiseal. County, the present baronies of Eliogarty 

" Sklh dhruim, 1. e. fairy hill. and Ikerrin, in the county of Tipperary. 



The Book of Rights which treats of the tributes and stipends of 
Eire (Ireland) as Benean, son of Sescnean, the psalmist of Patrick, 
ordained, as the Book of Gleann-Da-Loch relates. 

Here follows concerning the laws of the right of Caiseal (Cashel), 
and of the tributes and rents given to it and by it, and of the sti- 
pends given to the kings of Mumha (Minister), and the other kings of 
Eire, by the king of Caiseal, when it is the seat of the monarchy. 

Caiseal [is derived] from cais-il, i. e. a stone on which they used to 
lay down pledges, or cis-ail*, i. e. payment of tribute, from the tribute 
given to it by the men of Eire. Sidh-dhruim b was the name of the 
place at first. 

It happened in the time of Corc c , the son of Lnghaidh, that two 
swine-herds frequented that hill for the space of a quarter of a year 
to feed their swine on acorns, for it was a woody hill. The names of 
those swine-herds were Durdru, the swine-herd of the king of Ele d , 
and Cularan, the swine-herd of the king of Muscraidhe e ; and there 

e Muscraidhe(T/iire). — This was the an- 151, 4C1, and the Feilire Aenguis, Jan. 

dent name of the district now comprised 5, and Oct. 27. It is stated in a letter 

in the baronies of Upper and Lower Or- written by Sir Charles O'Carroll to the 

mond, in the north of the county of Tippe- Lord Deputy, in 1585 (and now pre- 

rary. The church Gill Cheire (Kilkeary, served in the Lambeth Library, Carew 

near the town of Nenagh), and Leatracha, Collection, No. G08, fol. 15), that the name 

(Latteragh, about eight miles south of the Lower Ormond was then lately imposed 

same town), are mentioned as hi this tor- upon " Muskry-heery," by the usurpation 

ritory. See Colgan's Acta Sanctorum, pp. of the then Earl of Ormond. 

30 teabhaji 

laip ic beanoochao na culcha -| in Baili ic caippnjipi pdcpaic -| 
ap bepc : 

Po, po, po, peap pallnapcaip 4 Caipil, 

Copp cemeanbach i n-anmaim an Qpb-Qchap 5 , 

Sceo TTIeic na h-lnjine, 

La pach Spipuc Maeiii ; 

Gppuc 6 maipeach, mop, maich, 

6dp beacha co m-bpeidieamnap, 

Cinpap Cpinb dpo ainglig 

Xy aep each uipb co n-ilgpdbaib, 

Ca pojnurh Cpipcchairh. 

lp h-i cpd belb bae ano pin .1. Uiccop ainj^el [pdcpaic] ic caip- 
cheabul pdopaic -j opbain -\ aipeochaip Gpinb bo Beich 00 jpeap 
ip in baili pin. 

Cib pil ann bin ace ip ceano-popc 7 bo phdbpaic -| ip ppim-chachaip 
00 pi£ h-Gpinb in baili pin. Qcup ole^ap cip -| pojnum peap 
n-Gpeanb 00 pij in baili pin bo £peap 9 .1. bo pij Caipil cpe beanbac- 
cain pdbpaic mic Qlplaino. 

Qxe anb po, imoppo, cuapipda na pij 6 pi£ Caipil mu6 pij 
h-Gpinb h-e -\ a chuaipc-peom 1 a biaca-pom poppa bia chmb .1. 

Ceac copn 1 ceac claioeam -| ceac n-each -| ceac n-inap uao 
bo pij Cpuachna 1 biachab bd pdidn 6 pij Cpuachan bo-pom 1 a 
6ul laip a Uip Chonaill. 

Pichi pdlach -\ picbi pichchell -| pichi each bo pi£ ceneoil Co- 
naill 1 biadiab mip 6 chenel Conaill 06-pom -| ceacc laip 1 Uip 

Caeca copn 1 caeca claioeb 1 caeca each bo pij G1I15 -| bia- 
chao mip uabu bo-pom -| coijeacc 9 laip a Uulai£ n-Og. 

Upicha copn -| epicha claibeB q epicha each bo plaidi Uhulcha 

f There appeared to them a figure, Sfc. Victor was the name of St. Patrick's guar- 

This story is also given by Keating in dian angel. But Dr. Lanigan asserts that 

his History of Ireland. " there is no foundation for what we read 

S The angel Victor According to the in some of his Lives concerning his being 

Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, published by often favoured with the converse of an an- 

Colgan, lib. i. c. 19, and Jocelin, c. 19, gel Victor," &c. Eccles. Hist, vol. i. p. 144. 

net 5-Cecqic. 31 

appeared unto them a figure*", brighter than the sun, with a voice 
sweeter than the angular harp, blessing the hill and the place, [and] 
predicting [the arrival of St.] Patrick, and it said: 

Good, good, good the man who shall rule Caiseal, 

Walking righteously in the name of the Great Father, 

And of the Son of the Virgin, 

With the grace of the Holy Spirit ; 

A comely, great, good Bishop, 

Child of life unto judgment, 

He shall fill noble angelic Eire 

With people of each order of various grades, 

To serve Christ the benign. 

The figure which appeared there was Victor^, the angel of Patrick, 
prophesying [the coming of] Patrick, and that the grandeur and supre- 
macy of Eire would be perpetually in that place. 

Accordingly that town is a metropolis to Patrick, and a chief city 
of the king of Eire. And the tribute and service of the men of Eire are 
always due to the king of that place, i. e. the king of Caiseal, through 
the blessing of Patrick 11 , the son of Alplainn. 

Now here are the stipends of the kings from the king of Caiseal, 
if he be king [monarch] of Eire, and his visitation and refection among 
them on that account, i. e. 

One hundred drinking-horns, one hundred swords, one hundred 
steeds, and one hundred tunics [are given] from him to the king of 
Cruachan ; and refection from the king of Cruachan to him for two 
quarters of a year, and to accompany him into Tir-Chonaill. 

Twenty rings, twenty chess-boards, and twenty steeds to the king 
of Cineal Conaill, and a month's refection from the Cineal Conaill to 
him, and to escort him into Tir-Eoghain. 

Fifty drinking-horns, fifty swords, and fifty steeds to the king of 
Aileach, and a month's refection from him to him, and to escort him to 
Tulach Og. 

Thirty drinking-horns, thirty swords, and thirty steeds to the lord 

h Through the blessing of Patrick, the son of Calforn. In St. Patrick's Confcssio, 
son of Alplainn He is moi-e usually called he says that his father was Calpomius, a 

32 Ceabliaji 

Og -] biachao od chpdch oeag laip -| a cheachc 10 laip a n-Oipgiall- 

Ochc Unpeacha 1 peapcac inap -| peapcac each do pig Gipgiall 
-; a biachao pe mip a n-Grhain 1 a choimiceachc in n-Llllcaib. 

Ceao copnn -| ceac macal -| ceac claioeb -\ ceac n-each -| 
ceac long 11 00 pig Ulao, biacao mip 12 bo-pom a h-Ullcaib, -| Ulaib 
laip co Ueamaip. 

Upicha luipeach 1 cpicha pdlach -| ceac n-each -| cpicha pich- 
chell 00 pig Ueampach -| biachao mip 1 Ueampaig patp -\ ceicheopa 
pine Uheampach laip co h-Qch Cliach. 

[Dec mna 1] oeich n-eich -\ oeich longa 00 pig Qca Cliach -\ 
biacao mip 6 pig Qca Cliach 06-pom 1 a chaemcheachc ll-Caigmb. 

Cpicha long 1 cpicha each 1 cpicha curiial -\ cpicha bo 00 pig 
Caigean -\ biachao od mip 6 Caignib 06-pom .1. mi 6 faigin cuach- 
gabaip 1 mi 6 £aigm beap-gabaip. Upicha each 1 cpichu luipeach 
-] ceacpocao claioeb. 

lciao pin a cuapipcla -\ a comaioeachca conio ooib-pioe 14 ao peo 
in c-ugoap buaoa .1. 6enen mac Sepcnein : 

tDligeao each pig 6 pig Caipil, 
bio ceipe ap bdpbaib co bpach, 
po gebchap 1 caeib na Uaibean 
ac puaio na n-^aeibel co gndch. 

Ceo copn, ceac claioeam a Caipil, 
ceac n-each, ceac n-map pia aip, 

deacon. Seethe remarks on this passage laureate of all Ireland. It is described in 

in the Introduction. Cormac's Glossary. 

< The Four Tribes of Tara ; see the ' A hundred drinking-horns, or goblets. 

Battle of Magh Rath, \). 9,where those tribes — O'Brien derives the word Copn from 

are mentioned, viz., the families of O'h-Airt; copn, a horn, Latin cornu, ai 

O'Ceallaigh, of Breagh ; O'Conghaile ; and that drinking cups were anciently of horn. 

O'Riagain. '" A hundred swords The word 

J Laighin Tuath-ghabhair All that claioeam, or doibeam, is evidently 

part north of Bealach Gabhrain, the road cognate with the Latin gladius. It is re- 

of Gabhran. markable that Giraldus Cambrensis ( Topo- 

k Along with the Taeidhean Taeidhean, graphia Hibernia Distinct, iii. c. x. makes 

or tuighean, was the name of the orna- no mention of the sword among the mili - 

mented mantle worn by the chief poet or tary weapons used by the Irish in his time. 

na g-Ceajir. 3.S 

Tuiach Og, [who gives him] refection for twelve, days and escort? 
him to the Oirghialla. 

Eight coats of mail, sixty tunics, and sixty steeds to the king of 
the Oirghialla, [by whom] he is entertained for a month at Eamhain 
and escorted to the Ulstermen. 

A hundred drinking-horns, a hundred matals, a hundred swords, 
a hundred steeds, and a hundred ships to the king of Uladh, and the 
Ulstermen give him a month's refection and escort him to Teamhair 

Thirty coats of mail, thirty rings, a hundred steeds, and thirty 
chess-boards to the king of Teamhair; and he receives a month's refec- 
tion at Teamhair, and the four tribes of Teamhair 1 escort him to Ath 
Cliath (Dublin). 

Ten women, ten steeds, ten ships to the king of Ath Cliath, and a 
month's refection [is allowed] to him from the king of Ath Cliath, who 
accompanies him to the Leinstermen. 

Thirty ships, thirty steeds, thirty cumhals (bondmaids), and 
thirty cows to the king of Laighin, and two months' refection from 
the Leinstermen to him, i. e. a month's from northern Laighini and a 
month's from southern Laighin; [to whom he presents] thirty steeds, 
thirty coats of mail, and forty swords. 

Such are his stipends and escorts, of which the gifted author 
Benean the son of Sescnean said : 

THE EIGHT of each king from the king of Caiseal, 
Shall be question to bards for ever : 
It shall be found along with the Taeidhean k 
With the chief poet of the Gaeidhil constantly. 

A hundred drinking-horns, 1 a hundred swords™ from Caiseal, 
A hundred steeds, a hundred tunics" besides, 

The mention of the swords in this work, of the Irish from the Scythians, 
as among the weapons presented by the n Tunics, map. This word is trans- 
kings to their chieftains, shows the inac- lated "cloaks" by MacCurtin, in his Brief 
curacy of Cambrensis. Spenser considers Discourse in Vindication of the Antiquity 
that the Irish always had "their broad of Ireland, p. 173; but in a MS. in the 
nwordes," and he adduces them as an evi- Library of Trinity College, Dublin, H. 2, 
deuce of his favourite theory, the descent 13, it is used to translate the Latin tunica. 

34 Ceabhap 

ap a eip, co ceilip, ruachail, 
Do'n pij jeibip Cpuacham caip. 

6iacha6 bd pdichi on pij pin 
bo chupaib TTIurhan ap mil, 
oul leip pi cpeap a (b)-Uip Conaill, 
co pij eapa m-(6)o6oipnn mip. 

12i5 Conoacc la cupaib Caipil 
co caraib 6edpnaip, — nl bpej; 
pi Conaill co clanbaib 605am 
capao bo'n oeopaio lap ceic. 

Pichi palach, pici pichchill, 
pichi each co po 6ap-puaib 
bo'n P15 bo nap beapbap bo^ains' 5 , 
bo P15 bedpnaip Conaill chpuaio. 

6iacha6 mip 6 riiaichib Conaill 
bo chvnceao muriian a maip5, 
acup bia pi5 — nt bli5 16 beolai5, 
pia n-oul a (b)-Cip n-6o5am n-dipb. 

Caeca copnn lp caeca claioeb, 
caeca each jlepca co gndcli 
b' pip paich 6 t)(h)oipib na n-bai^-rheap, 
bo plaich O1I15 ainceap each. 

Cruachan (Rathcroghan, near Balena- aim, called Assaroe, and sometimes the Sal 

gare, Roscommon), where the ruins of se- mon Leap. It is on the River Erne, at the 

veral forts and other monuments are still town of Ballyshannon. 
to be seen. This was the ancient palace of r Bearnas, i. e. a gap in a mountain, now 

the kings of Connaught. See above, p. Barnismore, a remarkable gap in a motui- 

20, n. '. tain situated about rive miles to the east of 

p Tir- Chonaili, i. e. the country of Co- the town of Donegal, 
nail. This was nearly co-extensive with the s Tribes of Eoghan, i.e. the families 

present county of Donegal. It derived its descended from Eoghan, the son of Niall 

name from Couall Gulban, the son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, seated in the present 

of the Nine Hostages. counties of Tyrone and Londonderry, and 

q The cataract of Badharn, i. e. the in the baronies of Raphoe and Inishowen, 

cataract Eas Aodha Ruaidh mic Badh- in the county of Donegal. 

na 5-Ceajic. 35 

From his country, actively and prudently, 

To the king who obtains the pleasant Cruachan . 

Entertainment for two quarters from that king- 
To the heroes of Mumha (Munster) for their valour, 
[And] to escort him with a force to Tir Chonaill 1 ' 
To the king of the rapid cataract of Badharn q . 

The king of Connacht with the heroes of Caiseal [goeth] 
To the battalions of Bearnas r , — it is no falsehood ; 
The king of Conall goes with him 
As guide to the stranger to the tribes of Eoghan s . 

Twenty rings', twenty chess-boards", 
Twenty steeds at the great Eas-ruaidh T 
To the king for whom no sorrow is fated, 
To the king of the gap of the hardy Conall"'. 

A month's refection from the chiefs of Conall 
In grief [is given] to the province of Mumha, 
And to their king — no gratuitous law, 
Before going into the noble Tir-Eoghain x . 

Fifty drinking-horns and fifty swords, 
Fifty steeds with the usual trappings 
To the man of prosperity of the Doires y of goodly fruit, 
To the prince of Aileach who protects all. 

1 Twenty rings Pichi palctij. Mac w Beornas Chonaill, i.e. Conall'sgap or 

Curtin translates this twenty gold rings, gapped mountain — See page 34, note '■. 

p_ 173. x Tir- Eoghain, i. e. Eoghan's country, 

u Twenty chess-boards. — pichi pic- now anglicized Tyrone, but the ancient 

Cill " Twenty pair of Tables." Mac Tir-Eoghain was more extensive than the 

Curt. The pirceall is described in Cor- present county. — See page 34, note s . 
mac's Glossary as quadrangular with straight y O Dhoiribh — Doire, Derry, London- 
spots of white and black, ip cerpacctip deny, formerly Doire Calgach, afterwards 
in pircell, ocup ic bipge a cire, Doire Choluim Chille. The plural name 
ocup pino ocup oub puippe. seems to allude to the oak woods there, so 

v Eas-ruaidh, i. e. cataracta Run, see often mentioned in the Lives of St. Colum 

page 34, note 1. Chille. 

D 2 



6iacha6 mip oo vhac-platch ffluman, 
a mui^ lTlurhan, — ni paeb peach' , 
o'pip cuiciD 6pannbuib jan beojuin, 
6 chlanoaib Gojain nu n-each. 

Cpicha copnn -\ cpicha clameab, 
cepc cpicha puaib each oo'n poo, 
bo'n pip 'c-a m-bib 17 bpumclao uaine, 
do plaich Uhulcha uaine O5. 

6iacha6 oa chpach &euj co oeaola 
bo pi£ murir,an, mlbic baipb, 
6 pi j Uhulcha O5, cean bea^uil 
no co cop co 19 h-Garhain aipb. 

Ochc luipecha oo plaich Gip^iall 
a h-oipeachc Caipil ceac cpech 
oo 1 !! pip popp m-(b)ib ceapca cinab, 
peapcac map, peapcac each. 

&iachab mip a mullach Gamna 
6 Gip^iallaib aca moip, 
00 pi£ Caipil chaip o'n chuchcaip, 
oul laip a n-Lllcaib a n-oip. 

1 The province of Branndubh, i. e. the 
province of Leinster, from Brann Dubh, one 
of its celebrated kings. It is here put for 
the king of Cashel's territory by a poetical 
license. See page 40, note r . 

a Green tumulus, opumclab uaine. 
This alludes to the hill on which the chief 
of Tulach Og used to inaugurate the Irish 
monarchs of the northern Ui Neill race. 
See Addenda to the Ui Fiachrach, note L, 
on the Inauguration of the Irish chiefs, 
pp. 425, 431, &c. 

b Tulach Op, i. e. the hill of the youths 
(Tullaghoge, corruptly pronounced Tully- 
hawk), a small village in the parish of 
Deserterenght, barony of Dungannon, Ty- 

rone. After the establishment of surnames 
in the tenth century, the chief family of 
this place took the surname of O'h-Again 
(O'Hagan). See last reference. 

c Eamhain This was the ancient palace 

of the kings of Ulster ; but after the year 
332 it lay in a state of desertion, though 
occasionally referred to as the head residence 
of the Oirghialla, as in the present instance. 

d Coatsofmail, luipeacha The Irish 

word luipeach, (which is cognate with, if 
not derived from the Latin lorica), certainly 
signifies mail armour. 

e Uhtermen — Uladh was originally the 
name of the entire province of Ulster, but 
after the year 332 it was applied to that 


net 5-Cecqir. 37 

Refection of a month to the young princes of Mumha, 
From the plain of Mumha, — it is no false account, 
To the man of BranndubhV province without opposition, 
From the clans of Eoghan of steeds. 

Thirty drinking-horns and thirty swords, 
Thirty red steeds [fit] for the road, 
To the man who has the green tumulus 3 , 
To the chief of the green Tulach Og h . 

Twelve days' refection nobly 

To the king of Mumha, the bards notice. 

From the king of Tulach Og, without separation 

Until he escorts him to the noble Eamhain c . 

Eight coats of mail d to the prince of the Oirghialla 
From the host of Caiseal of the hundred preys 
To the man who has the chastisement of crimes, 
Sixty tunics, sixty steeds. 

A month's entertainment on the summit of Eamhain [is due] 
From the Oirghialla of the great ford 
To the king of pleasant Caiseal from the kitchen, 
[And] to escort him to the Ulstermen e eastward. 

portion of the east of Ulster (Down and wards between them [i. e. the Clann-Colla] 

Antrim) bounded on the west by the Lower and the Clanna Rudhraighe, and the Clanna 

Bann and Lough Neagh, and by Gleanu Rudhraighe never returned across it from 

Righe, through which an artificial boundary that time to the present. On an old map 

was formed, now called the Danes' Cast. of Ulster the river of Newry is called Owen 

This boundary is distinctly referred to in Glanree fluvius. 

a manuscript in the Library of Trinity Col- O' Flaherty and others, who have written 
lege, Dublin, H. hi 18, p. 783, in the fol- on the history of Ireland in the Latin lan- 
lowing words : t)on cuob abup Do guage, have for the sake of distinction 
^liono TCije 00 prjnecib copunn adopted UUdia to denote the.circumscribed 
(^leanna Ri;j;e o'n lubap anuap territory to the east, and Ultonia to denote 
eacoppa -| Clannaib l^ubpai^e -\ the entire province of Ulster. See O'Flaher- 
nip pilleuoctp clanna VJuopai^e ty'sOpy^ia, part III. c. 78, p. 372 ; Ussher's 
anon 6 pin a le, i.e. on the hither side Primordia, pp. 8 H>. 1048; O'Conor's Dis- 
of Gleann Righe, the boundary of Gleann aert p. 176, and Lan. EccL Hist. vol. ii. 
Righe t\a^ farmed from the Newry up- p. "28. 



Ceo copn, ceac claioeb, ceac macal 
oo milij 6oipchi — nf baerh, 
ceac each, ace ip o'eachaib bonoa, 
acup beich lonja bo'n laech. 

&iacao Da aen riiip a h-Ullcaib 
o'uapal pi£ Caipil, o'n chill, 
blijib ac Uulaij caip Cheapnaij; 
Ulaib laip co Ceampaij cinb. 

Upicha luipeach bo laech Ceampach, 
cpica pdlach — lp pip pm, 
ceac n-each ni pcichaba pcich pei6m ,p , 
la cpichaio pichcill ac pleio. 

6iacha6 mfp a mullach Uheavhpach 
bo chpean-peapaib 20 Caipil cpuinb; 
caibeacc 21 laip pine ap a puipmim, 
pip Tllibi, co (Duiblinb n-ouinb. 

t)eich mna, beich lon^a co leapchaib 
6 laech Caipil acup Cliach, 

f A hundred matals Ceac macal. 

Mac Curtin translates this " one hundred 
Mantles," p. 174. Matal was probably 
another name for the palainj which in 
latter ages was applied to the outer cover- 
ing or cloak ; but this is far from certain. 
Matal is applied in Leabhar Breac, fol. 64, 
1), a, to the outer garment worn by the Ke- 
deemer. Giraldus Cambrensis describes the 
outer covering of the Irish in the twelfth 
century as follows, in his Topographia 
Hibernia, Dist. III. c. x. : 

" Caputiis modicis assueti sunt & arctis, 
trans humeros deorsum, cubito tenus pro- 
tensis : variisque colorum generibus panni- 
culorumque plerunque consutis : sub quibus 
phalingis laneis qunque palliorum vice 

utuntur, seu braccis caligatis, seu calligis 
braccatis, & his plerunque colore fucatis." 

Dr Lynch says that the falaing was the 
outside rug cloak. See Cambrensis Eversus, 
p. 104 ; but Ledwich asserts (Antiquities, 
second edit, p, 267) that " this it could not 
be, for Cambrensis describes it as worn 
under the hooded mantle." He als< i asserl s 
tbat the name falaing is not Irish, but that 
it is derived from the Saxon Folding, and 
that it came with the manufacture into this 
island ; but this is all gratuitous assertion. 

s Boirche. — A territory, now the ba- 
rony of Mourne, the mountains of which 
were called Beanna Boirche. This clearly 
appears from a notice of Boirche in the Dinn - 
seanchus, and also in the Annals of Tighear- 

net 5-Ceajic. 39 

A hundred drinking-horns, a hundred swords, a hundred matals f 
To the warrior of Boirche g — not foolish, 
A hundred steeds, but bay steeds, 
And ten ships' 1 to the hero. 

Twice one month's refection from the Ultstermen 
To the noble king of Caiseal, from the church, 
Is due at the pleasant Tulach Chearnaigh 1 ; 
The Ulstermen escort him to strong TeamhairJ. 

Thirty coats of mail to the hero of Teamhair, 
Thirty rings — that is true, 

A hundred steeds not wearied in a fatiguing service, 
With thirty chess-boards for a banquet. 

A month's refection on Teamhair's summit 
[Is due] to the mighty men of round Caiseal ; 
And the tribes come with him on his march, 
The men of Midhe (Meath), to the brown Duibh-linn k . 

Ten women, ten ships with beds 

From the hero of Caiseal and Cliach 1 , 

sach at the year 744, where it is stated ' Tulach Chearnaigh, i. e. Cearnach's 
that the sea had thrown ashore in the dis- hill, Tullycarney, in the county of Down, 
trict of Boirche a whale with three golden j Tara.— Ueamaip, the ancient pa- 
teeth; and Giraldus Cambrensis, in noticing i ace f the nionarchs of Ireland till it was 
the same story, states, that this whale curse d by St. Ruadhan ofLothra, in the 
was found at " Carhnfordia in Ultotiia" reignof Diannaid, thesonof FearghusCeir- 
See his Topographia Hibernia, Dist. ii. c. bheoil, who died in the year 50.3, after 

1 0. There is a moat near the source i 

which it became a ruin, but the Irish mo- 

the Upper Bann, still called moca bean- narchS) and Sljnietimes the kings of j I( , a||| 

net 6oipce. were ca rj e d from it kings of Teamhair.— 

11 Ten ships — The word long is in See Petrie's History and Antiquities of 

common use to denote a ship. AVe have yet Tara Hill, pp. 100-104. See p. 7, note \ 

no evidence to prove the size or construe- supra. 

don of the vessels here referred to. It is k Duibhlinn.—See p. 12, note e, supra. 

curious toremark, thatthe monarch bestows ' Cliach, a territory around Cnoc Aine in 

ships upon those princes only whose territo- the county of Limerick, introduced here to 

ties extended along the sea. fill up the metre. 

40 CeabTiap 

oeich n-eicli a n-uaip blaca bldouij 
&o pij Gcha claoaij Cliuch. 

6iacha6 mip 6 rhaichib Comaip 2 * 
do chi^eapna Caipil chaip, 
pf in ara bilcaij, nach baij-beip, 
bo chichcam a 6aijnib laip. 

Upicha long bo laechpaib 6iarhna, 
laiceap cpica oeaj each bo, 
blijib im na cpicha im Chapmon 53 
cpicha ban-mob, cpicha bo. 

&iachao oa Ian mfp 6 Ca\ jnib 
oo laech TTluvhan a lTluij TCach, 
cuib mfp a Hluij 6panouib bpojba 
6 clanbaib Conbla peach each. 

Cpicha each, en cpicha luipeach 
bo laech ^abpan jloine- 4 bach, 
nocho n-eachlacha po ploioeao 24 ; 
ceachpaca claioeam i (j)-cach. 

Gc 26 pin cuapipcla pij h-Gpino 
6 pij murhan rholaib 27 pip, 
'p-a m-biachao 6"n luce pin uile, 
beapb pe each n-bume po blij' 9 . [Olijeao.] 

m Ath CHath. — The name for Dublin — place of this name in Leinster. 
See p. 12, note s, supra. r Magh Brann-duibh, i. e the plain of 

n Tomar's chieftains — See Introduction. Brann Dubh, king of Leinster, who resided 

Liamhain This place was also called at Rath BrainnorDun Brainn, near Baltin- 

Dun Liamhna. It was an ancient seat of glas. See p. 36, note z , supra. 

the kings of Leinster, and still retains its « Connla. — He was the ancestor of Mac 

name under the anglicized form of Dunla- Giolla- Phadruig and his correlatives, who 

van, in the county of Wicklow. See the were seated in the ancient Os-raidhe (Os- 

Circuit of Muircheartach Mac Neill, p. 36. sory), extending from the Sliabh Bludhma 

p Carman This was the ancient name mountains to the meeting of the Three 

of the place where the town of Wexford Waters, and from the river Bearbha to 

now stands. See p. 15, note 1, supra. Magh Feimhin. See pp. 17, ', 18, b , supra. 

1 Magh Rath, i. e. the plain of the raths l Gabhran —See p 17, note a , supra. By 
or forts. The Editor does not know any hero of Gabhran is here meant "the king 

na 5-Ceajic. 4 1 

Ten steeds in their prime condition 

To the king of the entrenched Ath Cliath"". 

A month's refection from Tomar's chieftains" 
To the lord of pleasant Caiseal, 

The king of the bounteous ford, which is not unhealthy, 
[Is] to come to the Leinstermen with him. 

Thirty ships to the heroes of Liamhain , 
Thirty good steeds are sent by him, 
There are due to the districts around Cannan p 
Thirty women-slaves, thirty cows. 

Two full months' refection from the Leinstermen 
To the hero of Mumha at Magh Kath q , 
A month's feasting at Magh Brannduibh r the fortified 
From the race of Connla s beyond all. 

Thirty steeds, thirty coats of mail 

To the hero of Gabhran 1 of fair colour, 
It was not grooms that lashed them" ; 
Forty swords for battle. 

Such are the stipends of the kings of Eire 
From the king of Mumha whom men praise, 
And their refections from all the other parties, 
Which, as is certain to each person, are due. THE RIGHT. 

or chief lord of Ossory." serts, that the Irish did not use spurs, but 

" It was not grooms that lashed them, incited their horses \x\t\\ rods crooked at 

nocho n-ectchlacha po ploibeuo, the head. His words are: 
i. e. it was not grooms but chieftains who " Item sellis equitando non utuntur, non 

rode them. The meaning of ploioeao, ocreis, non calcaribus : virga tantum, quam 

which is explained jeappao, cutting, by manu gestant, in superiori parte camerata, 

O'Clerigh, must be here determined from tarn equos excitant, quam ad cursus invi- 

tlie kind of whip, goad, or spur, with which tant. Frenis quidem utuntur, tarn" chami 

the ancient Irish incited their horses. The quam freni vice fungentibus: quibus & 

writer of Cath Guana Tarbh states, that equi, semper herbis assueti ad pabula ne- 

the king of Leinster drove his horse with a quaquam impediuntur. Prasterea nudi & 

rod of jew, immediately before the battle of inermes ad bella procedunt. Habent enini 

( .'hmtarf (A D 1014) ; and Giraldus Cam- arma pro onere. Inermes vero dimicare pro 

brensis, who wrote about the year 1185, as- audaciareputant." Top.Hib. Dist.iii.c. 10. 

42 Leabhap 

C6GI2C Caipil acup pig Ccupil 6 chuachaib ap meuoon aim 
po [pip]. 

O m(h)upcpaioio cheaoamup cup na cana-pa .1. beich ($)-ceuo 
bo -] beich (5)-ceab cope anb pin 6 TTl(h)upcpai6ib. 

Ceo bo 1 ceac muc -\ ceac n-bam 6 Llaichnib ano pin. 

t)a ceac mole 1 c6ac cope -| ceac bo -| ceac leanb uame a 
h-Qpaib ino pin. 

Ceo bo 1 ceac bam 1 ceac cope 6 Chopco 6ai6i pin. 

Oeich (j)-ceac oarh -\ beich (£)-ceac bo 6 Chopco Duibne beop. 

Deich (5)-ceac bo-| oeich (5)-ceac cope co Chiappaioi fcuachpa. 

Deich 29 (5)-ceac bo -\ beich (g)-ceac bam 6 Chopco 6aipcino. 

Tllili bo 1 mill oam -| mill peichi 1 mill bpac a 6oipinb. 

Ceb bo 1 ceac bam -| ceac cpdnab ap in [e]-Seachcmoo. 

Da mill cope -) mill bo 6 na t)epib. 

Noch ap oaipi cpd icaib na cipa pin, ace cap ceanb 30 a (b)-cipi 
-) ap pufpi chipe [cineoil] Chaipil 1 ap a beanbochab 00 phabpaic 
amal ab peac 6enean: 

C6QTJU Chaipil, cen chpdb bia chupaio, 
po chaipij oam blijib; 
maich le pij ^abpdin in geajaip 
a pajbail '5-d Filij. 

O m(h)upcpaicib cean paiob n-eirhij, 
00 Chaipil apo uaichib 

v Muscraidhe. — According to all the Irish O'Cuirc; 5, Muscraidhe Iarthair Feimhin, 

genealogical works, these were the descen- the country of O'Carthaigli; 6, Muscraidhe 

dants of Cairbre Muse, the son of Conaire Thire, the country of O'Donghaile and 

Mor, monarch of Ireland in the beginning O'Fuirg. O'Brien, in his Irish Dictionary, 

of the third century. See O'Flaherty's after enumerating the several Muscraidhes, 

Ogygia, part iii. c. 63. According to O'h- has the following remark : " It is referred 

lidhrin's topographical poem there were to the judicious reader if it be a likely story 

six Muscraidhes, all in Minister, namely, that one Cairbre Muse, supposed son of a 

1, Muscraidhe Mitine, the country of king of Meath in the beginning of the 

O'Floinn ; 2, Muscraidhe Luachra, the third century, and of whose progeny no 

country of O'h-Aodha, along theAbhainn account has ever been given, should have 

Mhor (Black water) ; 3, Muscraidhe Tri given the name of Muscry to every one of 

Maighe, the country of O'Donnagain; 4, these territories, so widely distant from 

Muscraidhe Treitheirne, the country of each other in the provhice of Munster." 

na 5-Ceajic. 43 

THE RIGHT of Caiseal and of the king of Caiseal from [his] ter- 
ritories generally, down here. 

With the Muscraidhe, in the first place, this tribute begins, i. e. 
ten hundred cows, and ten hundred hogs from the Muscraidhe. 

A hundred cows, and a hundred pigs, and a hundred oxen from 
the men of Uaithne. 

Two hundred wethers, and a hundred hogs, and a hundred cows, 
and a hundred green mantles from the men of Ara. 

A hundred cows, and a hundred oxen, and a hundred hogs from 
Corca Luighe. 

Ten hundred oxen and ten hundred cows from Corca Dhuibhne, 

Ten hundred cows and ten hundred hogs from Ciarraidhe Luachra. 

Ten hundred cows and ten hundred oxen from Corca Bhaiscinn. 

A thousand cows, and a thousand oxen, and a thousand rams, and 
a thousand cloaks from Boirinn. 

A hundred cows, and a hundred oxen, and a hundred sows from 

Two thousand hogs and a thousand cows from the Deise. 

It is not for inferiority [of race] that they pay these tributes, but 
for their territories, and for the superiority of the right of Caiseal, and 
for its having been blessed by Patrick, as Benean sang : 

THE EIGHT of Caiseal, without grief to its heroes, 
It is my duty to record ; 

It is pleasing to the king of Gabhran the fierce 
To find it [acknowledged] by his poet. 

From the Muscraidhe v without knotty falsehood, 
To noble Caiseal from them [are due] 

On these words it is necessary to remark, any authority), and of O'Floinn and others, 

that there is as much authority from Irish his descendants, we should with equal rea- 

history for the existence of Cairbre Muse, son reject every other fact belonging to 

as there is for any other fact belonging to this period stated by those genealogists, 

the same period; and that if we reject the See Battle of Magh Rath, p. 340. For 

account handed down of him and his father, the account handed down by the Irish ge- 

who was full monarch of Ireland (not king aealogists of Cairbre Muse, giving name to 

f Meath, as O'Brien makes him, without those territories, O'Brien substitutes an ety- 

44 Leablicqi 

mill bo, — pin pope a (m)-bpacaip, 
mfli cope 6 chuachaib. 

Ceo bo pop cnuc ppi h-am n-aipceap 3 ', 
ceac muc chall oia (o)-caipcio, 
ceac n-oam bo'n c-[p]luaj aicpeib coipcib 
6 Uaichnib a n-aipci6. 

Da ceac mole o'n oaim ao beapaio 32 , 
ceao cope, in chain chanaiD 33 , 

mological conjecture of his own, namely, 
that, it is likely that Muscraidhe is derived 
from mus, pleasant, and crioch, a country ; 
but this is beneath criticism, as it is an un- 
doubted fact that the termination (which 
is a patronymic one, somewhat like idjjc in 
Greek) is raidhe, not craighe, as we learn 
from tribe-names similarly formed, as Cal- 
raidhe, Caen-raidhe, Ciur-raidhe, Greag- 
raidhe, Os-^raidhe, Trad-raidhe. This 
being the case, we see that the root is m use, 
and that O'Brien's etymology is visionary. 
Dr. Lanigan, who, because he corrected 
proofs for Vallancey, was imbued with 
the rage for etymological delirium which 
was commenced by the British etymolo- 
gists, and was taken up by O'Brien, and 
brought to its acme by Vallancey, approves 
of this silly etymological guess of O'Brien's, 
as highly probably, and writes as follows : 
" There were several tracts in Minister 
named Muscrighe, so called, says Colgan, 
(Tr Th. p. 186) from a prince Muse, son 
of King Conor [recte Conaire] the great. 
O'Brien, with much greater appearance of 
truth, derives that name from mus, plea- 
sant, and crioch, country." The delusion 
will, it is hoped, stop here, and will never 
be supported by a third authority worth 

1. The extent of Muscraidhe Mitaine, 

or, as it was called after the establishment 
of surnames, Muscraidhe Ui Fhloinn, is 
now preserved in the deanery of " Musgry- 
lin," which comprises, according to the 
Liber RegaJis Visitutiunis, fifteen parishes 
in the north-west of the county of Cork. 
2. Muscraidhe Luachra was the ancient 
name of the district in which the Abhainn 
Mhor (Blackwater) has its source ; it was 
so called from its contiguity to the moun- 
tains of Sliabh Luachra (in Kerry). — 
O'Brien says that Muiscrith Luachra was 
the old name of the tract of land which lies 
between Kilmallock, Kilfman, and Ard- 
patrick, in the county of Limerick ; but 
for this he quotes no authority, and it is 
against every authority, for we know from 
O'h-Uidhrin that the tribe of Muscraidhe 
Luachra were seated about the Abhainn 
Mhor (im abainn moip mai^pic;), 
but the position given them by O'Brien 
would leave them many miles from that 
river, as well as from Sliabh Luachra, 
from which they derived their distinguish- 
ing appellative. 3. Muscraidhe Tri Maighe, 
i. e. Muscraidhe of the three plains, which 
belonged to O'Donnagain, was not the ba- 
rony of Orrery, as O'Brien asserts, for 
Orrery is the anglicized form of Orbli- 
raidhe, of which presently, and we have 
proof positive that " Muskerry-Donegan," 

na 5-Cecqic. 


A thousand cows. — it is the seat of their relative" 
A thousand hos;s from their territories. 

A hundred cows on the hill at time of calving. 
A hundred pigs within to be stored, 
A hundred oxen to the resident host are ord< j 
From the men of Uaithne" freely. 

Two hundred wethers from the host I will say, 
A hundred hogs, the tribute they exact, 


which was granted by King John (see 
Charter 9°. ann. Reg.) to William de Bam', 
is included in the present barony of Barry- 
more. Thus O'Brien's wild conjectures, 
which he put as if they were absolute de- 
monstrated truths, vanish before the light 
of records and etymology. 4 and 5. The 
territories of Muscraidhe Breoghain, orMus- 
craidhe Ui Chuirc, and Muscraidhe of the 
west of Feimhin, are now included in the 
barony of Clan william, in the south-west 
of the county of Tipperary, as appears from 
Keating, who places in Muscraidhe Chuirc 
CHI Beacain (Kilpeacon) in the barony of 
Clanwilliam ; from the Book of Lismore, 
fol. 47, b, b ; the Tripartite Life of Saint 
Patrick, Lib. iii. cap. 32, which places in 
Muscraidhe Breoghain the church of Cill 
Fiacla (Kilfeakle), in the barony of Clan- 
william, about four miles and a half to the 
north-east of the town of Tipperary ; and 
this is more particularly evident from the 
Ormond records, in which this territory is 
particularly denned. See grant of Edward 
III. to the Earl of Ormond. 6. Muscraidhe 
Thire includes the present baronies of Up- 
per and Lower Ormond, in the county of 
Tipperary, as we can infer from the places 
mentioned as in it, such as Cill Ceri (Kil- 
keare parish in Upper Ormond), and Leit- 
reacha Odhrain (Latteragh, in the barony 

of LTpper Ormond), about eight miles to 
the south of Nenagh. See Felire Aenpuis, 
at 27th October and 5th January, and 
Colgan's Acta Sanctorum, pp. 151, 401. 
The extent of this territory is defined by 
Sir Charles O'Carroll, in a letter to the 
Lord Deputy in 1595, in which he calls it 
" Muscryhyry," and states that the earl 
lately called it by the false name of Lower 
Ormond, a name which it had never borne 
before, inasmuch as it was always consi- 
dered a part of " Thomond." 

w Relative. — The Muscraidhe descend 
from Saraidh, the daughter of Conn of the 
Hundred Battles; and the kings of Cashel 
of both houses, of Eoghanacht and DalCais, 
from Sadhbh her sister, who was married 
to Oilioll Olum, king of Minister. 

x Uaithne, i. e. Uaithne Cliach and Uaithna 
Tire. The former now the barony of " Ow- 
neybeg," in the county of Limerick, and 
the latter the barony of " Owney," adjoin- 
ing it, in the county of Tipperary. After 
the establishment of surnames the fami- 
lies of Mac Ceoach (Mac Keoghs), and 
O'Loingsigh were dominant in Uaithne 
Tire, and those of O'h-Iffernain (Hef- 
femans), and O'Cathalain (Cahallans), in 
Uaithne Cliach, afterwards dispossessed by 
the Leinster family of O'Maoilriain (O'Mul- 
rians), of the race of Cathaoir Mor. 



ceo bo bo cheanb buaili ac bpujaio, 
ceac leano n-uaine a h-Gpaib. 

O Chopco Caiji co laechaib 
ceac bo ac caible 34 lp ruachail, 
peapcac cam n-oono — nocho oichaio, 
cear cope cpom 6 chuachaib. 

mill oarh — lp i in bpeach beapma, 
nip ic 3i cpeach pe-m' 36 cuirhni, 
mill bo, ni map 37 bu baiobi, 
oo bpu tDaipbpi O t)uibni. 

> The farmer's dairy.^-Qne hundred 
cows which have enriched the buaile of 
the brughaidh. As to buaile, "booley,"see 
Spencer's View of the State of Ireland, 
p. 51. 

z From the men of Ara, i.e. Ara-Tire, 
now the barony of " Ara," or " Duhara," 
in the north-west of the county of Tip- 
perary, and Ara Cliach, a territory in 
the west of the county of Limerick. Ac- 
cording to the Irish genealogists, the peo- 
ple of Ara are of the Rudrician race, ami 
descended from Feartlachta, the son of 
Fearghus, king of the province of Ulster, 

in the first century See O'Fla. Ogygia, 

part iii. cap. 46 Ara-Tire is the present 
baron}' of "Ara," in the north-west of the 
county of Tipperary ; but the name of the 
territory of Ara Cliach is not preserved in 
that of any barony, but we know from the 
oldest Lives of St Patrick, and various 
other authorities, that it adjoined the ter- 
ritory of Ui Fidhginte on the east side, 
and that it comprised the parish of Kilteely 
and all the barony of Ui Cuanach, " Coo- 
nagh," in the east of the county of Lime- 
rick, and the hill of Cnoc Aine, anglice 
Knockany, in the barony of "Small Coun- 
ty," in the same county. It appears from 

a tract in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, fol. 83, 
that the territory of Ara was divided 
from that of Ui Fidhginte by the River 
Samhair, which appears from various rea- 
sons to be the " Morning Star." In the 
course of time the people, originally called 
by the name Ara, were driven out or sup- 
pressed by the dominant race of Oilioll 
Olum, and a tribe of the race of Eoghan, 
son of this Oilioll, gave it the name of 
Eoghanacht Aine Cliach, of whom, after 
the establishment of surnames, O'Ciar- 
mhaic (now barbarized to " Kirby"), was 
the chief. — See O'h-Uidhrin's topographi- 
cal poem, and O'Flaherty's Ogygia, part iii. 
cap. G7. 

a Corca Luigke, i. e. the race of Lugh- 
aidh, one of the tribe-names of the family 
of O'Eidirsceoill (O'Driscolls), and their 
correlatives, who were otherwise called 
Darfhine. It appears from a curious tract 
on the tribes, districts, and history of this 
territory, preserved in the Book of Lea- 
can, fol. 122, that before the families of 
O'Donnobhain, O'Maghthamhna, O'Suil- 
leabhain, and others, were driven into 
this territory after the English invasion, 
it comprised the entire of the diocese of 
"Ross." This too, we may presume, was 

na 5-Ceapr. 


A hundred cows that enriched the farmer's dairy?, 
A hundred green mantles from the men of Ara z . 

From Corca Luighe a of heroes 

A hundred cows frisking and skipping, 
Sixty brown oxen b — not a small number, 
A hundred heavy hogs from the chieftainries. 

A thousand oxen — it is the judgment I pass, 

They required not to be distrained in my memory. 
A thousand cows, not like cows of ravens d , 
From the brink of Dairbhre O'Duibhne*. 

its extent when this poem was written. In 
latter ages, however, " O'DriscoU's coun- 
try" of Corca Luighe was narrowed to a 
very inconsiderable territory, in consequence 
of the encroachments of" O'Mahony, O'Do- 
novan, and O'Sullivan Beare ;" and in the 
year 1G15 it was defined as containing oidy 
the following parishes in the barony of Car- 
bery, viz. " Myross, Glanbarahane, (Cas- 
tlehaven) Tullagh, Creagh, Kilcoe, Agha- 
down, and Cleare Island." The tract in the 
Book of Leacan is well worth publishing, 
as throwing much light on the ancient to- 
pography of the south of Ireland. 

b Sixty brown (dun) oxen — A hundred 
in the prose. See page 43. 

c Distrained, nip IC cpectc It is not 

necessary to levy by force; — or, I remem- 
ber not when levied by force. 

d Cows of ravens, i. e. lean, dying 
cows, such as the ravens watch and perch 

•' Dairbhre O'Duibhne This, which is 

the name of the island of " Valencia," in 
the west of Kerry, is here put for Cor- 
ca Dhuibhne, a large territory in Kerry, 
belonging to the families of O'Failbhe 
(O'Falvys),; O'Seagha (O'Sheas), and 
1 >'< !onghaile (O'Coimells). Shortly ante- 

rior to the English invasion, O'Falvy pos- 
sessed the barony of " Corcaguiny," O'Shea 
that of " Iveragh," and O'Connell that of 
" Magunihy ;" but about the middle of the 
eleventh century the Ui Donchadha (O'Do- 
noghoes) settled in Magunihy, and drove the 
O'Coimells westwards into Iveragh, where 
they were seated at Bally carbery, near Ca- 
hersiveen. After the English invasion, about 
A. D. 1192, the families of O'Suilleabhain 
(O'Sullivans), and Mac Carthaigh (Mac 
Carthys), who had been previously seated 
in the great plain of Minister, as will be pre- 
sently shown, were driven by the English 
into Kerry, and then those baronies were 
seized upon by the Mac Carthys and 
O'Sullivans, who reduced the families of 
the race of Conaire Mor to obscurity, in- 
somuch that the old "Annals of Innis- 
fallen," the chronicle of the district, does 
not even once mention any of them ex- 
cept O'Falvy, who, being chief of all this 
race, retained a considerable territory till 
finally overwhelmed by the increasing pow- 
er of the Mac Carthys and O'Sullivans, 
as well as of the Fitzgeralds, Ferriters, 
Husseys, Trants, and other Anglo-Irish 
families, who settled at an early period in 
his territory of Corca Dhuibhne, and -nere 

48 Leabhaji 

O Cfiiappaioib claip nci claioeurh 
oeich (5)-ceac bo in 38 cam cuman, 
beich (£)-ceac cope uaichib cean anuo w , 
a 40 6uachaip na lubnip. 

O 6(h)aifcniB oa ceac bo ap baechaip 
o'd pach cpo cap cpichaib 
Oo'n pij po chap Oine ouchaij, 
mill bam, ni oicliaij. 

mill bam, mill bo beanaim, 
oo'n oun lap 16 llloijim 41 
mill peich, ap 42 n-a n-ac 43 o'olaino, 
mill bpac a 6oipino. 

Sloino cam Seachrmaiji na pinoach 44 , 
ni opeachcaioi 45 opeanoach; 
ceac epem 46 , nochap chpo cean cheanoach, 
ceac n-barin, ceac bo beanoach. 

t)a mill cope lap n-a (o)-coja 
cup in cnoc map cheapa, 
mill bo na n-t)epi ; 
bana 6 t)(h)epib ci ao beapa? 

supported against him by the Earls of S Baiscinn This was the namn of a 

Desmond, who resided principally at Tra- very celebrated tribe, giving their name to 

lee. a territory in the south-west of the county 

' Ciurraidhe, i.e. the race of Ciar, son of of Clare, of which Leim Chonchulainn 

Fearghus, king of Ulster, by Meadhbh, queen (Loophead) forms the western extremity, 

of Connacht in the first century. The prin - They were the descendants of Cairbre Bas- 

cipal family of this race took the surname chaoin, or Cairbre of the Smooth Palm, 

of O'Conchobhair (OConor). His country, the brother of Cairbre Muse, already men- 

which is often called Ciarraidhe Luaehra, tioned. This territory originally comprised 

from the mountain of Sliabh Luachra, ex- the baronies of " Clonderalaw," " Moy- 

tended from the harbour of Tralee to the arta," and " Ibrickan," in the county of 

mouth of the Shannon, and from Sliabh Clare ; but, after the expulsion of the Mac 

Luachra to Tarbert. From this territory Gormans from Leinster, shortly after the 

the county of Kerry has received its name. English invasion, they were settled by 

The Ciarraidhe were also called the race of O'Brien in the north of Corca Bhaiscinn, 

Feoma Floinn. See note further on. adjoining Corcomroe. After the establish- 

na 5-Cecqic. 49 

From the Ciarraidhe f of the plain of swords 
Ten hundred cows is the tribute I remember, 
Ten hundred hogs from them without delay, 
From Luachair of the lepers. 

From the men of BaiscinnS two hundred lowing cows 
As increase of stock [paid] for their territories 
To the king who loved his own tribe, 
A thousand oxen, not calves. 

A thousand oxen, a thousand cows I exact, 
For the palace in a day I ordain 
A thousand rams, swelled out with wool, 
A thousand cloaks from Boirinn\ 

Name the tribute of the men of Seachtmhadh" 1 of the foxes, 
Not a quarrelsome host, — 
A hundred sows, no unpurchased property, 
A hundred oxen, a hundred horned cows. 

Two thousand chosen hogs 

To the hill [Caiseal] as tribute [are given], 

A thousand cows, from the Deise k ; 

A fine for distraining from the Deise who can mention ? 

ment of surnames, in the eleventh century, that of O'Lochlainn (anglice, O'Loughliu 

the chiefs of this territory took the surname or O'Loghlen). It is strange that Corcom - 

of O'Domhnaill (O'Donnell), and O'Bais- ruadh is omitted here, though given in the 

cinn ; but, on the increasing of the popula- next poem. 

tion and power of the Dal Chais, the family ' Seachtmhadh This territory is not 

of Mac Mathghamhna (Mac Mahon) be- mentioned by O'h-Uidhrin. Dr. O'Brien, in 

came chiefs of this territory (which in lat- his Dissertations on the Laws of the ancient 

ter ages comprised only the baronies of Irish, Vail. Collect, vol. i. p. 383, thinks 

Clonderalaw and Moyarta), and reduced that it was the barony of Iveragh, in the 

the race of the monarch Conaire Mor to county of Kerry ; but this coidd not be so, 

comparative insignificance. as that barony is mentioned under the name 

11 Boirinn, i. e., a rocky district, Bur- of Dairbhre. It -was in the county of Tip- 

ren, a barony in the north of the county perary, adjoining Ara. 
of Clare. The chief of this territory is of k Deise, called Nandesi (na n.Desi) in 

the same race as " O'Conor Kerry," and, the Life of St. Carthach — See Ussher's Pri- 

after the establishment of surnames, took mordia, pp. 781, 865. These were de- 


50 Ceabhap 

Cip pm cap ceanb dpi, ap copaij, 
paipi in (c)i po leapai j 47 , 
nt ap oaipi na n-bcmi bian tDepij, 
ace paipi chldip Chaipil. 

Qn cip [p]m murhan, co mapcaib, 
co pia bunab beccai£, 
pdopaic, in puipe op na popcaib, 
a pe Chuipc po cheapcaij [C6C112C CQ.] 

IS iat)-SO beop cecupca 6enen meic Sepcnean pailm-cheac- 
laij 49 pdbpaic: i oo Chianoacca ^leanoa ^evhin oo pil Uaibc meic 
Cen a TTlurhain 49 maip bo .1. cop ab ceano coicceann caich corhapba 
Caipil, peib ipeao corhapba pdopaic; -| in can net ba pi£ Gpino 50 pij 
Caipil, ipeao ap bip 51 06 popldvhup pop leich Cpinb ,1. 6 Chij n-t)uino 
lap n-Gpinb co h-Qch Cliach Gaijean. t)flep cuapipcail 1 corh- 
aioeachca pij Caipil 00 gpeap .1. pil 6pepail 6pic .1. Oppaibi. 
'Oleajaio [Gaijean ap] baij aen luichi ceachc la bdi j pij Caipil 1 
(j)-ceanb Chuinb no allrhapac. 

Olijeab bin 52 6 ^(h)allaib Gtha Cliach, -| 6 oeopaoaib Gpinb 

scended from Fiacha Luighdhe, the elder took the surnames of O'Braic (Brick), and 

brother of Conn of the Hundred Battles, O'Faelain (Phelan). They were dispos- 

monarch of Ireland, and were originally sessed by the Powers and Butlers shortly 

seated in the present barony of " Deece," after the English invasion. 

Oeipe Cearhpac, to the south of Tara, ' Cianachta — This tribe were descended 

in Meath, but they were expelled from from Cian, son of Oilioll Olum. They gave 

Meath by the monarch Cormac mac Airt, name to the present barony of Keenaght, 

when they settled in Munster, and sub- in the county of Deny. After the esta- 

dued that part of the country extending blishment of surnames, the head of this 

from the River Suir to the sea, and from family took the surname of O'Conehobhair 

Lismore to Credanhead, the eastern ex- (O'Conor) of Gleann Gemhin, which was 

tremity of the present comity of Wa- the name of that part of the vale of the 

terford. In the fifth century, Aenghus, River Roa (Roe), near the village of Dun 

king of Munster, granted them the plain Gemhin (Dungiven). This family was 

of Magh Feimhin, lying between Cashel dispossessed by the family of O'Cathain 

and Clonmel, in the present county of Tip- (O'Kanes), before the English invasion, 

perary. See Keating, in the reign of Cor- and they are now all reduced to farmers 

mac mac Airt, and O'Flaherty's Ogygia, or cottiers. 

part iii. c. 69. After the establishment of m Comharba — This word is here used 

surnames the chief families of this race to denote heir or successor to property, 

na 5-Ceajic. 51 

A tribute this for their territory, originally, 
Noble is he Avho ordained it, 

Not [on account] of ignobility in the vigorous hosts of the Deise, 
But of the nobleness of the plain of Caiseal. 

That is the tribute of Mumha, perpetual, 
Until the end of time shall come, 
Patrick, of this city over cities, 
In the time of Core adjusted it THE EIGHT. 

THESE ARE further the inculcations of Benean, son of Sescnean, 
the psalmist of Patrick. He was of the Cianachta 1 of Gleann Gemhin, 
of the race of Tadhg, son of Cian of great Mumha (Munster), i. e. that 
the comharba m of Caiseal is a general head of all, inasmuch as he is 
the comharba of Patrick ; and when the king of Caiseal is not king of 
Eire, the government of the half of Eire is due to him, i. e. from Tigh 
Duinn 11 , in the west of Eire, to Ath Cliath (Dublin) of Leinster. The 
hereditary receivers of stipends and the attendants of the king of 
Caiseal are the race of Breasal Breac , i. e. the Osraidhe. The Lein- 
stermen are bound to come to attend the king of Caiseal any day in 
battle, against Conn p or aliens. 

The Gaill (foreigners) of Ath Cliath (Dublin ) q , and the exiles in Eire 

which is the true meaning of it when it of this Breasal Breac, are descended the 

is not applied to the representatives of Osraidhe (i. e. the men of Ossory). See 

saints or founders of churches. p. 17, note a , supra. 

n Tigh Duinn, i. e. the house of Doim. P Against Conn, i. e. against the descen- 

This name is applied to three islands at dant of Conn of the Hundred Battles, who 

the mouth of the bay of Ceami Mara (Ken- were the dominant race in the northern 

mare), now called the Cow, Bull, and Calf. half of Ireland. 

Donn, the sonofMileadh (Milesius), is q The Gaill 'of Ath Cliath, i. e. the North- 
said to have been lost here when the Mile- men, Ostmen, &c, of Dublin. The first peo- 
sian colony from Spain attempted to land pie to whom the Irish applied the term were, 
on the coast of Kerry, and hence, his spirit a colony of Galli from the coast of France, 
having been believed to haunt the place who settled in Ireland, tempore Labhra 
where he was lost, the place received the Loingseach, A. M. 3682. See O'Fla. 
name of Tigh Duinn. See Keating's His- Ogygia, part iii. c. 139, p. 262 : and Keat- 
tory of Ireland (Haliday's edition), p. 292, ing, in the reign of Labhraidh. It after- 
and 0' Flaherty's Ogygia, part iii. e. 16. wards came to signify any invaders, but it 

° Breasal Breac. — From Connla, the son was usually applied, before 1172, to the 


52 Ceabhap 

[up ceana] oula laip 1 (£)-ceanb cacha ap (b^celgub a (b)-c!p; ^ 
oli£io aipcib ap coicpich 6 Chonbaccuib. Ipeao bno pop [p]uaip 
pin cpopcao do naebaiB imoaib 1 (b)-Uemaip, -| piabe pa 33 culach 
chijeapnaip oo 6aijnib co car t)poma Deapjaioi, tip lp ano bo 
bach poppo a (j)-cuio bo mag TTI161 conub 54 bileap cloinoi Neill 6 
pin llle. 

lpeab imoppo poo baibi plaich" Ceampach cpopcao pdopaic 
co n-a riiuincep pop Caejaipi mac Neill, ocup cpopcab Ruaoan 
Ccchpa mac Qenjupa co na naebaib Gpinb pop t)(h)iapmaib mac 
CepBaill, -| pop ceichpi pinib na Ueampach; -| po jellpab na naeib- 
pin nd biab ceach 1 (b)-Ceamaip 6 6aejaipe nd 6 ptl Neill, co 
m-beicli 6 ptl n-Gililla Lllaim. 

Upi pij bno ll-Ceich TTloja nach (b^cupjnab cfp 00 pij Caipil 
.1. pij Oppaioi -| pi Raichleano 1 pi 6aca 6em: be quibup 6enen mac 
Sepcneun in pailm-ceaclaib [dijcic]: 

6GN6N — beanoachc pop in n-gen, 
bo pao-po a palcaip Caipil, 
peancup each pij lp a pach 
lp beach lmcheic cip murhan. 

■Ri Caipil, 'n-a s6 chinb op chdeh, 
ipeab pil punn co ci in bpdc, 

Norwegians, &c, who first began to in- lies of the southern Ui Neill (Xepotes 

fest the coasts of Ireland in the year 795. Nelli, as they are called by Adamnan, 

See Dubhaltach Mac Firbisigh's genealogical Vita Columba, lib. i. c 49), were the fol- 

work (Lord Roden's copy), p. 3G4, and lowing, viz, O'Maoilsheachluin (O'Melagh- 

Colgan's Acta Sanctorum, p (303, n. 11. lin), Mac Catharnaigh, in later ages call- 

r Border tribute, i.e. for preserving their ed Sionnach (i.e. Fox), Mac Eochagain 

border from hostile encroachment. (Mageogbegan), O'Maolmhuaidh (O'Mol- 

* The battle of Druim Deargaidh. — loy), O'Coindhealbhain (O'Quinlan). ( ')'(.>- 

According to the Annals of the Four Mas- allaigh (O'Kellj-) of Breagh or Bregia, and 

ters, this battle was fought in the year 507, several others, who sunk into insignificance 

between Fiacha, tin- son of Niall of the Nine soon after the English invasion. 
Hostages, ancestor of the family of Mac u The fasting of Ruadhan of Lotkair, 

Eochagain (Mageoghegans), and the Lein- i. e. (by bis name in Latin) St. Rodanus, 

stermen, when the latter were defeated. the patron saint of Lortha (Lorha), now 

1 Claim NeiU, i. e. the descendants of a small village in the barony of Lower 

Niall of the Nine Hostages. After the esta- Ormond, Tipperary, and six miles to the 

blishment of surnames, the principal fami- north of Burrisokan* (recte Burgheis Ua 

na 5-Cecqic. ,53 

are bound to attend with him into battle, tor maintaining them in their 
territory; and he is entitled to a border tribute 1 " from the men of Con- 
nacht. The cause that he obtained this was, that many saints had 
tasted at Teamhair, which was the royal hill of the Leinstermen till 
the battle of Druim Deargaidh s , when it passed away from them, and 
their part of the plain of Midhe has been the lawful property of the Clann 
NeilF ever since. 

The cause of the extinction of the regality of Teamhair was the 
fasting of Patrick and his people against Laeghaire, the son of Niall, 
and the fasting of Ruadhan of Lothair", the son of Aengus, with the 
saints of Eire, against Diarmaid, son of Cearbhall, and against the Four 
Tribes of Teamhair' ; and these saints promised [i. e. predicted] that 
there should not be a house at Teamhair of the race of Laeghaire, or 
of the seed of Niall, [but] that there should be of the race of Oilioll 
01um w . 

There are three kings in Leath Mhogha, who do not render tribute 
to the king of Caiseal, i.e. the king of Osraidhe, the king of Raith- 
leann, and the king of Loch Lein ; concerning which Benean, the son 
of Sescnean, the psalmist, said : 

BENEAN — a blessing on the man, 

[Is he] who put this in the psalter of Caiseal, 
The history of every king and his income, 
The best that walk the land of Mumha. 

The king of Caiseal, as head over all, 

Is what is here [ordained] until the [day of] judgment, 

Cathain). For the whole story relating no authority for this promise or prediction 

to the cursing of Tara, in 5C3, by this of the saints in any of the Lives of Saint 

saint, sec Petrie's Antiquities of Tara Hill, Patrick, or even in that of Rodanus, who 

page 101. was himself of the race of Oilioll Olum. 

* The Four Tribes of Tarn. — After the According to the genealogies of the saints, 

establishment of surnames these were the collected by the O'Clerighs, St. Ruadhan 

families of O'h-Airt (O'Harts), O'Riagain Lothra was the son of Fearghus Birn (not 

(O'Regans), O'Ceallaigh (O'Kellys) of Aengus, as above in the text), who was 

Breagh, and OConghalaigh(O'Connollys). son of Eochaidh, son of Deardubh, son of 

Sic Battle of Magh Rath, pp. 9, 10, and Daire Cearba, the ancestor of the family 

supra, p. 32, note'. of O'Donnabhain (O'Donovans), and the 

" Oftht race of Oilioll alum. — There is fourth in descent from Oilioll Olum. 

54 Ceabhcqi 

puijell beanbaccan Oe t)uinb, 
alcoip pdbpaic meic Cllppainb 57 . 

Caipil, — bo chmo op each chid 
ace pdopaic, ip 12 i na T2ino 
aipD-pi in oomain, ip TTIac t)e, — 
ace pin bleajaio a lino. 

Qn can nach pi ap 58 Gpinb am 
uipo-pi Caipil co n-a chain, 
ip leip baili 59 e&ip uill 
6 Qch Cliach co cijib t)uinb. 

Op bileap Dia olijeao oe 
pine alainb 60 Oppaibe, 
uaip cucaio a n-eapaic am 
do pij Caipil co n-a chain. 

C'lijeao do pi Caijean lonD 

each 61 ip cuipn co Caipil cpom, 
op acup lnbrhap cap muip 
ipeab oleajap 62 6 6aijnib. 

Oleajaib Caijm oula leo 

i n-ajaib ^ a ^ FP' gach gleo, 
Dia (o)-ci[a]pcap chucu, co ft pip, 
la pij Caipil a (5)-cop bib. 

t)lijib pein, pi Caipil chain, 

cpi ceao n-eabach ap S(h)amam, 
caeca each n-bub-£opm n-oaca, 
po comaip each ppim-ehacha 64 . 

Co peapaoap meic ip mna, 
uaip ip l n-a leach ica; 

* The place of great Eibhear (Heber), stating that Ireland was divided between 
i. e. the southern half of Ireland. See Keat- the two principal sons of Mileadh, " Here- 
in^, reign of Eireamhon (Heremon). O'Fla- mon" and " Heber ;" that "Heber" go- 
herty ( Ogygia, part iii. cap. 17), quotes verned the south of Ireland, and that 
Psaltair na-Bann, as a work written by " Heremon" enjoyed the north, with tb< 
Aenghus Ceilc De, in the eighth century, monarchy. 

na 5-Ceapr. 55 

The consequence of* the blessing of the Lord God, 
[And] of the altar of Patrick, son of Alprann. 

Caiseal, — which excels every head 

Except Patrick, and the King of the Stars 

The supreme-king of the world, and the Son of God, — 

To these [alone] its homage is due. 

When the supreme-king of Caiseal with his law 
Is not king of noble Eire, 
He owns the place of great Eibhear x 
From Ath Cliath to Donn's houses. 

Subject to his rights therefore 

[Arc] the beauteous tribe of the Osraidhe, 
For they were given as a noble eric y 
To the king of Caiseal with his law. 

Bound is the mighty king of Laighin [to render] 
Steeds and drinking-horns to sloping Caiseal; 
Gold and riches [brought] across the sea 2 
Are what is due from the Leinstermen. 

The Leinstermen are bound to go with them [the Munstermen] 
Against the Gaill (foreigners) in every battle, 
Should they [the foreigners] come to them, truly, 
The king of Caiseal is bound to drive them out from them. 

He himself, the king of fair Caiseal, is entitled 

To three hundred suits of raiment at Samhain [from Leinster], 
To fifty steeds of dark-grey color 
In preparation for every great battle. 

And it is known to children and women, 
For it is in their behalf this is ; 

! Eric, a fine. See in Harris's Edition vol. i. p. 380), says " it may be concluded, 

"I Ware's Antiquities, vol. ii. c. 11, p. 70, from the quality of some of the subsidiary 

the observations respecting " eric." presents made by the king of Minister to 

' Brought across the sen, i e. imported. his chieftains, that a foreign trade and 

Dr. O'Brien, in his Dissertations on the commerce was carried on in Ireland in 

Laws of the Ancient Irish (Vail. Collect. those days." 

56 Leabhap 

olijeao do each pij lap pin, 

ap a (o)-celcao 'n-a (o)-cipib fo . 

Qn ran pa pioach ppip 6eaeh 
inopi moipi mac lTlileao, 
0I1516 cam Connacc, cean cleich, 
ap a (b)-celj5a6 'n-a (o)-cpean 6eich f * 

Gpeao in oli^eao 67 , — ni 56, 
caeca oam lp 68 caeca bo, 
caeca each lp ampa a (b^paill 69 , 
ceac m-bpac do bpacaib Urhaill. 

O pa chpaipceaoap na nairh 

pop C(h)eampaij pochlaca, paip, 
oo piachc Do pi Caipil chpuinD 
beannacc p&cpaic 70 mic Qlppaino. 

Ni bia reach 1 (o)-Ueampaib Pail, — 
516 mop an oil o'lnip pail, — 
ic Caijin, nach ac pil Cum&, 
co n-oeapneap la cloino n-lulaim 71 . 

C16 maich m peanchap popp ou, 
ni leapaijcheap pe laijniu ; 

a Entitled to the tribute of Connacht, Maille. See further as to fJmhal and the 

i. e. when Leath Chuinn, orthe northern half clann TTihaille, in the Ui Fhiachrach, 

of Ireland, is at peace with the king of p. 43, note l , and p. 181, notes ', -i. 
Caiseal, the latter is entitled to receive c The blessing of Patrick — The writer 

tribute from the chiefs of Connacht. says, that after the cursing of Teamhair, 

b Umhall, a territory in the county of the blessing of St. Patrick was transferred 
Mayo, comprising the baronies of " Bur- to Caiseal, which had never been cursed, 
rishoole" and " Murresk." These two ter- He next insinuates that the race of Conn 
ritories are usually called " The Owles," would not be worthy to re-erect Team- 
by English writers, from their pronuncia- hair, and consequently that the race of 
tion of Umhall, viz., Oo-al. After the Olioll Olum, who would one day restore the 
establishment of surnames, the chief family royal seat, would become the dominant 
of Umhall took the surname of O'Maille, family of Ireland ; but this has not been 
not from the territory, as is supposed by granted, as the southern annalists do not 
some modern writers, but from an ancestor even pretend to have had any monarch 

na 5-Ceapr. 


Every other king is bound to pay in like manner 
For maintaining them in their territory. 

When at peace with him is the Half 

Of the great island of the sons of Mileadh, 

He is entitled to the tribute of Connacht a , without concealment, 

For maintaining them in their great Half [i. e. in Leath Chuinn]. 

"What they owe is, — [it is] no falsehood, 
Fifty oxen and fifty cows, 
Fifty steeds, costly their bridles, 
A hundred cloaks of the cloaks of UmhalP. 

Since the saints fasted 

Against the renowned, noble Teamhair, 
To the king of round Caiseal has come 
The blessing of Patrick , son of Alprann. 

There shall not be a house at Teamhair of Fal, — 
Though great the reproach," 1 to Inis Fail e , — 
With the Leinstermen, or the race of Conn, 
Until erected by the race of 01um f . 

Though good the history on which I am [engaged], 
It is not taught by the Leinstermen ; 

of the race of Olioll Olum after the pe- 
riod of the cursing, except Feidhlim Mac 
Criomhthainn and the renowned Brian 

A At Teamhair of Fal, \ O-UectmpaiO 
pail ; so called from its having the Lia 
Fail, which was preserved there. This has 
been translated "Stone of Fate," or " Des- 
tiny," on what authority deserves inquiry. 
The same word here rhymes or corresponds 
with itself in the same sense in this and the 
succeeding line. See p. 39, n. J. 

r Inis Fail.- — This was one of the an- 
cient names of Ireland, and it is said to 

have been derived from the Lia Fail. See 
Keating (Haliday's edition), p. llti; also 
Petrie's Antiquities of Tara Hill, p. 135. 

' Till they are erected by the race of 
Olvm, i. e., by the race of Olioll Olum, who 
were at that period the dominant family 
of Minister. This prophecy has not been 
fulfilled, but it is very likely that it was 
generally believed, in the time of Feidhlim 
Mac Criomhthainn, king of Caiseal, that 
the southern race would remove St. Ruadh- 
an's curse, and re-erect Teamhair, and the 
same opinion may have prevailed during 
the reign of Brian Borumha. 



(ii coimecap pe Ceach Cvmio, 
peanchup Gililla Uluim. 

Coirheopao-pa 1 (5)-Caipil chdid 
po pimchap a n-imapbaio 
do choiceab pail 72 puno pop leach 
lp a cupgnorii ap aen leach 71 . 

lp h-e in reach pin Wluriui mop, 
ip e in od chuiceao in ploj; 
ip a TTIuirhain mm, meao geall, 
ip coip dnb-plaichiup Gpeann. 

12ob be ich ip meap ip maich 
a rnumain min co meo patch; 
mio ip cuipn ip cuipm ip ceol 
oo peapaib TTIurhan ip eol. 

Pil cpi prja a 74 muriiam rhoip, 
a (5)-cdin oo Chaipil ni coip, 
pi ^abpdn, nd gabchap jeill, 
pi TCaichleano, pi Cacha Cein. 

B // is not preserved by Leath Chuinn, 
i. e. by the inhabitants of the northern half 
of Ireland. From these lines it is quite 
evident that the kings of the northern or 
southern Ui Neill, or those of Leinster, did 
i nit acknowledge the claim of the race of 
( llioll Olum to the sovereignty of Ire- 
land. Indeed, it appears that the contro- 
versy which took place between the bards of 
Ireland respecting the claims of the north- 
ern and southern Irish kings to supremacy 
and renown, about the beginning of the 
seventeenth century (when they were both 
prostrate), was but a continuation of dis- 
putes which had existed among them from 
the earliest ages. To sustain their argu- 
ments the Munster writers circulated va- 
rious stories about the bravery of their 

kings, such as Toraidheacht Cheallachain 
Chaisil, and other exaggerated tracts : but 
these, though used to support the bardic 
disputes, as if they were genuine history, 
must now be submitted to a sterner histo- 
ric test than appears to have been applied 
to them at that time. It would appear 
from Irish history that the northerns were 
generally more powerful (excepting only 
during the time of Brian Borumha), for 
they defeated the southerns in most of the 
great battles that had taken place between 
them, from the battle of Magh Leana 
(fought A. D. 192), in which Conn of 
the Hundred Battles defeated Eoghan Mor, 
the father of Olioll Olum, to the battle of 
Bealach Mughna (in 908), where Flann 
Sionna deflated Cormac Mac Cuilleanain! 

ncc 5-Ceapr. 59 

It is not preserved by Leath Chuinn 8 , 
The history of Oilioll Oluni. 

I shall preserve at sacred Caiseal 

All that is claimed in the controversy 

For the province in which this [palace] is exclusively, 

And it shall be collected into one house. 

That is the house of great Mumha (Munster), 

Those two provinces are the host ; 

It is in smooth Mumha, highly prized, 

That the supreme-sovereignty of Eire ought to be. 

There are corn and fruit 1 ' and goodness 
In smooth Mumha of much prosperity ; 
Mead and drinking-horns and ale and music 
To the men of Mumha are known. 

There are three kings in great Mumha, 
Whose tribute to Caiseal is not due, 

The king of Gabhran' 1 , whose hostages are not to be seized on, 
The king of Raithleann k , the king of Loch Lein 1 . 

In the year 1185 the comparative warlike (Ossory); vide supra, p. 17, n. g , p. 40, n. l . 

characteristics of those rival races of Leath k The king of Raithleann. — This was 

Mhogha and Leath Chuinn were described the name of the seat of O'Maghthambna 

as follows, in the partizan language of (O'Mahony), who, according to O'h-Uidh- 

Giraldus Cambrensis, who held both in rin, was chief of the Cineal m-Bece, whose 

abhorrence: "Sicut ergo Borealis Hiber- territory extended on both sides of the 

nhe bellica : sic semper Australia gens sub- river Bandain (Bandon). His territory was 

dola. Ilia laudis, haec fraudis cupida. Ilia erected into the barony of " Kinelmeaky." 

Martis, haec artis ope confisa. Ilia viribus In later ages a sept of the same tribe set- 

nititur, base versutiis. Ilia praeliis, haec tied in Corca Luighe, O'Driscoll's coun- 

procUtionibus." — Hib. Exp. lib. ii- c. 18. try, where they became masters of the 

h There are corn and fruit, frc, i.e. Cai- district called Fonn Iartharaeh, or the 

seal, which was blessed by St. Patrick, and western land, which comprised the parishes 

which is the palace of a righteous king of " Kilmoe," " Scool," " Kilcrobane," 

entitled to the monarchy of Ireland, is the " Durris," " Kilmaconoge," and " Cahe- 

source and fountain of all prosperity, luck, ragh," in the south-west of the county of 

and affluence to the men of Munster. Cork. 

1 Tlir king of Gabhran, i. e. of Osraidhe ' T/it king of Loch Liin. — The ancient 

60 Cectbliap 

No ppieh i paleaip t)e t)ein, 
peach ni chuilleao 75 nl beibel, 
6 lnic co Caipc, — ni chel, 
a (jr^-Cuipil po baj 6enean. 

t)dl Caip ni pobao ll-lean, 
po £abpub pe FP u, r F'P"^ n 
bo pab co h-ilapoa, cpean, 
eijjeapna 'c-a m-bai in 6enean. . . . [6GNeCiN]. 

f-eapai^eab Sealbach [po] in pai, 
acup Qen^up, ap aen cat, 
pochap lTluriian, map ao beap, 
umail po pacaib 76 6enean 6[GNGQN]. 

C1SQ ITIuman ap meaoon beop ano po bo Chaipil, acup lp each 
bliaona bo beapap .1. pmachc i biaehab -\ eupjnurh 77 -| paeparh. 

Cpi dear mapc cheabamup a TTIupcpaibi, i cpi ceab cope acup 
cpi ceab bo, [no ceab bpac acup ceao bo]. 

Upi ceao cope i cpi ceab leano -| ceao luljach 6 Uuichnib 
atib pin. 

Ceac bo -\ epicha cope -\ epicha mapc -| epicha bpac a h-dpaib 
inb pin. 

Seapcac barin -| peapcac mole -\ peapcac bo 6'r\ c-Seachcmab 

Caeca bo -\ caeca bam -\ caeca mapc 6 h-Opbpaioib inn pinn. 

Upi chaeca bam, cpi chaeca luljach 6 t)(h)aippine beop 78 . 

Upicha bo i epicha bam -| epicha bpac 6 Copco Duibne. 

[Se ceab bo, pe ceab oath, pe ceao cpanab a Ciappaibi]. 

Seache (^-ceac bpac, peace (5)-ceac mole, peachc (5)-ceac 
bo, peachc (5)-ceae cpanao 6 Chopco 6aipcinb. 

chiefs who were seated at Loch Lein were reduced these and other families of the race 

of the family of O'Cearbhoill (O'Carrolls,) of Conaire Mor, and erected a new terri- 

of the race of Aedh Beannan, king of tory, to which was given the name of 

Minister ; but the family of O'Donnchadha Eoghanacht Locha Lein, and afterwards 

(O'Donohocs), who were originally seated Eoghanacht Ui Donnchadha, anglicized 

in the plain of Caiseal, settled at Loch Lein Onagh-I-Donohoe. 

(the Lake of Killarney), and dispossessed or '" Sealbhach the sage — He was a Mun- 

na 5-Ceapc. 61 

There was found in the psalter of the God of Purity, 
It was neither more nor less, 

That from Shrovetide to Easter, — I shall not conceal it, 
At Caiseal Benean remained. 

The Dal Chais were not in grief, 
They followed a host of holy men 
Given to them copiously, mightily, 
By the lord with whom Benean was BENEAN. 

Let Sealbhach the sage m preserve, 
And Aenghus n , in the same manner, 
The privileges of Mumha, as I say, 
As Benean left [them] BENEAN. 

THE TRIBUTES of Mumha in general further here to Caiseal, and 
it is every year they are rendered, i. e., submission and refection and 
attendance and provision. 

In the first place, three hundred beeves from the Muscraidhe, and 
three hundred hogs and three hundred cows, or a hundred cloaks and 
a hundred coics. 

Three hundred hogs and three hundred mantles and a hundred 
milch-cows from the men of Uaithne. 

A hundred cows and thirty hogs and thirty beeves and thirty 
cloaks from the men of Ara. 

Sixty oxen and sixty wethers and sixty cows from the Seachtmhadh. 

Fifty cows and fifty oxen and fifty beeves from the Orbhraidhe 

Three times fifty oxen, three times fifty milch-cows from the Dair- 
f hine moreover. 

Thirty cows and thirty oxen and thirty cloaks from Corca 

Six hundred cows, six hundred oxen, six hundred sows from the 

Seven hundred cloaks, seven hundred wethers, seven hundred cows, 
seven hundred sows from Corca Bhaiscinn. 

ster poet who was contemporary with the See O'Reilly's Irish writers, p. 61. 
famous Cormac Mac Cuilleanain, king of u Aenghus — See the Introduction, and 

Mumha (Munsier), and Bishop of Caiseal. p. ii3, note". 

62 Ceabhccji 

Ceo caepuch i ceac cpdnab -\ beich (5)-ceac bam -| beich 
(5)-ceac bpac 79 6 C(h)opcampuao. 

TDili bam i mill caepach -| mill bpac i mill luljach 6 na Oepib. 

Ceo bo a h-Opbpaioi -| ceac bpac pinb -\ ceac cpdna6. 

Hi icaio Gojanacc nach cip, dp 80 if leo na peapinba po^naib 
Caipil 81 . Mi fcaib clanba Caip, no "Raichlinb 92 , no a ^leanb Gmam, 
no a £,ochaib Cein, no a h-Uib pijinnci, no a h-Qine Cliach; conao 
aipi-pin ab beapc in bap buaoa 6enen in ouain 93 : 

CIS CaiSIC in cualabaip 
b'd 84 cupaib 6 chdch? 
a (b)uibni 'c-d m-buan pdjail 
each bliabain co bpdeh 84 . 

Upi ceac mapc a TTIupcpaibi 
ap jupc, — nocho 56, 
cpi ceac cope, nach cupcbuibi, 
ceac bpac ip ceac bo. 

Upi chec cope 6 Uaichnib s6 
00 Chaipiul can choll; 
cpi ceac leanb, ip Ian puaichnij, 
la ceac luljach lono. 

Cpicha cope nd copjabaib, 
epicha mapc ip mop, 
epicha bpac 6 bopb Gpaib, 
ceac n-65-bo 01a n-6l. 

Seapca oam ppi bdij-peachcmain, 
peapca copp-molc ciap, 
peapca glan bo o^n glan c-Seachcmao 
bo Chaipil na cliap. 

" The tribute of Caiseal The tributes these for the support of his household, and 

here mentioned are different from those also of his troops, in time of war. 
mentioned in the first poem. The first v Museraidhe. — See p. 42, note !', supra. 

were, probably, for the support of the 1 Vaithne. — See p. 45, note x , supra. 

king's household in time of peace; and r Ara — Seep. 4G, note y, supra. 

na 5-Ceapc. 63 

A hundred sheep and a hundred sows and ten hundred oxen and 
ten hundred cloaks from Coreamruadh. 

A thousand oxen and a thousand sheep and a thousand cloaks 
and a thousand milch-cows from the Deise. 

A hundred cows from the Orbhraidhe, and a hundred Avhite cloaks, 
and a hundred sows. 

The Eoghanachts pay no tribute, for theirs are the lands which 
serve Caiseal. The Clanna Chais, or [the people] of Raithleann, or of 
Gleann Amhain, or of Locha Lein, or of the Ui Fhighinnte, or of Aine 
Cliach, pay no tribute; concerning which the highly-gifted son, Benean, 
composed this poem : 

For its heroes from all? 
Its troops constantly receive them 
Every year for ever. 

Three hundred beeves from the Muscraidhe p 
On the field, — 'tis no falsehood, 
Three hundred hogs, not fit for journeying, 
A hundred cloaks and a hundred cows. 

Three hundred hogs from the men of Uaithne q 
To Caiseal without failure; 
Three hundred mantles, all variegated, 
"With a hundred strong milch-cows. 

Thirty hogs which are not able to rise, 
Thirty beeves which are large, 
Thirty cloaks from the fierce men of Ara r , 
A hundred young cows for [the sake of] drinking [their milk]. 

Sixty oxen for a good week's [feast], 
Sixty smooth black wethers, 
Sixty fine cows from the fine Seachtmhadh s 
For Caiseal of the companies. 

5 Seachtmhadh See p. 49, note', supra. are mentioned in an order in this, different 

Here it will be observed that the territories from that used in the first poem. 



Caeca an bo a h-Opbpai6i, 
caeca mupc pia 97 meap, 
caeca oarh can oobbuioi 
do Chaipil cean cheap. 

Upi cheo oarh 6 t)(h)aippine, 
6'n oaim-pea o'a b-(c)op, 
pe ceac lul^ach, Ian buib] ss , 
6 clanbaib TTlec-con. 

Cpicha cap bpar, ceac-(p)uaici 89 , 
ip copcaip nop 90 cum, 
cpica Oaj bo a Duibneachaib, 
cpica oarh a Dpuing 91 . 

Seachc (j)-ceac cpain 92 a Ciappaibi, 
peachc (£)-ceac bo, — ni bpeaj, 
peachc (j)-ceac oarh a oiarh ooipib 9J 
oo Chaipil na (^)-ceaz. 

Seachc (j)-ceac bpac 6 6(h)aipcneachaib, 
peachc (j)-ceac mole, nach mael, 
peachc (£)-ceac bo 6 94 buip-ceachaib, 
peachc (g)-ceac cpain 95 , nach cael. 

t)leajap a cpich Copcampuab, 
ceac caepach, ceac cpan, 
beich (j)-ceac oarh a oonn 6oipinb, 
mill bpac, nach ban. 

I Orbkraidhe, Opbpaibe in the text, 
but always now Opbpaioe, and anglice 
Orrery, a barony in the north-west of the 
county of Cork. The tribe who gave their 
name to this territory were descended from 
Fereidheach, the son of Fearghus, king of 
Uladh (Ulster), in the first century. See 
O'Flaherty's Ogygia, part iii. c. 46. This 
territory is not mentioned in the first poem. 

II Dairfhine — This was one of the tribe- 

names of the family of O'h-Eidirsceoil 
(O'Driscolls), and their correlatives, who 
possessed a territory co-extensive with the 
diocese of " Ross," in the south-west of the 
county of Cork. In the first poem they 
are called Corca Luighe. See p. 46, note a , 

"Mac-con. — He was Lughaidh Mac-con, 
who became monarch of Ireland in the 
year 2.50. He was the head of the Corca 

na 5-Ceapc. 65 

Fifty fine cows from the Orbhraidhe 1 , 
Fifty beeves to be estimated, 
Fifty oxen without staggering, 
To Caiseal without sorrow. 

Three hundred oxen from Dairfhine" 
From this sept to their lord, 
Six hundred milch-cows, right good, 
From the septs of Mac-con v . 

Thirty napped cloaks with the first sewing 
Which are trimmed with purple ; 
Thirty good cows from the men of Duibhneach w , 
Thirty oxen from Drung. 

Seven hundred sows from the Ciarraidhe*, 
Seven hundred cows, — no falsehood ; 
Seven hundred oxen from the gloomy oak forests, 
From Caiseal of the hundreds. 

Seven hundred cloaks from the men of Baiscneach y , 
Seven hundred wethers, not hornless, 
Seven hundred cows from their cowsheds, 
Seven hundred sows, not slender. 

There are due from the country of Corcumruadh* 
A hundred sheep, a hundred sows, 
Ten hundred oxen from brown Boirinn, 
A thousand cloaks, not white. 

Luighe or Dairfhine, and the ancestor of century. The country of Corcumruadh, 

O'h-Eidirsceoil. See last note. as can be proved from various authorities, 

w Duibhneach, i. e. from the Corca Duibh- was co-extensive with the diocese of " Kil- 

ne in Kerry. See p. 47, note e , supra. fenora," and comprised the present baronies 

* Ciarraidhe See p. 48, note f , supra. of " Corcomroe" and " Burren," in the 

? Baiscneach See p. 48, note e, supra. county of Clare. After the establishment 

1 Corcumruadh., i. e. the descendants of surnames, the two chieftains and rival 

of Modh Ruadh, the third son of Fearghus, families of this race took the surnames of 

dethroned king of Ulster, by Meadhbh O'Conchobhair (O'Conor), and O'Lochlainn 

(Mauda), queen of Connacht in the first (O'Loughlin), and in course of time divided 




Oeich (j)-c6ac Dam a t)eipeachaib, 
mill caepach caerii, 
mill bpac co m-bdn chopaip, 
mill bo ap m-bpeich laej. 

Cec 6 peapaib Opbpaioi 
oo Buaib beapchap 06; 
ceac bpac pino co pino Chaipil, 
ceac cpdnao ppi* cpo. 

Ni 00 olea^ap 97 bo Go^anacc cip 
na bep co bpap, 
dp lp leo na peapmoa 
pojnaio* Caipil cap. 

[Ni oli£ ou clannaib Caip 
cip Caipil na (j)-cuan; 
ni 0I15 a ^lenn Gmain, 
naca TCaiclinn puao.] 

Ni oleajap" 6 laechaib Cem 
nach a ^aBaip jaipj, 
ni olea^ap o' (U)ib Pioinci 
nacha a h-Qine dipo. 

the territory equally between them, O'Co- 
nor, the senior, retaining the western por- 
tion, which still retains the original name, 
and O'Lochlainn the eastern portion, which 
from its rocky surface is called Boirinn 
(Anglice Burren, or Burrin). The territory 
of Corcumruadh is omitted in the first 
poem, but it is probable that Boirinn is sub- 
stituted for it, in the same way as Dairbhre 
is put for Corca Dhuibhne. 

a Deise — See p. 49, note k , supra. 

b Orbhraidhe, already mentioned in this 
poem, p. 64, note \ supra. 

c The Eoghanachts. — These were the 
descendants of Eoghan Mor, the eldest son 

of Oilioll Olum, and ancestor of the family 
of Mac Carthaigh (Mac Carthys) and their 
correlatives, in south Minister. See O'Fla- 
herty's Ogygia, p. iii. c. 67. Dr. O'Brien 
(Vail. Collect, p. 384), says that "all the 
tribes descended from Oilioll Olum by his 
three sous, Eoghan Mor, Cormac Cas, and 
Cian, were considered as free states, ex- 
empted from the payment of annual tribute 
for the support of the king's household." 

d That serve Caiseal, i. e. that supply 
forces to assist the king in his wars at their 
own expense. 

e Heroes of Lein, i. e. of Loch Lein 
(Lake of Killarney). 

na 5-Cecqir;. 


Ten hundred oxen from the Deise a , 
A thousand fine sheep, 
A thousand cloaks with white borders, 
A thousand cows after calving. 

A hundred from the men of the Orbhraidhe h 
Of cows are given to him ; 
A hundred white cloaks to fair Caiseal, 
A hundred sows for the sty. 

The Eoghanachts c owe to him no tribute 
Nor custom readily, 
For to them belong the lands 
Which serve fair Caiseal d . 

The clann of Cas are not liable 

To the tribute of Caiseal of the companies: 
It is not due from Gleann Amhain 
Nor from red Eaithlinn. 

No tribute is due of the heroes of Lein e 
Nor of the fierce Gabhair f : 
No tribute is due of the Ui Fidhgheinte 8 
Nor of the noble Aine h . 

1 Gabhair, i. e. of Gabhran. See p. 40, 
note ', supra. 

S The Ui Fidhgheinte The people who 

bore this appellation possessed that portion 
of the county of Limerick lying to the west 
of the River Maigh (Maigue), besides the 
barony of " Coshma'' in the same county. 
In the time of Mathghamhain (Mahon), 
king of Munster, and his brother Brian 
B-orumha, Donnobhan (Donovan), the pro- 
genitor of the family of 0' Donovan, was 
called king of this territory, but his race 
were driven from these plains by the Fitz- 
geralds, Burkes, and O'Briens, a few years 
anterior to 1201, when Amblaoibh O Don- 

nobhain (Auliffe O'Donovan) was seated 
in Cairbre in the county of Cork, having 
a few years before effected a settlement 
there among the tribe of 0' h-Eidir- 
sceoil (O'Driscolls) by force of arms. These 
people were exempt from tribute as being 
the seniors of the " Eugenian" line, being 
descended from Daire Cearba, the grand- 
father of the great monarch Criomhthann 
Mor Mac Fidhaigh. See O'Flaherty's 
Ogygia, pp. 380, 381, and Cath Mhuighe 
Rath, pp. 338-340, note s. 

h Aine, i. e. of Eoghanacht Aine, situate 
around " Knockany", Limerick, the chief 
of which was O'Ciarmhaic (Kirby). 


68 Uabhcqi 

Sochap maipeach mop Chaipil 
meampaio leue cac mip; 
ni muc ap beino TTlumaine 
nech co caingne cip." CIS. 

ITIipi 6enen binopoclach, 
bap buaoa map Bip, 
puapip, a cpeib m^aneaij, 
oo Chaipil a chip CIS CdlSlfc. 

r"UQRQSU^Q pi£ Caipil oo pi^aib a ehuaeh : 

Q leaeldm cheaoup, acup oeich n-eich acup oeicb n-eppijacup 

od pdlaij acup od pichhall oo pij Odil Caip; acup copacb laip a 

(5)-cptch anechtaip, acup lope lap (g)-cdch. 

t)eich n-eich acup oeich (5)-cuipn acup oeicb (5)-clai6ib acup 

oeicb pceie acup oeicb pcinji acup od pdlaij acup od piehchill oo 

p's 5 a °P" ,n inD r in * 

Oeich n-eich acup oeich mooaij acup oeich mnd acup oeich 
(j)-cuipn oo pij Gojanacc in ran nach pi Caipil. 

Ochc moouio acup oce mnd acup ochc (5)-clai6im acup ochc 
n-jabpa acup ochc pceirh acup oeich longa oo pij na (n)-tDepi. 

Coic eich acup coic macail acup cuic cuipnn acup cuic claioim 
oo pij h-Ua Ciaehdin. 

Oeich n-eic acup oeich (^)-cuipn acup oeich pceich acup oeich 
(5)-clai6ib acup oeich luipeacha oo pij Raiehleano. 

Seachc n-eich acup peachc n-inaip acup peace (j)-coin acup 
pechc luipeacha oo pij Ulupcpaici. 

Seachc (jj-claioim acup peachc (j)-cuipn acup peachc luip- 
eacha acup pechc lonja acup pechc n-eich oo pij Oaippine. 

Seachc (5)-coin acup peace n-eich acup peachc (5)-cuipn oo pij 
t)aippine in c-(p)leibi. 

Seachc n-eich acup peachc (g)-cuipn acup peachc (5)-clai6ib 
acup peace pceich acup peachc (5)-coin oo pi Cacha £em. 

Seachc mnd acup peachc macail co n-6p, acup peachc (;c)-cuipn 
acup pechc n-eich oo pij Ciappaioi 6uachpa. 

Seachc n-eich acup pechc pceich acup pechc (;$)-clai6ib acup 
pechc lonja acup pechc luipeacha oo pi Ceimi in Chon. 

na 5-Ceaiic. 09 

The goodly income of great Caiseal 
Remember thou every month ; 
No one is a son on the lap of Mumha 
Until he exacts tribute THE TRIBUTE. 

I am Benean the sweet- worded, 
Gifted son as I was, 
I have discovered, oh wonderful tribe, 
For Caiseal its tribute THE TRIBUTE OF CAISEAL. 

THE STIPENDS of the king of Caiseal to the kings of his terri- 
tories : 

A seat by his side in the first place, and ten steeds and ten dresses 
and two rings and two chess-boards to the king of Dal Chais; and to go 
with him in the van to an external country, and follow in the rear of 
all on his return. 

Ten steeds and ten drinking-horns and ten swords and ten shields and 
ten scings and two rings and two chess-boards to the king of Gabhran. 

Ten steeds and ten bondmen and ten women and ten drinking-horns 
to the king of the Eoghanachts when he is not king of Caiseal. 

Eight bondmen and eight women and eight swords and eight horses 
and eight shields and ten ships to the king of the Deise. 

Five steeds and five matals and five drinking-horns and five swords 
to the king of Ui Liathain. 

Ten steeds and ten drinking-horns and ten shields and ten swords 
and ten coats of mail to the king of Raithlinn. 

Seven steeds and seven tunics and seven hounds and seven coats 
of mail to the king of the Muscraidhe. 

Seven swords and seven drinking-horns and seven coats of mail 
and seven ships and seven steeds to the king of Dairfhine. 

Seven hounds and seven steeds and seven drinking-horns to the 
king of Dairfhine of the mountain. 

Seven steeds and seven drinking-horns and seven swords and seven 
shields and seven hounds to the king of Loch Lein. 

Seven women and seven matals [trimmed] with gold, and seven 
drinking-horns and seven steeds to the king of the Ciarraidhe Luaclna. 

Seven steeds and seven shields and seven swords and seven ships 
and seven coats of mail to the king of Leim na Con. 

70 Ceabhaji 

t)eich n-eich do pij h-Ua Conaill ^abpa, acup oeich pceich acup 
oeich (5)-cluioib acup oeich (£)-cuipn; acup jan jiallu uao ace 
luju po lairh pij Caipil. 

Sechc n-eich do pij h-Ua Caipppi, acuppeachc (£)-cuipno acup 
peachc (5)-clai6irh acup pechc n-gilla acup peachc mojaioh. 

Ochc (5)-cuipnn oo chupaio Cliach, acup ochc (5)-claioirh acup 
ochc n-eich, od pdlaij acup od pichchill. 

Seachc n-eich acup peachc (j)-cuipnn acup pechc pceich acup 
pechc (5)-claioirh oo pij ^leano Grhnach. 

Ochc n-eich acup ochc (5)-claioirh acup ochc (;r)-cuipn, la 
gpdoaib placha acup dipo-pi j, oo pi£ na n-Uaichni. 

Ochc n-eich oo pij Gill, ochc pceich acup ochc (5)-clai6irh acup 
ochc (5)-cuipn acup ochc luipeacha. 

Ice pin cuapipcal na pij, amail ao peo in pili, .1. 6enen : 

a eo^ai^ murhciN moipi, 

mapuo cuiriineach canoine, 
eipij, lp leapaij 'n-a chij 
ceapc pij Caipil 6 chpichaib. 

Uopach laip 1 (o)-cip n-aili 
la pi Odl Caip — ni cede; 
lopg na pij Odil Caip in ceoil, 
ic caioeacc 1 epich n-aineoil. 

Oeich n-eich 00 pij ^abpdin 5-uipm 
6 pij Odla, acup oeich (5)-cuipn, 
oeich (5)-claioirh, oeich pceich, oeich pcinj, 
bd Falaij lp od pichchill. 

i The first with him, i. e. to lead the van. m Two rings and two chess-boards 

J Dal Chais, i. e. the families of O'Briain Dr. O'Brien renders this " two cloaks and 

(O'Briens), Mac Maghthamhna (Mac Ma- two suits of military array" ( Collectan. p. 

hons), Mac Conmara (Mac Namara), 375); and in his Irish Dictionary he ex- 

O'Deaghaidh (O'Deas), O'Cuinn (O'Quins), plains Fithcheal, "a full or complete ar- 

and their correlatives in the county of Clare. mour, consisting of corslet, helmet, shield, 

k King of Gabhran See p. 40, note '. buckler, and boots," &c. But this meaning 

1 Tenscings Sging, "part of the trap- of the word seems drawn merely from the 

pings of a horse." — O'Reilly's Ir. Diet. stores of his own imagination, as it never 

na 5-Ceapc. 71 

Ten steeds to the king of Ui Chonaill Ghabhra, and ten shields and 
ten swords and ten drinking-horns ; and no hostage [is asked] from 
him except to swear by the hand of the king of Caiseal. 

Seven steeds to the king of Ui Chairbre, and seven drinking-horns 
and seven swords and seven serving-youths and seven bondmen. 

Eight drinking-horns to the hero [king] of Cliach, and eight swords 
and eight steeds, two rings and two chess-boards. 

Seven steeds and seven drinking-horns and seven shields and seven 
swords to the king of Gleann Amhnach. 

Eight steeds and eight swords and eight drinking-horns, with the 
office [of chief officer of trust] of a sovereign and monarch, to the king 
of the men of Uaithne. 

Eight steeds to the king of Eile, eight shields and eight swords 
and eight drinking-horns and eight coats of mail. 

Such are the stipends of the kings, as the poet said, i. e. Benean : 

If ye are mindful of the canon, 
Arise, and proclaim in his house 
The right of the king of Caiseal from his territories. 

The first with him' into another country 

Belongs to the king of Dal ChaisJ — I will not conceal it ; 

To take the rear of the king belongs to the Dal Chais of music, 

On coming from a strange land. 

Ten steeds to the king of blue Gabhran k 

From the king of Dala, and ten drinking-horns, 
Ten swords, ten shields, ten scings 1 , 
Two rings and two chess-boards 1 ". 

bore any meaning among the ancient or meaning for piCceall, namely, a "phi- 
modern Irish, but a chess-board of a qua- losopher," a meaning which he inferred 
drangular form, marked with black and from Cormac's conjectural derivation of the 
white spots. See Cormac's Glossary, in term, which states that the black and white 
voce. O'Reilly, who copies O'Brien ver- spo ts on the board had a mystical signi- 
batim in too many of his explanations, has fieation. — See the passage from Cormac. 
avoided this, but he gives us an additional cited p. 35, note ", supra. 



Oeich mo6ai6, oeich mna mopa 
acup oeich (j)-cuipn chorhola, 
menib leip Caipil nu (j)-cachr, 
oeich n-eich oo pij Gojunacc. 

Ochr mooaio, ochc mnd oonoa 
do pij t)epi, lp oeich lonja, 
ochc pceich, ochc (5)-clai6irh p6 5U111, 
ip ochr n-jubpa rap jlap-muip. 

Cuic eich, cuic macail co n-6p, 
acup cuic cuipn pe coiiiol, 
ciiic claioirh pe cop each aip 
00 pij laechoa h-Ua Ciachain. 

Oeich n-eich 00 pi£ Raichlecmo puaio, 
oeich (j)-cuipn 6 pij Caipil chpucuo, 

n Ten horns, Sfc Dr. O'Brien trans- 
lates this " ten golden cups," but " golden" 
is added by himself. 

Unless Caiseal belong to him, i. e. 
when the king of Caiseal was of the Dal 
Chais. According to the Will of Oilioll Okun, 
the kings of Caiseal were to be alternately- 
elected from the descendants of his sons, 
Eoghan Mor and Cormac Cas. In the early 
ages the stock of Mac Carthaigh (the Mac 
Cartkys), O'Ceallachain (the O'Callagh- 
ans), and O'Donnchadha (the O'Dono- 
hoes), were the chiefs of Eoghanacht 
Chaisil; but immediately before the Eng- 
lish invasion the tribe of Mac Carthaigh 
were by far the most powerful of all the 
Eoghanachts. Dr. O'Brien says that " the 
O'Donoghoes of Eoghanacht Chaisil were 
of a different stock from those of Loch 
Lein" (Collectan. vol. i. p. 375); but in 
this he is undoubtedly mistaken, for the 
family of O'Donnchadha (O'Donoghoes) of 
Ixich Lein were the most royal family of 

that name in Munster, for their ancestor, 
Dnbh-da-bhoireann, who was slain in 957, 
was king of Minister, and his son Domh- 
nall commanded the forces of south Mun- 
ster (Desmond) at the battle of Cluain- 
tarbh, in 1014. 

p Deise — See p. 49, note k , and p. 66, 
note a , supra. It will again be observed 
that ships are presented to the chiefs of ter- 
ritories verging on the sea. 

t Across the sea, i. e. imported. See p. 
55, note z . 

r With gold, i. e. ornamented with gold. 
O'Brien makes this "a sword and shield 
of the king's own wearing, one horse richly 
accoutred, and one embroidered cloak." — 
( Collect, vol. i. p. 378). There does not seem 
to be anything to warrant this translation. 

s Ui Licit hain. — This tribe derived their 
name and origin from Eochaidh Liatha- 
nach, the son of Daire Cearba. After the 
establishment of surnames, O'Liathain and 
0' h-Anmchadha were the chief families of 

na 5-Ceajic. 


Ten bondmen, ten large women 
And ten horns for carousing", 
Unless Caiseal of the prisons belong to him , 
Ten steeds to the king of the Eoghanachts. 

Eight bondmen, eight brown-haired women 
To the king of the Deise p , and ten ships, 
Eight shields, eight swords for wounding, 
And eight horses [brought] across the green sea q . 

Five steeds, five matals with gold 1 ", 
And five horns for carousing, 
Five swords for all slaughter 
To the heroic king of Ui Liathain s . 

Ten steeds to the king of red Eaithlinn 1 , 

Ten drinking-horns from the king of hardy Caiseal, 

this tribe. After the English invasion their 
territory was granted to Kobert Fitzste- 
phen, who granted it to Philip de Barry, 
as appears from the confirmation charter 
of king John, who, in the eighth year of his 
reign, confirmed to William de Barry, the 
son and heir of this Philip, "the three 
cantreds of Olethan, Muscherie-Dunegan, 
and Killede." Now, we leam from Giral- 
dus (Hib. Exp. lib. ii. c. 18, 19) that when 
Fitzstephen and Milo de Cogan came to 
a partition, by lot, of the seven cantreds 
granted them by Henry II., the three can- 
treds to the east of the city of Cork fell to 
Fitzstephen, and the four to the west fell 
to the lot of De Cogan. We know also 
from Irish history, that the present village 
of Castle-Lyons, or Caislean Ui Liathain, a nd 
the island called Oilean mor ArdaNeimhidh, 
now the " Great Island," near Cork, were in 
l'i Liathain, which gives us a good idea of 
its position and even extent, and from these 
facts we may infer with certainty that the 

three cantreds confirmed by King John, 
namely, "Olethan, Muscherie-Dunegan, 
and Killede," are included in the baronies 
of " Barryrnore," ' ' Kinatalloon," and " Imo- 
killy," in the county of Cork, and " Cosh- 
more" and " Coshbride" in that of Water- 
ford. Harris asserts, in his edition of 
Ware's Antiquities, p. 50, that "Hy-Lia- 
thain is a territory in the south of the 
county of Waterford, in the barony of De- 
cies, on the sea coast, opposite to Youghal. 
But this is unworthy of Han-is, who ought 
to have known that " Olethan," which be- 
longed first, after the Anglo-Norman inva- 
sion, to Fitzstephen, and passed from him 
to Barry, was not on the east side of the 
river of Eochaill (Youghall), but on the 
west, for in the charter of Henry II. to 
Robert Fitzstephen and Milo de Cogan, he 
giants them the lands "as far as the water 
near Lismore, which runs between Lismore 
and Cork." 

1 King of Ruithlinn. — See p. 59, note k . 

74 Leabhaji 

oeich pceich, oeich (5)-clai6irh chalma, 
oeich luipeacha Idn baoba. 

Seachc n-eich, peachc n-maip oeapja, 
peachc (j)-coin pe caichim pealja, 
peachc luipeacha 1I-I6 jailli 
oo'n pip p'd m-btao TTlupcpaioi. 

Seachc (5)-clai6irh, peachc (j)-cuipn chama, 
peace luipeacha, pechc lonja, 
peachc n-eich ppi paijine peapc 
do pij t)aippine in oepceapc. 

Seachc (^)-coin ppi copao n-dioi, 
peace n-eich, a n-dipeavh n-aile, 
pechc (5)-cuipn ppi caicheajh pepi 
Oo pij Daipbpi in oai£ pleibi. 

Seachc n-eieh oo pij; 6acha 6£in, 

pechc (5)-cuipn, pechc (5)-claioirh oo cen, 
peachc pceich, a n-dipearii n-uaeaio, 
peachc (£)-coin dilli a n-Ippluachaip. 

Seachc macail co m-buinoib o'op, 
acup peachc (;$)-cuipno ppi corhol, 
peachc n-eich, ni h-iapmcupi oaill, 
oo pij Ciappaioi in choriilaino. 

Seachc n-eich oo laech in 6eimi, 
peachc pceich co peach na jpeni, 
peace (5)-clai6riu cpoma caeha, 
peace longa, peachc luipeacha. 

u Muscraidhe — See p. 42, note v , supra. graphical poem, this territory is called Ur- 

v Dairfhine — See p. 46, note z , on Corca luachair, and the country of O'Caoimh 

Luighe, and p. 64, note u , supra. (O'Keeffe). Its position is marked by the 

w Dairbhre. — This shoidd be Dairfhine. crown lands of "Pobble O'Keeffe," situate 

See p. 47, note e , supra. in the barony of " Duhallow," on the con- 

x Loch Lein — See p. 59, note ', supra. fines of the counties of Cork, Limerick, 

- v Irrluachair — In O'h-Uidhrin's topo- and Kerry, and containing about 9,000 

ncc 5-Ceapc. 75 

Ten shields, ten swords fit for war, 
Ten coats of mail full strong. 

Seven steeds, seven red tunics, 

Seven hounds for the purpose of the chase, 

Seven coats of mail for the day of valour 

To the man under whom are the Muscraidhe u . 

Seven swords, seven curved drinking-horns, 
Seven coats of mail, seven ships, 
Seven steeds bounding over hills 
To the king of Dairf hine v in the south. 

Seven hounds to chase down stags, 
Seven steeds, in another enumeration, 
Seven drinking-horns for the banquet 
To the king of Dairbhre w (Dairfhine) of the good mountain. 

Seven steeds to the king of Loch Lein x , 

Seven drinking-horns, seven swords [imported] from afar, 
Seven shields, at the smallest reckoning, 
Seven beautiful hounds in Irrluachair y . 

Seven matals with ring-clasps of gold, 
And seven horns for carousing, 
Seven steeds, not used to falter, 
To the king of the Ciarraidhe z of the combat. 

Seven steeds to the hero of the Leap a , 

Seven shields with the brightness of the sun, 
Seven curved swords of battle, 
Seven ships, seven coats of mail. 

statute acres ; but this territory was origi- z Ciarraidhe See p. 48, note f , supra. 

rally much more extensive, for we learn a Hero of the Leap, i. e. king of Corca 

from Cormac's Glossary, in voce, that the Bhaiscinn. He was so called from Leim 

mountains called Da Chioch Danann, now Chonchulainn, now Loop-head (rectius 

"the Pap mountains," were in this terri- Leap-head), the south-western extremity of 

ton-. See also Keating's History of Ireland, his territory. Dr. O'Brien asserts, that 

Holiday's Edit. p. 204. the Leim here referred to is " Leim Con in 



Se h-eich do pij Copcampuao, 
pe claioriii pe cippab pluaj, 
pe cuipn, pe pceich po geba, 
pe coin ailli, aen-jelu. 

t)eich n-eich bo pij h-Ua n-^abpa, 

oeich pceich, oeich (5)-clcuoirh chalma, 
oeich (jrj-cuipn 'n-a bun po oeriie, 
cean geill uao, cean eicepi. 

Seachc n-eich oo pij frpoga-pij, 
peachc (5)-cuipn ap a n-eba pin, 
pechc (5)-claioini, lp cop popaio, 
peachc n-gilla, pechc m-ban mojaio. 

the west of Carberry, of which O'Driscoll 
oge was chief."— ( Collect, vol. i. p. 379). 
But in this he is unquestionably wrong, 
for the people next mentioned are the Cor- 
cumruadh adjoining Corca Bhaiscinn on 
the north. See p. 48, note t r , supra, and 
p. 85, note z , infra. 

b Corcumruadh (Corcomroe) See p. 

65, note z , supra. 

c Ui Ghabhra, i.e. the Ui Chonail Ghabh- 
ra, now the baronies of Conillo, in the west 
of the county of Limerick. After the estab - 
lishment of surnames, the chief families of 
this race took the names of O'Coileain (Col- 
lins), O'Cinfhaelaidh (Kinealy), O'Flann- 
abhra(Flannery), and Mac Inneirghe (Mac 
Eniry). Dr. O'Brien says, (Collect, vol. i. 
p. 377), " that Mac Ennery and O'Sheehan 
of this race were descended fromMahon, an 
elder brother of Brian Borumha.'' But for 
this he had not sufficient authority, for, ac- 
cording to the pedigrees of the Ui Fidhgheinte 
(given in the Books of Leacan, and Baile- 
an-mhota, and by Dubhaltach Mac Firbi- 
sigh), and in O'h-Uidhrin's topographical 
poem, Mac Inneirghe is set down as chief of 

Corca Mhuichet, a sept of the Ui Fidhgheinte ; 
and the parish of " Castletown Mac Eniry" 
in the south of the county of Limerick, 
where he resided, is still called Corca Mhui- 
chet. The same inaccurate writer asserts 
in his Irish Dictionary, voce Conall, that 
" Conall Gabhra, from whom the country 
of Ibh Conaill Gabhra derives its name, 
was the ancestor of the stock of the O'Conels, 
widely spread throughout the counties 
of Limerick, Kerry, and Cork ;" but this 
is not supported by any authority ; and, 
besides, it contradicts what the same writer 
says, in his Dissertation, &c. (Collect. 
vol. i. p. 380), where it is asserted, that 
" O'Shea, O'Connel, and O'Falvy are all 
descended from Core, son of Cairbre Muse, 
son of Conaire, son of Mogh Laimhe, king 
of Leath Chuinn." This latter statement is 
nearly correct, according to the Irish ge- 
nealogical books, but again, the same writer 
(who appears to have had a bad memory) 
calls this same Cairbre Muse, " one Cairbre 
Muse, supposed son of a king of Meath in 
the beginning of the third century, and of 
whose progeny no account has ever been 

na 5-Ceajic. 


Six steeds to the king of Corcvunruadh b , 
Six swords for the maiming of hosts, 
Six drinking-horns, six shields he gets, 
Six beautiful hounds, all-white. 

Ten steeds to the king of Ui Ghabhra c , 
Ten shields, ten swords fit for battle, 
Ten drinking-horns in his protective fort, 
Without hostages from him, without pledges. 

Seven steeds to the king of Brugh-righ d , 
Seven horns from which wine is drunk, 
Seven swords, it is a happy engagement, 
Seven serving-youths, seven bond-women. 

given." See his Dictionary, voce Muiscrith. 
If the pedigrees of the O'Sheas, O'Falvys, 
and O'Connells are traced to him, some ac- 
count has been given of his descendants. 

d King of Brugh-righ, i. e. of the Ui 
Chairbre Aebhdha, who had their seat at 
Brugh-righ (Bruree), on the river Maigh 
(Maigue). Dr. O'Brien says, that "the 
king of Cairbre Aobhdha, who was O'Do- 
novan, had his principal seat at Brugh-righ, 
and that his country was that now called 
Kenry, in the county of Limerick." ( Collect. 
vol. i. p. 377). This assertion, which has 
been received as fact by all subsequent 
writers, is wofully incorrect, for " Kenry" is 
a small barony lying along the Shannon, 
in the north of the county of Limerick ; 
whereas Brugh-righ, its supposed head-resi- 
dence, is many miles distant from it, in the 
other end of the county. The fact is, that 
the country of the Ui Chairbre Aebhdha, of 
which O'Donnobhain was the chief, compri- 
sed the barony of " Coshma," the districts 
around " Bruree" and " Kihnallock" and 
the plains along the river Maigh (Maigue) 
on the west side, down to the Shannon. 
This appears from the traditions in the 

county which state that O'Donnobhain 
resided at Brugh-righ, and Cromadh 
(Croom) on the river Maigh (Maigue) ; 
from the Feilire Aenghvis, at 26th March, 
which places Gill DaChealloc (Kihnallock), 
in Ui Chairbre ; and from O'h-Uidhrin's 
topographical poem, which states that 
O'Donnobhain of Dun Chuirc (a name for 
Brugh-righ, as being one of the seats of 
Core, king of Minister) possessed, free of tri- 
bute, jan ciop the lands extending along 
the Maigh (Maigue), and the plains down 
to the Seannain (Shannon),— na clctip 
fiop co Sionnainn. See the Battle of 
Magh Ragh, p. 340. 

That Caenraidhe (Kenry) was a part of 
Ui Chairbre Aebhdha is highly probable, 
but we have the authority of O'h-Uidhrin to 
show that O'Maelchallainn (Mulholland), 
was the chief of Caenraidhe, and that near 
him was O'Bearga, in the district of Ui 
Rosa, (now the parish oflveruss, Ulb 
T2or-a, on the Shannon, and in the barony 
of Kenry). These were sub-chiefs to O'Don- 
nobhain as chief of all Ui Fidhgheinte, as he 
frequently was, and perhaps as chief of Ui 
Chairbre Aebhdha also. 



Seachc (£)-cuipn do chupaio Qme, 
peachc (5)-claiorhi — ni cop caioi, 
pechc n-eich Do'n laech ym pe lino, 
Oct Falaij ip Da picchill. 

Seachc n-eich, peace (£)-cuipnn oo'n laech luaeh, 
oo pi puipeach na (b)-Popchuach, 
peachc pceich, pecc (5)-clai6irii 1 (g)-cach 
beapap do pij ^leano Qiiinach. 

Seachc n-eich do pi na n-Uaichm, 
peachc (5)-clai6irh, ip cop cuaichli, 
peachc (5)-cuipn oia n-oarhaib o'an oil 
beich a n-gpaoaib an aipo-pij. 

Ochc n-eich do pi£ Gle in dip, 

ochc pceich, ochc (5)-clai6ini ip coip, 
occ (j)-cuipn, nop conjaib ac pie 16, 
ochc linpeacha 1I-I6 jaipcio. 

e Hero of Aine, i. e. the king or chief 
of Eoghanacht Aine Cliach. See p. 39, 
note ', supra. 

{ King of the Forthuatha, i. e. the king 
of Feara Muighe, i. e. the tribe of O'Dubh- 
again (O'Dugans), descended from the 
celebrated druid Mogh Ruith, and here 
called Forthuatha, as being strangers placed 
centrally between the Ui Fidhgheinte and 
the Eoghanachts of Gleann Anihnach, who 
were two tribes of the royal blood of Oilioll 

sKing of Gleann Amhnach, i. e of Eogh- 
anacht Gleanna Amhnach. This was the 
country of a branch of the tribe of O'Caoimh 
(O'Keeffes), comprising the country about 
Gleann Amhnach, Glanworth, barony of 
Fermoy, Cork. Before the English invasion, 
O'Caoimh and O'Dubhagain possessed the 
regions now called " Fermoy, Condons, and 

Clangibbons ;" but the boundary between 
them (O'Keeft'e and O'Dugan) could not 
now be determined ; all we know is, that 
O'Dubhagain was between O'Caoimh and 
the Ui Fidhgheinte, and consequently to the 
north of them. After the English invasion 
the country of Feara Muighe Feine was 
granted to Fleming, from whom it passed, 
by marriage, to the Roches, and it is now 
usually called Crioch Roisteach, or Roche's 

h Uuithne. — See p. 45, note x , supra. 

' Eile — This was the name of a tribe and 
an extensive territory, all in the ancient 
Mumha or Munster. They derived the 
name from Eile, the seventh in descent from 
Cian, the son of Olioll Olum. According 
to O'h-Uidhrin, this territory was divided 
into eight " tuatha," ruled by eight petty 
chiefs, over whom O'Cearbhaill (O'Carroll) 

net 5-Cectpu. 


Seven drinking horns to the hero of Aine e , 

Seven swords — not an engagement to be violated, 
Seven steeds to that hero during his time, 
Two rings and two chess-boards. 

Seven steeds, seven drinking-horns to the swift hero., 
To the lordly king of the Forthuatha f , 
Seven shields, seven swords in battle 
Are given to the king of Gleann Amhnach 8 . 

Seven steeds to the king of the men of Uaithne h , 
Seven swords, it is a wise covenant, 

Seven drinking-horns to their companies to whom it is due 
To be in office under the monarch. 

Eight steeds to the king of Eile 1 of the gold, 
Eight shields, eight swords are due, 
Eight drinking-horns, to be used at the feast, 
Eight coats of mail in the day of bravery. 

was head or king. The ancient Eile (Ely) 
comprised the whole of Eile Ui Chearbhaill 
(Ely O'Carroll) which is now included in 
the King's county, and comprises the baro- 
nies of Clonlisk and Ballybritt; also the 
baronies of Ikerrin and Elyogarty, in the 
county of Tipperary. The boundary between 
'■Ely O'Carroll" and the ancient Midhe 
(Meath) is determined by that of the diocese 
of Killaloe with the diocese of Meath, for 
that portion of the King's county which 
belongs to the diocese of Killaloe was " Ely 
O'Carroll," and originally belonged to Mini- 
ster. The other portions of the original Eile, 
such as ' ' Ikerrin" and ' ' Elyogarty," were de- 
tached from O'Cearbhaill, shortly after the 
English invasion, and added to " Ormond;" 
but the native chieftains O'Meachair (O'Mea- 
gher) and O'Fogartaigh (O'Fogarty), were 
left in possession, but subject to the Earl 

of Ormond. Sir Charles O'Carroll, in bis 
letter to the Lord Deputy in 1595, asserts, 
that " the Earl of Ormond had no right to 
any part of the country lying north of Bar ■ 
nane Ely" (now the Devil's Bit moun- 
tain), but this cedes him "Elyogarty," 
which appears to have been his indisputa- 
ble property 7 since the time of Edward III. 
According to O'h-Uidhrin, O'Fogartaigh, 
the chief of the southern Eile, i. e. EileFho- 
gartaigh (Elyogarty) is not of the race of 
the Eleans, but descended from Eochaidh 
Bailldearg (king of Thomond in St. Pa- 
trick's time) ; from which we may perceive 
that the southern Eile had been wrested 
from the original proprietors before the 
English invasion by a sept of the Dal Chais, 
but nothing has been yet discovered to de- 
termine when or how the ancestors of the 
family of O'Fogartaigh obtained it. 

80 Ceabhap 

(Ic pin cuapipcal each piji; 

6 pi j Caipil co (j)-ceac pnim ; 

lam 6eneom po chaipi^ pin; 

leapa.j aeab a eolaij. . . . Cl eOtai£ mUTTiaN. 

Otl^GGt) ocup pooail na (b)-cuapopcal pin beop ano po 6 pi£ 
Caipil oo pijaib cuach acup mop chuach, lap pochap a (b)-popba 
acup a (5)-ceneoil, a peib blijio acup buchupa; acup ap pochap 
$P"b acup bilmaine, ap rheab a nipc acup a (b)-poplamaip, acupap 
Immaipi a (b)-pechca acup a ploij;i6, acup ap poipbi acup ap pob- 
paioi, acup ap pinopepi acup comaipli 100 , ponb acup pebpa, lp poichib 
pin mibichip 101 a (b)-cuapipcla boib, ap plicc puao acup peancupa 10 *, 
ay bepr 6enen anb po : 

QUQ SUNT) peanchap, puaipe ppeach, 
b;p ainpip 103 minab eolach ; 
cuapipcal pij Caipil choip 
b'd pi jaib caema a (£)-ceac6ip. 

Upach nach (m)-bia piji ac Dail Caip cop 104 
pop clanbaib Go£ain apb, moip ,oi , 
leach-^uala pi£ Caipil chain 
516 imoa o'a ai^eabaib 106 . 

tDeich (^)-cuipn co n-6p each Samna, 
epicha claioeam, cop arhpa, 
epicha each alamo llle 107 
do pi j t)al Caip cul-buibe 109 . 

t)lijib pi Oppaibi em, 
6 61b pijai 1 "', a po peip 109 , 
in each bliabna b'd baile 110 
ba chuapipeal eojaibe. 

t)lijio 6 pij Ueampa chuaio 111 
pi Oppaioi co n-apo buaib 
beich pceich acup beich (3)-claibirh 
ip beich n-eich cap mop moijib" 2 . 

k Dal Chais See p. 70, note-), supra. macCas, and ancestor of the Ui Fidhgheinte 

1 Eoghan — He was the brother of Cor- and all the Eoghanachts. 

na 5-Ceajir. 81 

Such is the stipend of each king 

From the king of Caiseal with the hundred powers; 

The hand of Benean it was that shaped that; 

Inculcate it ye learned YE LEARNED OF MUMHA. 

THE LAW and distribution of these stipends further here from the 
king of Caiseal to the kings of his districts (stranger tribes) and great 
territories, according to the revenues of their lands and family, accord- 
ing to law and inheritance ; and it is according to deserts of their office 
and fealty, to the greatness of their strength and superiority, and 
to the number of their expeditions and hostings, and to their prospe- 
rity and affluence, and to seniority and counsel, foundation and excel- 
lence, that these stipends are apportioned among them, on the authority 
of the learned and of history, as Benean says here : 

THERE IS HERE the history, pleasant the series, 

Which thou knowest not unless learned ; 

The stipends of the just king of Caiseal 

To his fair kings in the first place. 

When the just Dal Chais k have not the sovereignty 
Over the race of the high, great Eoghan 1 , 
[Their king] sits by the shoulder (side) of the king of Caiseal 
Though many be his guests. 

Ten drinking-horns [ornamented] with gold each Samhain™, 
Thirty swords, a good covenant, 
Thirty beautiful steeds hither 
To the king of Dal Chais of yellow hair. 

The active king of the Osraidhe" is entitled [to have] 
From two kings, as his full claim, 
Every year at his house 
Two choice stipends [that is to say] : 

Entitled from the king of north Teamhair 

Is the king of the Osraidhe of great prerogatives 

To ten shields and ten swords 

And ten steeds across the great plains : 

■" Samhain, i. e. the first of November. " Osraidhe — Sec p. 59, note K 


82 Ceabhcqi 

t)li;*jib 6 pig Caipil cpuaio 113 
aipb-pij Oppaioi co m-buai6 114 
oeich pceich lp oeich (g)-cloi6irh choip" 5 
acup bd pdlaig beapg oip. 

Uuapipcol pi na n-t)epi 
6 pig Caipil ao glepi 116 
claibeam co n-6p, each lp blab 117 
acup long pa lam-peolao. 

t)ligio cuapipcal, can cap 118 , 
pi Ian laechoa 119 Ua £,iachan, 
pciach pig Caipil, claibeam, coin 120 , 
each lp eppib cap apb moip. 

t)ligm oip-pig TTluigi Pian 
each 6 pig Caipil, lp ppian, 
bligio pciach ip claibeam, com'' 21 , 
pi Peap-lTluiji co mop joil. 

Clanb Chaipppi ITlupc, mop a m-blub 
oligio a pig cuapipcal 
pciach pig Caipil co n-beni, 
a each 'p- a c hu coin-eilli. 

t)ligib pig Raichleanb co pach 
ip cpean mop in cuapipcal, 
beich (g)-claioim acup beich (g)-cuipn, 
beich m-bpuic copcpa, beich m-bpuic guipm. 

"Oil jib pi tDaippine ouinb 
6 pi Caipil in chomlaino 

Tivo rings of red gold This esta- " Fermoy," in the county of Cork. After 

Wishes the meaning oifalach. the establishment of surnames, the chief of 

P Deise See p. 49, note k , supra. this territory took the name ofO'Dubha- 

1 Ui Liathain Seep. 72, note s , supra. gain (O'Dugan), from Dubhagan, the de- 

r Brought across the high sea, i. e. a scendant of the druid Mogh Ruith, who was 

'steed and battle-dress imported. of the same race as O'Conchubhair Ciar- 

s Magh Fian, i.e. of Feara Mhuighc, now raidhe (O'Conor Kerry). Of the race of 

na 5-Ceapc. 83 

Entitled from the hardy king of Caiseal 

Is the noble king of the Osraidhe as a prerogative 
To ten shields and ten swords 
And two rings of red gold . 

The stipend of the king of the Deise p 
Given from the king of Caiseal 

[Is] a sword [adorned] with gold [hilt], a steed with renown 
And a ship under full rigging. 

Entitled to stipend, not contemptible, 
Is the full-heroic king of Ui Liathain q , 
To the shield of the king of Caiseal, a sword, a hound, 
A steed and trappings across the high sea r . 

Entitled is the petty-king of Magh Fian s 

To a steed from the king of Caiseal, and a bridle ; 
Entitled to a shield and sword [and] hound 
Is the king of Feara Mhuighe of great prowess. 

The race of Cairbre Musc c , great their renown, 
Their king is entitled to a stipend, 
The shield of the vehement king of Caiseal, 
His steed and his hound from his hound-leash. 

The prosperous king of Kaithlinn" is entitled 
To a very great stipend; 
Ten swords and ten drinking-horns, 
Ten red cloaks, ten blue cloaks. 

The king of the brown Dairfhine* is entitled 
From the king of Caiseal of the battles 

this druid, who was a native of Dairbhre, several churches in Minister have been de- 

now the island of Yalentia, in Kerry, was dicated. 

Cuanna Mac Cailchine, chief of Feara ' The race of Cairbre Muse, i. e. the 

Mhuighe, in the seventh century, who was Muscraidhe. See as to these tribes, p. 42, 

as celebrated for hospitality and munifi- note v , supra. 

cence in Munster as Guaire Aidhne was u Raithlinn — See p. 59, note k , supra. 

in Connacht ; and of his race also were v Dairfhine, i. e. of Corca Luighe. See 

the saints Mochuille and Molaga, to whom p. 46, note a , supra. 

G 2 



cpi claibrhi coinbli Dacha, 
cpi lonja, cpi Unpeacha. 

Uuapipcol pi Opuinj, nach Dip, 
6 pi£ Gpinb, — ni bimip, 
cpi cloibrhi cama caela, 
ip cpi longa 122 l&n-caema. 

Uuapipcol pij 6acha Cein 
6 pi£ Gpino co n-aipb men, 
beich n-gabpa bonna bachu m , 
beich longa, beich luipeacha. 

Uuapipcal pij Peopna piainb 
6 uib Qililta Olaim, 
beich n-eich ap na n-gleap bo'n jpaio' 
'p-ct chochall peang ppollecaij 1 ' 25 . 

Uuapipcol pij £eim in Clion 
6 pij Chaipil, — ip caem chop, 
a long oingbula bacach, 
each, claibeam, copn com-pumach w5 . 

Uuapipcol pij 3 a ^P a,n ' 27 glo'" 
6 pij mop TTluman meaoaip m , 
cem pop (p)aeli w9 'n-a chij chpuim, 
0I1516 in pij a leach-jualainn 130 . 

Ip in cpach ceib bia chij pen 
blijio each ip eppib 131 eim, 
acup in lin 00 cheib 132 poip 
each ip eppio 1 " each en pip. 

Uuapipcol pig 6poja-pi5' 34 
6 pig Gpinb can mipnim, 

w KingofDmng — Drung is a conspi- 
cuous hill in the north of the barony of 
" Iveragh," put here for the country of 
the race of the monarch Conaire Mor, in 
" Kerry." See p. 64, line 12, supra. 

x Loch Lein — See p. 17, note w , supra. 

V Feorainn Floinn This was another 

name of the Ciarraidhe, from their ancestor, 
Flann Feorna, i. e. Flann of the shore. See 
p. 48. note f , svpra. 

rice 5-Ceapc. 85 

To three swords of flaming brightness, 
To three ships, three coats of mail. 

The stipend of the king of Drung w , which is not small, 
From the king of Eire — 'tis not contemptible, 
Three curved narrow swords 
And three ships very beautiful. 

The stipend of the king of Loch Lein x 
From the king of Eire of noble mind, 
Ten horses of bay colour, 
Ten ships, ten coats of mail. 

The stipend of the king of Feorainn Floinn y 
From the sons of Oilioll Olum, 
Ten caparisoned steeds out of the stud 
And his own graceful satin cochal. 

The stipend of the king of Leim na Con z 
From the king of Caiseal, — a fair condition, 
His own befitting beauteous ship, 
A steed, a sword, a trophy drinking-horn. 

The stipend of the king of fair Gabhran a 
From the king of great and merry Munster, 
A pleasing distinction in his crowded house, 
This king is entitled to sit by his side. 

And at the time he [Caiseal] goes to his own [Gabhran's] house 
He [Gabhran] is entitled to a steed and trappings too, 
And of the number who go [with Caiseal] eastward 
A steed and dress for every man. 

The stipend of the king of Brugh-righ 1 ' 
From the king of Eire without sorrow, 

* The king of Leim an Chon, now al- O'Brien. See p. 48, note 5, supra. 

ways Leim na Con (i. e. fern.) Saltvs a King of Gabhran — See p. 59, note •. 

Cuoni, the king of Corca Bhaiscinn, in the b The king of Brugh-righ (Arx regis), 

south-west of the county of Clare, not of i. e. of Ui Chairbre Aebhdha. See p. 77, 

Leim Con, in Carbery, as asserted by note "', supra. 

86 Ceabhap 

beich n-inaip, bonna beapga, 
ip oeich n-goill can ^aeoelga' 33 . 

Uuapipcol pij Gine aipb 
6 pi Caipil claioirh gaipg, 
a ue peach ,p a claibearh gle 137 , 
epicha bo each 6eallcaine. 

Cuapipcol pij na n-Llaichne 
6 pig Caipil 139 — ip cuaicle 139 , 
pe pceich ip pe claibirh cam 
' l pe h-eich l n-a paijnib 140 . 

OI1516 pij Qpa6 co n-aib 
6 pij Cpino ai jeao chain 
pe cloibirh, pe pceich molca 
i pe 141 leanoa lan-copcpa. 

Cuapipcol pig Gli in dip 142 
6 pig Caipil in chorhoil 
pe pceich l pe claibirh chain, 
pe mobaio, pe ban mogaio 143 . 

616 pai, no bib ollarh an, 

aca ppip lDac Cuilinbdn 144 , — 

ni pep bee inomi pe la 145 , — 

each aen 'g-d m-bia po map cd. . QCQ[SUNt)]. 

DO POPUQ16 pig Caipil [aTTIurhan] ann po .i. &pug-pig acup 
TYluilcheab 146 acup Seanchua Chain acup T2op Raeoa acup Cluain 
Llarha acup Cachaip Chnuip acup Cachaip pinoabpach, Cachaip 
Chuaigi, Cachaip ^lenn Qrhnach, Cachaip Chinb Chon, Dun Pip 
Gen Cholca, Cachaip TTIechaip, [bun n-^aip], Uearhaip Suba, 
Qpb 6ili, Qenac m-6eappdin, lTlag Cailli, Qpo Conaill, Qpb 
lTlic Conainb 147 , Qpb Ruibi, Uuaipceapc TTlai^i, lT)ag Saipe, na cpi 
h-Cupne ap muip mdip, Qenach Cuipppi, Opuim TTlop, Opuini 

<■ Without Gaedhealga (Gaelic or Irish), d King of noble Aine, i. e. king of Eogh- 

i. i'. foreign slaves or servants who could anachl Aine Cliach, which country lay 
imt speak Irish. This is very curious. round the conspicuous hill of Cnoc Aine 

na 5-Ceapr. 87 

Ten tunics, brown red, 

And ten foreigners without Gaedhealga c [Irish]. 

The stipend of the king of noble Aine d 

From the king of Caiseal of the terrific SAvord, 
His shield and his bright sword, 
Thirty cows each May-day. 

The stipend of the king of the Uaithne e 
From the king of Caiseal — it is wise, 
Six shields and six fine swords 
And six steeds of the choicest. 

The king of Ara f of beauty is entitled 
From the king of Eire of the comely face 
To six swords, six praised shields 
And six mantles of deep purple. 

The stipend of the king of Eile f of the gold 
From the king of Caiseal of the banquets, 
Six shields and six bright swords, 
Six bondmen, six bondwomen. 

Be he sage, or be he distinguished ollamh, 
He has the support of Mac CuileannainS, — 
Not a man of small wealth is he in his day [He must be pro- 
fessor in his day], — 
He who maintains this [system] as it is. THERE IS HERE. 

OF THE SEATS of the king of Caiseal in Mumha here, i. e. 
Brugh-righ and Muilchead and Seanchua Chaein and Ros Raeda and 
Chxain Uamha and Cathair Chnuis and Cathair Fhinnabhrach, Cathair 
Thuaighe, Cathair Ghleanna Amhnach, Cathair Chinn Chon, Dun Fir 
Aen Cholca, Cathair Meathais, Dun Gair, Teamhair Shubha, Ard 
Bile, Aenach m-Bearrain, Magh Caille, Ard Chonaill, Ard Mic Co- 
nainn, Ard Ruidhe, Tuaisceart Muighe, Magh Saire, the three Aras 
in the great sea, Aenach Chairpre, Druiin Mor, Druim Caein, Cathair 

(Knockany) in the barony of Small County, f Ara, File — See p. 46, note z , and 

county of Limerick See p. 67, note h , and p. 78, note ■, supra. 

p. 78, note e , supra. S Mae Cuileannain — See p. 61, nn. "> 

e Uaithne See p. 45, note x , supra. and fl , and see the Introduction. 

88 Ceabhaji 

Ca'n, Cachaip Chuipc, TTlup-bolcan, ^eibcine, ^papann, Gill TTlic 
Cuipp, lTluj Nai, nf)aj5 n-Goapbane 149 , h-Uachc-maj, Caechan 149 
66ipne, ITIup-ma^, lTla^ n-Ganm£, Cuaim n-Gacnin, TTla^ n-Qpail 1A0 , 
Gibliu, Llchc-na-pijna, Cuilleunn, Cua, Claipi, lnoeoin, Gine, 
Opbo, Llilleanb Gean, Coch Ceanb 151 , Ceano Nachpach, Rapanb, 
t)puim Cain, t)puim Pinjin, Upeaoa-na-pi£ 152 , TCaich Gip 153 , TCaich 
Paelao, TCaic Gpoa 154 , Raich t)poma Oeilji 1 -", 6eanncpaiji, Cpec- 
paibi, Opbpuibi acup h-Ua Chuipb 150 ; conab 061b po cheat; in bpeo 
[buaoa] 6enen: 

ai?a pGasaocnrc a n- 5 o. P 

epaic Peapjupa Scanoail? 
caehub: ab beip a peapa 157 
6 Gopaib co Durhaij 148 n-Dpeapa. 

Gpic peapjupa in pi£, 
lcip peoca li9 acup cip; 
nip bo beg leo 1 160 n-a juin 
Ca\pn oeap-jabaip co muip. [1. Opp — B. in marg.~\ 

X)o chipc Chaipil co n-a bpij 

6pu^-pij acup muilcheab' 61 map, 
Seanchua chain, teop T?aeba 1(i2 peil, 
acup leip' 6j Cluain Uariia an. 

Cachaip Chnuip, Cachaip Pinoabpach, 
Cachaip Chuaiji 164 co n-a bail, 

h Fearghus Seannal See next note. on the west bank of the River Maigh 

' From the Eoir to Dumha Dreasa. — (Maigue), in the barony of Upper Connello 
The tract of land extending from the River and county of Limerick, about four miles 
" Nore" (an Eoir or an Fheoir) to a moimd to the north of Kilmallock. There are ex- 
near Cnoc Grafann (Knockgraffon), Tip- tensive ruins of earthen forts here, said by 
peraiy. This comprises the greater part of tradition to have been erected by Oilioll 
the ancient Ossory, which was called Laigh- Olum, the ancestor of the O'Donovans. 
in Deas-ghabhair by the ancient Irish, and There are also the ruins of a circular wall 
said to have been forfeited to Munster by defended with square towers. The circular 
the Lagenians for their murder of Fearghus wall is evidently very ancient, and is said 
Seannal ; or, according to other accounts, of by tradition to have been built by an O'Don- 
Eidirsceal, thefather of the monarch Conaire nobhain, before the English invasion; but 
Mor. SeeBookofLeacan,M.22b, b.; 220 6. the square towers are evidently several 
k Brugh-righ, i. e. Arx regis (Bruree), centuries more modern, and are said to 

na 5-Ceapc. 89 

Chuirc, Mur-bolcan, Geibhtine, Grafann, Aill Mic Cuirr, Magh Naei, 
Magh n-Eadarbane, Uacht-magh, Caechan Boirne, Mur-mhagh, Magh 
n-Eanaigh, Tuaim n-Eatain, Magh n-Asail, Eibliu, Ucht-na-rioghna, 
Cuilleann, Cua, Claire, Inneoin, Aine, Ord, Uilleann Eatan, Loch 
Ceann, Ceann Nathrach, Rafann, Druim Caein, Druim Finghin, 
Treada-na-righ, Raith Eire, Raith Faeladh, Raith Arda, Raith Droma 
Deilge, Beanntraidhe, Greagraidhe, Orbhraidhe and Ui Chuirb; of 
which the gifted luminary [flamnia sacra] Benean sang : 

KNOWEST THOU what is called 
The eric of Fearghus ScannaP ? 
I know it : I will give a knowledge of it 
From the Eoir to Dumha Dreasa 1 . 

The eric of Fearghus the king, 
Both in jewels and territory; 
They obtained in full satisfaction for his death 
South Laighin even to the sea. 

Of the right of Caiseal in its power 

Are Brugh-righ k and the great Muilchead 1 , 
Seanchua m the beautiful, Ros Raeda 11 the bright, 
And to it belongs the noble [fort of] Cluain Uamha . 

Cathair Chnuis p , Cathair Fhionnabhrach q , 
Cathair Thuaighe 1 " with its appurtenance 

have been erected by that branch of the county of Limerick. 

famous family of Lacy or De Lacy, de- " Ros Raeda Unknown to the Ed. 

scended from William Gorm, the son of ° Cluairi Uamha, i. e. the Lawn or Mea- 

Sir Hugh De Lacy, by the daughter of dow of the Cave, Anglice "Cloyne," the head 

RuaidhriO'Conchobhair(RodericO'Conor), of an ancient bishop's see, in the county 

the last monarch of all Ireland of the Mile- of Cork. 

sian race. Brugh-righ is mentioned the P Cathair Chnuis. — Unknown to the Ed. 

first in order in this list, as it was the prin- q Cathair- Fhionnabhrach. — This is the 

cipal seat of Oilioll Olum, the ancestor of name of a remarkable stone fort, of the 

the kings and dominant families of Minister. kind called " Cyclopean," near the village 

1 Muilchead Mmlchear, now applied of Cill Fionnabhrach (Kilfenora), in the 

to a river in the north west of the county county of Clare, also the head of an ancient 

of Limerick, is a corruption of this name. diocese. 

m Seanchua, Anglice " Shanahoe," in the r Cathair Thuaighe Unidentified. 



Cachaip ^leano Cirhnach 165 , Cachaip Chino Chonn, 
t)un Pip Cten Cholga, Dun n-^aip. 

Cachaip lTleachaip, Ueamaip Suba, 
Qip 6ili lG6 map, maineach, puao, 
aenach m-6eappun' 67 , TTIaj Cailli cafn, 
Gpo Conaill, pa comaip chuan' 68 . 

apo TTlic Conaill 169 , la h-CIpb Ruioi, 
Uuaipceapc TTIaiji, mufneach clap 170 , 
lTlaj Saipi 171 , po peajao aipriie, 
la ceopa Qipne ap muip map 172 . 

Qenach Caipppi, t)puim TTlop, t)puim Cain, 
Cachaip Chuipc pop aici 173 muip, 
ITIupb-bolcan 174 , ^eibcine, ^Jpapano 
lp lep uili, Qill TTlic Cuipp' 73 . 

8 Cathair Ghleanna Amhnach, i.e. the 
stone fort of Gleann Amhiiach, which is 
the ancient and real name of " Glanworth," 
in " Roche's country," in the north of the 
county of Cork. See Smith's Natural and 
Civil History of Cork, book ii. c. 7. 

I Cathair ChinnChon, Anglice " Caher- 
kincon," a (Cyclopean) stone fort near 
Eockbarton, the seat of Lord Guillamore, 
in the barony of Small County, and county 
of Limerick. There are extensive remains 
of such stone forts in this immediate neigh- 
bourhood, which indicate its having been 
anciently a place of importance. 

II Dun Fir Aen Cholga Unidentified. 

v DunGair This fort was on the hill 

of " Doon," over Loch Gair (Lough Gur), 
barony of Small Comity, Limerick. See 
Fitzgerald's Stat. Ace. Limerick. This hill 
and lake were fortified by Brian Borumha, 
in the tenth century. 

w Cathair Meathais — This was proba- 
bly the ancient name of the great (Cyclo- 
pean) fortress now called Cathair na Steige 

(Stague Fort), situated in the parish of 
Kilcrohane, barony of Dunkerron, in the 
county of Kerry. See Vail. Collect, vol. vi., 
and Baron Foster's model in the Museum 
of the Dublin Society. 

x Teamhair Shubha This was proba- 
bly another name for Teamhair Luachra, 
which was the name of a fort near Beal 
Atha na Teamhrach, in the parish of Dysart, 
near Castle Island, in the county of Kerry. 

yAir Bile, or, as it is written in the prose, 
Ard Bili, i. e. the height or hill of the 
tree. There is a place of this name near 
" Bally-mack-elligott," in the barony of 
Clanmaurice, and coimty of Kerry. 

z Aenach m-Bearrain Perhaps the fort 

N. by W. of Barrane, four miles E. of 
Kilrush, in Clare. 

a Magh Caille Unknown to the Ed. 

b Ard Chonaill, i. e. the height or hill 
of Conall Unknown to the Editor. 

c Ard Mic Conaill, Ard Ruidhe, Tuais- 
ceart Muighe, Magh Saire. These places, 
being mentioned immediately before the 

na 5-Ceajic. 


Cathair Ghleanna Amhnach s , Catliair Chinn Chon', 
Dun Fir Aen Cholga", Dun Gair T . 

Catliair Meathais w , Teamhair Shubha*, 
Air Bile y , the great, wealthy, red, 
Aenach m-Bearrain 2 , the beautiful Magh Caille a , 
Arc! Chonaill b , the meeting place of hosts. 

Arcl Mic Conaill c , with Ard Ruidhe c , 
Tuaisceart Muighe c , wealthy plain, 
Magh Saire e , worthy of reckoning, 
With the three Aras d in the great sea. 

Aenach Cairpre 6 , Druim Mor f , Druim Caein g , 
Cathair Chuirc h close to the sea, 
Mur-bolcan', Geibhtine k , Grafann 1 
All belong to it, [and] Aill Mic Cuirr m . 

Aras, are evidently in the county of Clare, 
but the Editor has not identified them. 

d The three Aras, i. e. the three islands 
of Ara (Arann) in the Bay of Galway, 
which originally belonged to Corcumruadh. 
Tlie largest of these islands was granted by 
Aenghus, king of Minister, to St. Eanna, 
who built several chinches upon it. For 
some accoimt of the forts on these islands, 
see O'Flaherty's Iar-Connacht, by Hardi- 
nian, pp. 77, 78. 

e Aenach Cairpre, i. e. the fair of the 
territory of Cairbre. This is the place 
now called Mainister an Aenaigh, Anglice 
Mannisteranenagh, i.e. the Monastery of the 
Fair, from a great monastery erected by 
the Ui Bhriain (O'Briens), a short time 
previous to the English invasion. It is 
situated in the barony of " Pubblebrian, " 
hi the county of Limerick. 

f Druim Mor, i. e. the great ridge. This 
is probably the Dromore near Mallow. 

S Druim Caein, i. e. dorsum amanum, 
" Drumkeen," but which of the many places 

so called, in Minister, has not been deter 

b Cathair Chuirc, i. e. the stone fort of 
Core ; probably the ancient name of Cathair- 
gheal, a great fort near Cahersiveen. 

' Mur-bolcan, i.e. the inlet "Trabolgan," 
east of the entrance of Cork harbour. 

k Geibhtine, now Eas Geibhtine (Askea- 
ton), on the Daeil (Deel). 

1 Grafann, now Cnoc Grafann, Anglice 
Knockgraffon, a townland giving name to 
a parish hi the barony of Middlethird and 
county of Tipperary. There is a very large 
moat here surrounded by a fosse. This was 
the principal seat of the Ui Suileabhain 
(O'Sulhvans), till the year 1192, when they 
were driven thence by the English, who 
erected a castle close to the moat. For 
some liistorical references to this place the 
reader is referred to Keating's History of 
Ireland, reign of Cormac mac Airt, and the 
Annals of the Four Masters, A. D. 1192. 

'» Aill Mic Cuirr, i. e. the cliff of Mac 
Cuirr. Unknown to the Editor. 



TTIu^ Muf 176 , ITIa^ n-6oapba, Uachr-map 77 , 
Caechan 66ipni, buan in poo bo'n pij 178 , 
TDup-Triaj map, lTlaj n-6anai£ Ropa, 
Cuaim n-Gi6in 179 , abpa do rip. 

Qpal, Gibleo, Llcc-na-pijna, 
in muip im a lina lopj, 
Cuilleanb lp Cua tp Cldipi, 
lnoeoin acup Qine lp Opb. 

h-Llilleanb Gcan [ip] Coch Ceano, 

Ceanb Nachpach, alca Rapann, ip a pip' 
<Dpuim Cain, t)puim pm^in peba 181 , 
ip leip cid Upeaba-na-pij. 

n Magh Naei, Sfc. — These, which were 
names of plains on which the king of Mini- 
ster had forts, are unidentified. 

° Caechan Boime This was the name 

of a fort in Boirinn (Bun-en), in the county 
of Clare, where, though there are countless 
(Cyclopean) forts, there is none bearing 
this name at present. 

p Mur-mhagh, i. e. sea plain — This is 
probably "Murvy," in the great Island of 

1 Magh Eanaigh Rosa Unknown to 

the Editor. 

r Tuaim n Eidhin.. — Unknown to the 

8 Asal. — This fort was at Cnoc Droma 
Asail, now Tory Hill, near Croom, in the 
county of Limerick. 

1 Eibhleo This was a fort in Sliabh 

Eibhlinne, in the county of Tipperary, ad- 
joining the barony of " Coonagh," in the 
county of Limerick. 

u Ucht-na-rioghna, i. e. the breast of 
the queen. Unknown to the Editor. 

v Cuilleann, now Cuilleann g-Cua- 
nach, in the barony of Clanwilliam and 
county of Tipperary, but originally, as its 

name indicates, in the territory of Ui 
Chuanach, which is supposed to be included 
in the present barony of " Coonagh," in 
the county of Limerick. 

w Cua This seat was at Sliabh Cua, 

in the county of Waterford, a short dis- 
tance to the south of Clonmel. See p. 1 6, 
note ', supra. 

* Claire — This was the name of a con- 
spicuous hill situated immediately to the 
east of Duntryleague, in the barony of 
Coshlea, and county of Limerick. There 
are, however, two forts still called Dun 
g- Claire, said to have been regal residences 
of the kings of Minister ; one now called 
Lios Dun g-Claire, i. e. the fort Dim 
g-Claire, situated on the boundary be- 
tween the townlands of Glenbrohaun and 
Glenlara, in the barony of Coshlea, and 
county of Limerick ; and the other in the 
townland of Farrannacarriga, parish of 
Ballynacourty, barony of Corcaguiny, and 
county of Kerry. 

y Inneoin — This place is now called 
mullac lnneona, i.e. the summit of 
Inneoin, Anglice Mullaghinnone, a town- 
land in the parish of Newchapel, near the 

na 5-Ceajic. 

Magh Naei n , Magh n-Eadarba", Uacht-magli", 
Caechan Boirne", constant the road for the king, 
The great Mur-mhagh p , Magh Eanaigh Rosa q , 
Tuaim n-Eidhin r , with its brow to the land. 

Asal s , Eibhleo', Ucht-na-rioghna u , 

The fort with its numerous attendants, 
Cuilleann v and Cua w and Claire*, 
Inneoin y and Aine z and Ord a . 

Uilleann Eatan b and Loch Ceann , 

Ceann Nathrach d , the houses of Rafann 6 , it is true, 
Druim Caein f , Druim Finghin g of the wood, 
And with it Treada-na-riogh h . 


town of Clonmel, barony of Iffa and Offa 
East, county of Tipperary. Here are the 
ruins of a castle, which probably occupy 
the site of the more ancient fort. See 
Keating, in the reign of Connac mac Airt. 

z Aine, now Cnoc Aine, a conspicuous 
hill in a parish of the name, in the barony 
of Small County, Limerick. There is a 
fort on the summit of this hill which 
commands an extensive prospect of the 
country in every direction. For some ac- 
count of the places which can be seen from 
it, see Book of Leinster, in the Library of 
Trinity College, Dublin, H. 2, 18, fol. 105. 
a Ord. — Unknown to the Editor. 

b Uilleann Eatan Unknown to the Ed. 

c Loch Ceann, i. e. lake of the heads. — 
Unknown to the Editor. 

d Ceann Nathrach, head or hill of the 
adder or adders, the ancient name of 
Ceann Sleibhe, a beautiful mountain over 
the lake of Inchiquin, near Corofin, in the 
county of Clare. From this place Aenghus 
Cinn Nathrach, the fifth son of Cas, and 
ancestor of the family of O'Deaghaidh 
(O'Dea), took his cognomen. 

e Rafann — See Grafann, p. 9 1 , note ', 

f Druim Caein — This was probably the 
name of a subdivision of Sliabh Caein, now 
Sliabh Riach, on the borders of the coun- 
ties of Limerick and Cork. 

S Druim Finghin. — This is the name of 
a long ridge of high ground extending from 
near Castle Lyons in the county of Cork, 
to the Bay of Dungarvan in the county of 
Waterford, and dividing the barony of De- 
cies within Drum, from that of Decies 
without Drum [i. e. without or outside 
Druim Finghin]. 

h Treada-na-rioffh, i.e. Tre-dui na riogh, 
the triple-fossed fort of the kings. This 
was probably the ancient name of the great 
moat at Kilnnnan, near Kilmallock, in the 
county of Limerick, which consists of a 
moat placed in the centre, and three outer 
ramparts of circumvallation. The Editor 
was once of opinion that this was one of 
the forts called Dun g- Claire, but he has 
been convinced of the contrary by the ex- 
istence elsewhere, and not distant, of a fort 
called Dun g-Claire. 

94 Leabhcqi 

Raich Gipc, Raich paelao, Raich Gpoa 
lp leip "Raich t)poma t3eilj cheap, 
6eanDcpaiji, ^pecpaibi, Opopaioi 
acup h-Ua Chu.pp a po F eap. CLKO. [peaSCfoaR]. 

■ Rath Eire, i. e. Earc's fort. Unknown in the county of Limerick, 
to the Editor. See poem on the druid ' Rath Arda, i. e. the fort or rath of the 

Mogh Euith, verse 22, Book of Lismore, height. This is evidently the place called 

fol. 103, b. Eath Arda Suird, in the Annals of the 

k Rath Faeladh, i. e. Fraeladh's rath, Four Masters, A. M. 305, which is that 

or earthen fort — This is probably the an- now called Eath-Suird, a townland situated 

cient name of Eath Gaela, or " Eathkeale," in the parish of Donaghmore, near the city 

ncc 5-Cectjic. 95 

Rath Eire 1 , Rath Faeladh\ Rath Arda" 
And eke Ratli Droma Deilg m south, 
Beanntraidhe", Greagraidhe , Orbhraidhe p 
And Ui Chuirp q as is known KNOWEST THOU. 

of Limerick. Tliere is an old castle there, "Beanntraidhe, now Bantry, in the coun- 

situate on a rising ground, and, close to ty of Cork. 

it on the western side, the ancient fort to ° Greagraidhe Unknown to the Ed. 

which the name was originally applied. p Orb/traidhe, Anglice Orrery. See p. 

m Rath Droma Deilg, i. e. fort of the 64, note ', supra. 

ridge of the thorn. Unknown to the Ed. i Ui Chuirp Unknown to the Ed. 

9G Ceabhap 

iL— Dcisheaoh rci^h cnrcuachctN. 

t)0 SOCnCfR Chonbace ano po pip, ariiail ab pet) 6enen: 

Cipa acup euapipcla Conbace .1. mop chip Conoacc lap bia- 
ehao 1 acup corhioeache: ceaoamup co Cpuachain: 

Q h-Llmall brio eipnijeeap cipa Conoacc co Cpuachain ppiup: 

Coic pichic bo acup coic pichic cope acup coic pichib leano a 
h-Urhull [mn] pin. 

Coic pichic barn acup coic pichic luljach acup cpt pichic muc 2 
acup peapca 3 bpac 6 ^(h)pe5paioi anb pin. 

Ceachpacha ap bet cheb bpac acup od cheb bo acup pichi ap 
cheao muc 6 Chonmaicnib pin. 

Ceo bo acup ceac n-barin 6 Chiappaibib inb pin: peapca bpac 
oeapj acup peapca cope 6 Chiappaioib beop ano pin. 

Se chaeca luljach, cpi chaeca cope, cpi chaeca bpac 6 na Cui£- 
nib cacha 6eallcaine, acup cpi chaeca oam ; acup ni ap baipi na 
(b)-pineabach pin, ace ap oafpi peip acup peapamb 4 . 

Ceachpaca ap cheo bo acup peachc (5)-ceac caepach 5 — no ip 

00 chaepaib lapainb, — caeca ap cpi ceac muc acup caeca ap cpi 
ceao oam 6 na Copcaib ino pin. 

Caeca ap cheab bpac beapj acup caeca ap ceac cope acup caeca 
ap ceacn-oam 6 na Oealbnaib inopin, ap a (o^eealgao 'n-a (b)-cip (i . 

Seachcmoja bpac, peachemoga cope a h-Uib lTlaine cap ceano 
a (b)-cipi. 

VVUa&piuin acup Sil ITIuipea^aij acup Ui Piacpach acupcenel 
n-Geba paep-chuacha inb pin, acup corh-paepa ppi pij [lacj, acup 
ni chiajaib peachc no pluaigeuo ace ap chpoo; acup ni ehiugaib 

1 (sj)-cach la pij ace ap a log 7 ; acup bia mapbehap acup co pu 
mapbehap 0I1516 in pij a n-epic 00 ic on pij, acup in can nach 
(m)-bia 8 piji la Sil Piachpa, no Cteba, no ^ua'P 1 , T ^ eo guala beup 
pij Conbace lap in (b)-peap ip peapp bib. TTId 06 (b^eeajma ap beo- 

na 5-Ceajiu. 97 


OF THE REVENUE of Connacht down here, as Benean has 

related : 

The rents and stipends of Connacht, i. e. the great tribute of Con- 
nacht both refection and escort: first to Cruachain: 

From Umhall the tributes of Connacht are first presented to Crua- 
chain : 

Five score cows and five score hogs and five score mantles from 

Five score oxen and five score milch-cows and three score hogs and 
sixty cloaks from the Greagraidhe. 

Two hundred and forty cloaks and two hundred cows and a hun- 
dred and twenty hogs from the Conmaicne. 

A hundred cows and a hundred oxen from the Ciarraidhe; also 
sixty red cloaks and sixty hogs from the Ciarraidhe. 

Six times fifty milch-cows, three times fifty hogs, three times fifty 
cloaks from the Luighne every May-day, and three times fifty oxen ; 
and this is not in consequence of inferiority of [race in] those tribes, 
but in consequence of the liability of the grass and laud. 

A hundred and forty cows and seven hundred caercha (sheep) — or 
caera iarainn (masses of iron) — three hundred and fifty hogs and 
three hundred and fifty oxen from the Corca. 

A hundred and fifty red cloaks, a hundred and fifty hogs and a 
hundred and fifty oxen from the Dealbhna, and this for maintaining 
them in their territory. 

Seventy cloaks, seventy hogs from the Ui Maine for their terri- 

The Ui Briuin and the Siol Muireadhaigh and the Ui Fiachrach 
and the Cineal Aedha are free tribes, and they are equally noble as the 
king, and they do not go upon an expedition or hosting except for pay ; 


98 Cectbhaji 

paioeachc a (j)-cpich n-aili, ip leo juala pij Caipil, no pij Naip, 
no pi j Barhna lTlaichi. Conao ooib-pin 9 po chachain in bill buaba 

eisci^ Re seaNchas nach puaiii 

aipb-pij Conbacc claibearii puaib; 
oo neoch oligeap 6 chip chall 10 
'n-a eineach, 'n-a eimcclanb. 

IDop chip Conbacc co Cpuacham 
cean ofvheap, 6 6ea£-chuachaib n , 
each nf oia n-blij bilpi 12 , 
pmachc, biachao acup coiriiioeacc. 

Coic pichic bo, buan a m-blab, 
coic pichic cope, caeb leacan, 
coic pichic leanb, lijoa [a n-jgapc, 
a h-Urhall oo pi Conoacc. 

Qipb chip na n-^peagpaibi a bep 13 : 
bo pf 14 Conbacc buij ao beap 15 
cuic pichib barii co n-a n-oach' 6 , 
bo pij Conoacc ip Cpuachan. 

Cpf pichic muc, mop in pmachc, 
acup epi pichic pij bpac, 

3 Tribute — eineaclann. This word is which two parts, Upper and Lower, it has 

used by Dubhaltach Mac Firbisigh in the in latter ages been divided, the town of 

sense of stipend or salary ; but when applied Cathair na Mart (Westport) standing on 

to a king it means " a tribute paid to him the boundary between them. These two 

in consideration of his protection." It some- divisions were in former times usually 

times means eric or fine. called " the Owles" (Ools) by English 

b Cruachain. — Vide supra, p. 20, note '; writers, and absurdly Latinized Pomum, 

p. 34, note °. For the remains still to be as " O'Malley de Porno," State Papers, 

seen at this place the reader is further re- temp. Henry VIII. vol. ii. part iii. p. 4, 

ferred to the Editor's translation of the A. D. 1515. Since the introduction of sur- 

Annals of the Four Masters, pp. 204-206. names the family of O'Maille (O'Malley) 

c Umhall, hi the west of Mayo, com- have been chiefs in this district. They are 

prising the baronies of " Burrishoole" and descended from Conall Oirbsean, one of the 

" Murrisk" (see p. 19, note ', supra), into twenty-four sons of Brian, the common an- 

na 5-Ceajic. 99 

and they do not go into battle with the king but for reward; and it' 
they be killed, and upon their being killed, the king is bound to give 
eric to their king ; and when the kingdom [of Connacht] does not be- 
long to the race of Fiachra or Aedh or Guaire, the best man of them 
is privileged to sit by the right shoulder of the king of Connacht. 
If they happen to be in exile in another territory, they are to sit at 
the right shoulder of the king of Caiseal, or of the king of Nas, or of 
the king of Eamhain Macha. Of which things the gifted scion Benean 

HEARKEN TO A HISTORY, which is not trifling, 
Of the supreme-king of Connacht of the red swords ; 
What he is entitled to from his own country 
For his protection, [and] as tribute*. 

The great tribute of Connacht [to be conveyed] to Cruachaiu' 
Without disrespect, from goodly districts, 
Everything that to right is due, 
Tribute, refection and escort. 

Five score cows of lasting condition, 
Five score hogs of broad sides, 
Five score mantles, beautiful their texture, 
From Umhall c to the king of Connacht. 

The high tribute of the Greagraidhe d I shall mention: 
To the king of Connacht they certainly shall pay 
Five score oxen of good color, 
To the king of Connacht and Cruachain. 

Three score hogs, great the tribute, 
And three score royal cloaks, 

cestor of the families of O'Conchobhair, the county of Sligo, supposed to be co-ex- 

O'Flaithbheartaigh, and other chieftain tensive with the barony of ''Coolavin." See 

families of Connacht, and are not of French O'Flaherty's Ogygia, part hi. c. 46 ; but it 

origin, as some of themselves now wish to be was originally much more extensive. The 

believed. See O'Fla. Ogygia, part iii. c. 79. ancient inhabitants of this district were de- 

A Greagraidhe, now ridiculously called scended from Aenghus Fionn, the son of 

•' the Gregories," a district in the south of Fearghus, king of Ulster in the first century. 

H 2 



coic pichic loiljeach anall 

6 Chpecpaibi na (j^-caem-cpanD 17 . 

t)a pichic oec bpac co m-bpij, 
oa ceac bo cean imap pirn 19 , 
ochcmoja muc, mop a m-bloio iy , 
bleajap oo na Conmaicmb. 

Coic pichic bo mop, co m-blcno, 
coic pichic bam bo oamaib 
6 Chiappaioi, cpuaib in pmachc, 
do chabuipc' 20 bo pi Conoachc. 

e Conmaicne, i. e. descendants of Con- 
mhac, son of Fearghus, ex-king of Ulster, 
in the first century, by Meadhbh, queen 
of Comiacht. There were three territories 
of this name in Connacht, namely, Con- 
maicne Cluneal Dubhain, now the barony 
of Dumnore, in the north of the county of 
Galway ; Conmaicne Cuile Toladh, now 
the barony of Kilmaine, in the south of the 
county of Mayo ; and Conmaicne Mara, now 
the barony of Ballynahinch, in the north- 
west of the county of Galway. It should 
be remarked that before the Dalcassian 
families, called Dealbhna, settled in West 
or Iar Connacht, the Conmaicne Mara, or 
maritime Conmaicne, had possession of all 
that part of the present county of Galway 
lying west of Loch Measca (Mask) and Loch 
Oirbsean (Corrib), and between Galway 
and the harbour of Cael Shaile Ruadli 
(Killary), all which district has its old 
name still revived or preserved in the cor- 
rupted form of " Connamara." See Hardi- 
man's edition of O'Flaherty's Iar-Connacht, 
pp. 31, 92, &c. &c. 

f Ciarraidhe. — These were also de- 
scended from Fearghus, ex-king of Ulster, 
and derive their name and origin from Ciar, 

one of the illegitimate sons of Fearghus, by 
Meadhbh, queen of Connacht. The Ciar- 
raidhe of Connacht had been seated in Mini- 
ster for some centuries before they removed 
to Connacht. According to a MS in the 
Library of Trinity College, Dublin, H. 3, 
17, p. 875, they removed to Connacht in 
the reign of Aedh, son of Eochaidh Tirm- 
charna the eighth Christian king of Con- 
nacht, under the conduct of Cairbre, son 
of Conaire. As the account of the Ciar- 
raidhe of Connacht given in that manu- 
script is very curious, and determines the 
situation of an ancient Irish church, the 
position of which has much puzzled mo- 
dem writers, the Editor is tempted here 
to present the reader with a literal trans- 
lation of it. 

" When first did the Ciarraidhe come 
into Comiacht? Not difficult. In the 
time of Aedh, son of Eochaidh Tirmcharna. 
Which of them came in first ? Not diffi- 
cult. Coirbri, son of Conairi, who came 
from the south of Minister, whence he had 
been expelled. He came with all his peo- 
ple to Aedh, son of Eochaidh Tirmchania. 
Coirbri had a famous daughter, and king 
Aedh asked her of her father. She came 

na 5-Ceapn. 


Five score milch-cows [are also brought] over 
From the Greagraidhe of the fine trees. 

Twelve score cloaks of strength, 

Two hundred cows without defect of reckoning 
Eighty hogs, great their fame, 
Are due of the Conmaicne e . 

Five score great cows of repute, 
Five score oxen of oxen 
From the Ciarraidhe f , heavy the tribute g , 
Are given to the king of Connacht. 

one time to her father's house, and her fa- 
ther conceiving great grief in her presence, 
she asked him whence his grief arose. ' My 
being without lands in exile,' said he. 
Messengers afterwards arrived from the 
king to see the daughter, but she resolved 
not to go to the king imtil he should give 
a good tract of land to her father. ' I will 
give him,' said Aedh, ' as much of the 
wooded lands to the west as he can pass 
round in one day, and St. Caelainn, the 
pious, shall be given as a guarantee of it.' 
Coirbri afterwards went round a great ex- 
tent of that country, according to the mode 
directed, and finally returned to his house, 
and settled his people in these lands. The 
men of Connacht greatly criminated Aedh 
for the too great extent of land, as they 
deemed, which he had given away, and 
said that Coirbri should be killed. ' This 
cannot be done,' said Aedh, ' for Caelainn 
is guarantee for himself and for his land. 
But, however, let some beer be made by 
you for him, and give him a poisonous 
draught in that beer, that he may die of it.' 
A feast was, therefore, afterwards prepared. 
This whole affair was revealed by the Lord 
to St. Caelainn, and she came to the feast. 

' Why hast thou violated my guarantee ?' 
said she to Aedh. ' I will violate thee as 
regards thy kingdom.' ' Accept thy own 
award in compensation for it,' said the 
king. ' I will,' said Caelainn. ' Pass thy 
sentence then,' said the king. ' I will, 
said she. ' Because it is through the me- 
dium of beer thou soughtest to destroy 
Coirbri, may the king of Connacht meet 
decline or certain death if ever he drink of 
the beer of the Ciarraidhi.' Hence it came 
to pass that the Ciarraidhi never brew any 
beer for the kings of Connacht. ' Grant 
land to myself,' said the mm. ' Choose 
it,' said the king. The Tearmonn Mor 
was afterwards given, where her church is 
at the present day." 

St. Caelainn, who was of the race of Ciar, 
son of Fearghus, is still held in the highest 
veneration in the territories of Ciarraidhe 
Aei (in the west of the county of Roscom- 
mon), and Ciarraidhe Locha na n-Airneadh 
(in the barony of Costello, and county of 
Mayo). Her church is still sometimes 
called Tearmonn Caelainne, and sometimes 
Tearmonn Mor. It is situate in the parish 
of " Kilkeevin," in the territory of Ciar- 
raidhe Aei, about one mile to the east of 



Cpi pichio bpac oeapj, nach Dub' 1 , 
cpi pichic rope, caeb lebap, 
6 ChiappaioiB, cpuaib in bpear 2 '-, 
'p-a (o)-cabaipc 23 uili ap oen learh. 

t)leajap bo £,ui£nib cean lochc, 
a (o)-cup5norh ppip in long-pope 24 , 
peachc (5)-caeca lul^ach ille 
oo chobaipe cacli 6ellcaine'- 4 . 

Cpi chaeca cope, lp capboa, 
a (o)-copaccain each Samna, 
cpi caeca bpac co n-a m-blao 
oo pi£ Conbacc ip Cpuchan. 

lp Don chain cheacna, po clop, 
can eajoip 26 , can ain-b-plaichup, 
cpi caeca oarh ap 16 ille 27 
oo ppichailearh 28 chpebaipi. 

the town of "Castlerea." See the Ord- 
nance Map of the county of Roscommon, 
sheets 20, 26. See also the Aimals of Ulster 
and the Four Masters, at the year 1225, 
where it is stated that the English and the 
people of Minister, having gone into the 
province of Connaeht to attack O'Neill 
(who had gone thither to assist the sons 
of Ruaidhri O'Conchobhair), attempted to 
plunder this church of Tearmonn Cael- 
ainne, but that they were slaughtered 
through the miracles of the saint. We are, 
however, informed by the Annals of Kilro 
nan, that in the year 1236 the Justiciary 
of Ireland went to Connaeht to assist Wil- 
liam Burke, and succeeded in burning 
Tearmonn Caelainne, in despite of the peo- 
ple, regardless of the sanctity of the place. 
See Mac Firbisigh's Genealogies of the Irish 
Saints, p. 733, and an Inquisition, taken 
on the 27th of May. 1017, which finds that 
" Termon-Kealand" belonged to the mo- 

nastery of Roscommon. See Tribes and 
Customs of the Ui Fiachrach, page 153, 
note ". We have still sufficient evidence 
to prove the extent of the country of the 
Ciarraidhe of Connaeht. It comprised the 
whole of the present barony of Claumor- 
ris, in the county of Mayo, except the 
Tearmonn of Balla; also that portion of the 
barony of Costello belonging to the arch- 
diocese of Tuam, namely, the parishes of 
A.ghamore, Knock, Bekan, and Annagh, 
which was called Ciarraidhe Locha na 
n-Airneadh; the district of Ciarraidhe Aei, 
now Claim Ceithearnaigh (O' Flaherty's 
Ogygia, part iii. c. 46), in Roscommon, ex- 
tending, according to the most intelligent 
of the natives, from the bridge of" Cloon- 
alis,"near Castlerea, westwards to "Cloon- 
eane," where it adjoins the county of Mayo, 
and from " Clooncan" to Cluain Creamh- 
choille, " Clooncraffield," where it adjoins 
the territory of Airteach, and thence in the 

na 5-Cecqic. 


[Also] three score red cloaks, not black, 
Three score hogs of long sides 
From the Ciarraidhe, hard the sentence, 
Are all to be brought to one place. 

There are due of the Luighne' 1 without fault, 
As a supply for the residence, 
Seven times fifty milch-cows hither 
To be brought every May-day. 

Thrice fifty bull-like hogs 

To be brought every Samhain, 

Thrice fifty superb cloaks 

To the king of Connacht and Cruachain. 

Of the same tribute, it was heard, 
Without injustice, without tyranny, 
Thrice fifty oxen on a day hither 
To supply the ploughing. 

other direction to " Cloonaff," adjoining 
Lord Mountsandford's demesne ; and also 
Ciarraidhe Airtich, which is still well 
known, and comprises the parishes of Tibo- 
hine and Kilnamanagh, in the modern 
grand jury barony of " Frenchpark," in 
the north-west of the county of Roscom- 

S Great the tribute. It will be observed 
that the lungs of Connacht contrived to 
make the Ciarraidhe and other tribes, who 
had migrated from Munster, pay more than 
a rateable tribute for their territory. See the 
tribute paid by the Luighne, the descend- 
ants of Cormac Gaileanga, son of Tadhg, 
son of Cian, son of Oilioll Omm, king of 
Munster, and by the Dealbhna, who were 
of the race of Cormac Cas, son of the same 
Oilioll. See note °, p. 106, infra. 

h Luighne These derived their name 

and origin from Luigh, son of Cormac 
Gaileang, just mentioned, and were other- 

wise called Gaileanga from the cognomen 
of their ancestor. The exact limits of their 
territory are preserved in those of the dio- 
cese of Achadh Chonaire (Achonry) in the 
comities of Sligo and Mayo. The name 
Luighne is still preserved hi that of the 
barony of " Leyny" in the county of Sligo, 
which was the territory of the family of 
O'h-Ara (O'Hara) ; and that of Gaileanga, 
their alias name, in that of the barony of 
" Gallen," in the county of Mayo ; but these 
modern baronies do not comprise all the 
territory of the Luighne or Gaileanga, for 
we have the clearest evidence that the 
entire of Sliabh Lugha, which forms about 
the northern half of the barony of Costello, 
belonged to O'Gadlira (O'Gara) and was 
a part of the country of the Luighne or 
Gaileanga. On the increasing power of the 
Anglo-Norman families of Jordan de Exe- 
ter, and Nangle or Costello, the O'Gadhras 
were driven out of their original territory, 



Ce oa beapaio 29 Cui^ne llle 

a (5)-cain 30 cap ceanD a (o)-cipe, 
ni h-iaD, na cuacha 31 , lp oaep ano 
ace in peap M ip a' peapano. 

Qipo-chip na (£)-Copc, cean chpuaioi, 
do chobaipe each aen uaipi 33 
do pij ITlaiji h-Qe 34 na n-each 
peachc (b)-pichic bo, ni ban bpeach. 

Seachc (£)-caeca do chaepaib laipn, 
peachc (j)-caecao muc co mop jliaio 35 , 
peachc (5)-caecao oarh, Dilp pmachc, 
do beap do pi Conoachc 36 . 

Upf chaeca bpac copepa, ao clop, 
can am-pip, cean lmapbup 37 , 
ip oo t)(h)elbnaib oleajap pin 
do pij Connachc co Cpuachain 38 . 

and they acquired a new settlement for them- 
selves in the territory of the Greagraidhe 
("Coolavin," as already stated). 

' But the grass and the land. — The ter- 
ritory of Luighne or Gaileanga (for they 
were originally synonymous) anciently be- 
longed to an enslaved tribe of the Firbolgs 
(called " Gaileans" and " Damnonians"), 
who inhabited this territory down to the 
third century, when Cormac Gaileang, 
after having incurred the censure of his 
father Tadhg, in Munster, fled thither and 
obtained a grant of this Firbolg territory 
from his kinsman Cormac mac Airt, mo- 
narch of Ireland, subject, however, to the 
heavy tributes which had been paid by 
the dispossessed Aitheach Tuatha (Atta- 
cots). See O'Flaherty's Ogygia, c. 69. 

k Corca The Editor knows no tribe of 

this name in Connacht except Corca Ach- 
lann and Corca Firtri, who were both of the 
royal race of Eochaidh Muighmheadhan, and 

Corca Mogha (in Ui Maine), descended from 
Buan, the son of the druid Mogh Ruith ; D. 
Mac Firb. MS. Geneal. p. 535. That dis- 
trict is now supposed to be co-extensive 
with the parish of Kilkerrin, near Dun- 
more, in the north of Galway; but this 
small territory could not have paid the im- 
mense tribute mentioned in the text. 

1 King of Magh Aei. — The king of Con- 
nacht was so called from the situation of 
his palace of Cruachain in the Plain of 
Magh Aei, or Campus Connaciw, now 
Machaire Chonnacht, a beautiful plain in 
the county of Roscommon, extending from 
near the town of Roscommon to the verge of 
the barony of Boyle, and from the bridge 
of " Cloonfree," near Strokestown, west- 
wards to Castlerea. These are the present 
limits of this plain, according to tradition, 
but it would appear from the position of 
Ciarraidhe Aei, that this plain extended 
farther to the west. 

na 5-Ceapc. 


Although the Luighne bring hither 
Their tribute for their territory, 
It is not the tribes here are ignoble 
But the grass and the land 1 [are liable]. 

The high tribute of the Corca k , without severity, 
To be given every time (year) 
To the king of Magh Aei 1 of steeds, 
Seven score cows, no light award™. 

Seven times fifty masses of iron, 

Seven times fifty hogs of great battle, 
Seven times fifty oxen, lawful the tribute, 
They shall give to the king of Connacht. 

Three times fifty red cloaks, it was heard, 
Without injustice, without transgression, 
Of the Dealbhna 11 are these due 
To the king of Connacht at Cruachain. 

m No light award.— The Irish word ban 
is used to denote bl«wk in such compounds 
as the present ; as bdn-rhaiDm, a defeat 
caused by panic or terror, without shed- 
ding blood ; bdn-rhapcpa, i. e. martyr- 
dom effected by subduing the passions, 
without shedding blood. 

n Dealbhna. — The Dealbhna (Delvins) 
are descended from Sumann, son of 
Lughaidh Dealbhaeth, the third son of 
Cas, ancestor of the family of O'Briain, 
of North Munster. Their possessions in 
Connacht comprised the present barony of 
" Moycullen" in the county of Galway, 
which was anciently called Dealbhna 
Feadha, and Dealbhna Tire da Loch, from 
its situation between Loch Oirbsean (Cor- 
rib), and Loch Lurgan, or the Bay of Gal- 
way ; Dealbhna Cuile Fabhair, otherwise 
called Muintir Fathaidh, situate on the 
east side of Loch Corrib, and comprising 
fourteen Bailes or townlands, which be- 

longed to the family of O'Fathartaigh, 
"Faherty;" and Dealbhna Nuadhat, seated 
between the rivers Suca (Suck) and Sion- 
nain (Shannon) ; nearly all included in the 
barony of "Athlone," in the county of 
Roscommon. See O'Fla. Ogygia, part iii. 
c. 82 ; and Annals of the Four Masters, at 
the years 751, 816, 1142; D. Mac Fir- 
bisigh's Genealogical work (Marquis of 
Drogheda's copy), p. 345 ; and Tribes and 
Customs of the Ui Maine, p. 83. The family 
of Mac Conroi (now " King"), O'h-Adh- 
naidh (Hyney), and O'Fathartaigh (O'Fa- 
herty), were the chief families of this race 
after the establishment of surnames. The 
tribe of Dealbhna Nuadhat sank under the 
Ui Maine before the establishment of sur- 
names. The last notice of them, in the 
Annals of the Four Masters, occurs under 
the year 751. There were other territories 
called Dealbhna, in the ancient Meath, con- 
cerning whom see notes further on. 

106 Leabhap 

Cpf chaeca cope cean cacha, 
cpf chaeca bam n-oeaj oaca 
6 T3(h)ealbnaib ariiain — ni bpeag; 
olejap a' cam bo comeac 39 . 

Nocho n-ap oafpi na (b)-peap; 

mean bao h-e in peapann peapmap 40 

ni chibpaibip cam llle, 

mean bao ap ceanb a (o)-cipi. 41 

TTlop chain h-Ua TTlaine oo'n maij, 
ip mebaip le cac peanchaib; 
ochemoja 42 bpac — noco bpej, 
ochemoja 4 * cpoc [cope], ip cpom-cpeac. 

^e bo beapap in chain cain 
6 Qib maine bo'n mop maij 43 , 
ip cap ceano a (b)-cipi chall 
oleajap in chain oo chomall 14 . 

Saep-chuacha Conbacc cean cheap 45 , 
ni bleajap oib cam coimbeap 46 ; 
h-Lli 6pivnn na longaib na leap 47 , 
Sil Hluipeabaij na muinceap. 

It is not for ignobility of the men, with his brothers Colla Uais and Colla 

that is, although the Dealbhna pay a great Meann, subdued the greater part of Ulster, 

tribute to the king of Connacht, they are and destroyed the palace of Eamhain Ma- 

not regarded by him as slaves, as were the cha (Emania), in the year 332 Vid. ibid. 

Firbolg tribes who preceded them, because pp. 54, 85, &c, and in the Life of St. Greal- 

they are of the royal blood of Munster ; Ian, the patron of this race there cited, a 

but having, by consent of the king, settled full account of Maine Mor, their progeni- 

in lands subject to heavy tribute at the pe- tor, who settled in this territory in the 

riod of their settlement, they were obliged reign of Duach Galach, the third Chris- 

to pay the tributes which had been ren- tian king of Connacht, who permitted 

dered by their enslaved predecessors — See them to dispossess Cian, the Firbolg king 

Tribes and Customs of the Ui Maine, of the district, which was then called 

p. 85, note f . Magh Sein-cheineoil, and of the extent of 

P Ui Maine, Anglice " Hy Many", &c. the territory of the Ui Maine, &c, &c. The 

i. e. the descendants of Maine, the fourth extent there defined must, however, be 

in descent from Colla da Chrioch, who, regarded as its extent after the conquest 

na 5-Cect|ic. 107 

Thrice fifty hogs without deficiency, 
Thrice fifty oxen of goodly color, 
From the Dealbhna alone, — no falsehood ; 
It is lawful to maintain the tribute. 

It is not for ignobility of the men" ; 
Were it not for the grassy land 
They would not bring tribute hither, 
Unless on account of their territory. 

The great tribute of the Ui Maine p to the plain (of Cruachain), 
It is recollected by every historian ; 
Eighty cloaks, — it is no falsehood ; 
Eighty hogs, a heavy herd. 

Though this fine tribute is given 

By the Ui Maine to the great plain (of Cruachain), 

It is for their own country 15 

That it is lawful to keep up the tribute. 

The free tribes of Connacht without sorrow, 
No ample tribute of them is due ; 
The Ui Briuin r of the ships of the seas, 
The Siol Muireadhaigh 5 of the tribes. 

of the Dealbhna Nuadhat, who possessed r The Ui Brinin (Nepotes Briani), the 

the territory lying between the rivers Suca descendants of Brian, brother of Niall of 

(Suck) and Sionnain (Shannon), till about the Nine Hostages. These were consi- 

the beginning of the ninth century, when dered the relatives of the king of Connacht, 

thej' were vanquished and enslaved by the and were exempt from the payment of tri- 

celebrated warrior Cathal, son of Oilioll, bnte. After the establislunent of surnames, 

king of Ui Maine Ibid. the principal families of this race were those 

i For their country, that is, because the of O'Conchobhair (O'Conors) of Connacht, 

Ui Maine (Nepotes Manii, the Ulster of O'Flaithbheartaigh (O'Flahertys) of 

tribe) were permitted by the king of Conn- the Ui Briuin Seola (the barony of Clare, 

acht to subdue the Firbolgs, who paid the in the county of Galway), of O'Ruairc 

tribute of an enslaved people. The for- (O'Rourkes) of West Breifne (the county of 

mer, therefore, were obliged to pay the Leitrim), and of O'Raghallaigh (O'Reillys) 

same tribute, though they were considered of East Breifne (the county of Cavan), with 

noble, as being of the race of Conn of the various collateral branches. 

Hundred Battles. s Siol Muireadhaigh, i. e. the seed or 



h-Ui Piachpach in moiji moip, 
Cenel n-Geoa, — ni h-ecoip, 
ni oleajap oib cam nd pmachc 4S 
do ehobaipc do pij Conoucc. 

Na clanDa pm can chip coin 49 , 
mao ail, ploinoeao 50 a pochaip : 
corh-Duchai j 061b imale 
ce be oib oa po in pije. 

^e bi oib oeach laip 1 (5)-cach 
le pij Conoachc lp Cpuuchan, 
Dia mapbehap do jaib no 'n-gleic 5 
oleagap 54 a Ic 'p- a epeic. 

Uaip nocho 0I15 neach 53 oib-pin 
oul 1 (5)-cach no coriilonoaib 54 
la pi ConDacc chaime cpuiD, 
minab 55 ap ceano ruapipcuil. 

race of Muireadhach Muilleathan, king of 
Connacht. See the Introduction. After 
the establishment of surnames, the princi- 
pal families of this race, who were the most 
distinguished of the Ui Briuin, were those 
of O'Conchobhair (O'Conors) of Magh Aei, 
kings of Connacht ; of Mac Diarmaid (Mac 
Dermots) of Magh Lurg (Moylurg) ; of 
Mac Oireachtaigh (Geraghtys), chiefs of 
Muintir Roduibh ; of OTionnachtaigh, 
chiefs of Clanna Conmhuighe (Clancon- 
way) ; and various other collateral fami- 

1 Ui Fiachrach There were two tribes 

of this name in Connacht, descended from 
Fiachra, the brother of the Irish monarch 
Niall of the Nine Hostages. The more 
powerful tribe of the name, the northern 
Ui Fiachrach, possessed the present baro- 
nies of " Carra," "Erris," and "Tirawley," 
in the county of Mayo, and the barony of 

Tir Fhiachrach (Tireragh), in the county of 
Sligo. After the establishment of sur- 
names, the families of O'Dubhda and 
O'Caendiain were the most distinguished 
of this tribe. — See the Tribes and Customs, 
&c, of the Ui Fiachrach, passim. The 
other Ui Fiachrach of Connacht, the Ui 
Fiachrach Aidhne (south Ui Fiachrach), 
were seated in the south-west of the county 
of Galway, and their territory was exactly 
co-extensive with the diocese of Cill Mhic 
Duach (Kilmacduagh), as we learn from 
the Life of St. Colman Mac Duach (H. 2, 
16, p. 495), who was their patron, and all 
whose territory was placed by Guaire 
Aidhne, king of Connacht, in his bishop- 
ric about the year 610. " Conio ip 
in rhaigin pin po porai^eao Cell 
rhic t)uac, coniD leip Qione uile, 
acupclann ^huaipe mic Colmain 
oppin amdc co bpac", i. e. " So that 

na 5-Ceajic. 


The Ui Fiachrach 1 of the great plain, 
The Cineal Aedha u , — not unjust, 
They are not liable to rent or tribute, 
To give to the king of Connacht. 

Of these tribes without any tribute, 

If it be pleasing, I shall name their privileges : 

Of the same race are they all together, 

Which ever of them shall attain to the kingship. 

Whoever of them goes with him into battle 
With the king of Connacht and Cruachain, 
If he die of wounds or be killed in battle, 
It is a duty (of the king) to pay his eric. 

For not one of these is bound 
To go into battle or conflicts 
With the king of Connacht of the fair rewards, 
Unless for the sake of stipends 

in that place was founded CillMic Duaeh, so 
that all Aidhne, and the race of Guaire, son 
of Colman, belong to him [Mac Duaeh] for 
ever." The principal families of this tribe 
after the establishment of surnames, were 
those of O'h-Eidhin (O'Heynes), O'Clerigh 
(O'Clerys), and Mac Giolla Ceallaigh 
(Kilkellys), who were descended from 
king Guaire Aidhne, and of O'Seachnasaigh 
(O'Sbaughnessys), who sprung from Aedh, 
the uncle of king Guaire. St. Colman, 
the patron saint of this tribe, was the son 
of Duaeh, who was the son of Ainmire, son 
of Conall, son of Eoghan Aidhne, the an- 
cestor of the Ui Fiachrach Aidhne. 

u Cineal Aedha, i. e. the tribe of Aedh. 
This was the tribe-name of O'Seachnasaigh, 
a subsection of the Ui Fiachrach Aidhne. 
Most modern writers have spoken of the 
Cineal Aedha and Ui Fiachrach Aidhne as 
if they were a different race, but the most 

ancient pedigrees make the Cineal Aedha a 
subdivision of the Ui Fiachrach Aidhne. 
This incorrectness became general among 
the Irish writers. After the English inva- 
sion O'h-Eidhin and O'Seachnasaigh be- 
came independent of each other, when the 
former, being the senior, and of the race 
of Guaire, took the title of chief of the Ui 
Fiachrach Aidhne, and the latter the title 
of chief of Cineal Aedha. 

v For the sake of stipend. — That is, 
these tribes were considered the king's re- 
latives, and they were not bound to serve 
the king in his wars except for pay ; and 
if any of them were killed in battle while 
in the service of the king of Connacht, the 
king was to pay to his tribe mulct or eric 
for him, according to his dignity. This 
was a great privilege enjoyed by the de- 
scendants of the brothers of the monarch 
Niall of the Nine Hostages in Connacht. 

110 Ceabhoqi 

Qn epdch nach (m)-bia piji ehuaio 
ac pil Piachpa 56 ip ^uaipi gluaip, 
ipeao bleajaib, — ni gpdin jape, 
leachjuala aipb-pij Conoacc 57 . 

t)d (o)-ceacrhab oo 6ei£-peap bib 
a rip o'pdcbdil pe h-ain-pip 
juala each pi£ chuicib com 
blijib each pi o'a pijoib. 

fflaith bo (p)uaip 6enean co beachc 
in c-eolipa, — ni h-egceapc; 
plombpeab-pa map acct pin, 
a baine ana, eipcij ! . . . BlSClg 126 S6NCUS. 

t)0 ChUCfRUSUOf, 58 cuadi Conoacc ana po 6 dipo-pi£ 
Cpuachan: dp lp cap ceano peapaino 59 ucup cuapipcail icaic-peom 
cipa, acup nocho n-ap oafpi ceneoil, dp id bpachaip an 6o uppaio oib- 
linaib. Ipuibiu po bic comb'" be impai each plaichip acup each piji 6 
n-gabail 62 co pecchi, mma pallaij pal pin^aili, [no] popbpecc pop 
naebu 6 ', no biulcub baipci, comb be impai plaic 64 uaibib: acup conao 
lapam pojnaio 65 cip acup gabaib cuapipcol 6 cellach nd pill acupnd 
bell a t)ia. 

Oligio bno plaich Sil TTIuipeaoaig pail acup eppib pij Conoucc, 
acup a pciach acup a claioearh acup a Cuipeach. 

Cuic eich acup cuic claibirh acup cuic lonja acup cuic lui- 
peacha bo pij Uihaill. 

Se pceich acup pe claibirh acup pe h-eich acup pe h-inaip acup 
pe cuipno bo pij Cpecpaibi. 

[Cuic cuipn ou pi t)elbna.] 

[Ceichpi map, ceichpi claioirh, ceichpi mo^aib, ceichpi mnd, 
ceichpi luipeca], bd pdlaij acup bd pichchill acup beich (5)-cuipn 
acup beich n-eich oo pij Conmaicne. 

Seachc m-bpuic acup peachc n-inaip acup peachc n-eich acup 
peachc (s)-coin oo pij h-Ua ITlaine. 

" / shall state it as it is The writer scribe the tribes as they stood in his own, 

had probably an older poem before him, not in St. Benean's time. See the Intro- 
vhich he shaped into such form as to de- duction. 

na 5-Cecqic. Ill 

Whenever kingship shall not be in the north 
With the race of Fiachra and the noble Guaire, 
They are entitled, — it is no trifling privilege, 
To sit by the side of the supreme-king of Connacht. 

Should it happen that a good man of them 
Should leave his territory through injustice, 
To sit by the side of the king of whatsoever province 
Is the right of each king of their kings. 

Well has Benean exactly found 

This knowledge — it is no injustice; 

I shall state it as it is w , 

Ye noble people, hear it ! . . . HEARKEN TO A HISTORY. 

OF THE STIPENDS of the chieftainries of Connacht here from 
the supreme king of Cruachain : for it is for the lands and stipends they 
pay tributes, and not for ignobility of race, for the chiefs of all are noble 
brethren. And it is in right of that [i. e. their equality of blood] that 
every one of them may approach to assume all sovereignty and kingship 
alike, if not debarred by the defilement of the slaying of a kinsman, or 
the oppressing of saints, or the renouncement of baptism, and it is by 
these alone his right to sovereignty should depart from him : and hence 
it is that they pay tribute to and receive stipend from a [regal] house 
which has not turned back or separated from God. 

The king of Siol Muireadhaigh is entitled to the ring and dress of 
the king of Connacht, and to his shield and sword and armour. 

Five steeds and five swords and five ships and five coats of mail to 
the king of Umhall. 

Six shields and six swords and six steeds and six tunics and six 
drinking-horns to the king of Greagraidhe. 

Five drinking-horns to the king of Dealbhna. 

Four tunics, four swords, four bondmen, four women, four coats 
of mail, two rings and two chess-boards and ten drinking-horns and ten 
steeds to the king of Conmaicne. 

Seven cloaks and seven tunics and seven steeds and seven hounds 
to the king of Ui Maine. 

112 Leabhccp 

TDeich n-eich acup oeich m-bpuic acup oeich (5)-cuipn acup 
oeich (5)-cotn do pig £,uijne. 

Cuic eich acup coic maeailacup cuic claioim, [ci'115 luipeaca, od 
pdlaij, oeich n-ec, oeich (5)-clai6irh] acup oeich (5)-cuipn acup oeich 
mojaio acup oeich (B)-pichchilla 00 pi£ h-Ua m-6piuin. 

Cpi cuipn acup cpi claiorhi acup cpi h-eich acup oeich (b)-pdilji 
acup oeich (b)-pichchilla 00 pij h-Ua Piachpach in cuaipceipc. 

Seachc mojaio acup peace mnd oaepa acup peache (£)-cuipn 
acup cpi 66 claiomi acup cpi 66 coin 00 pij Ceneoil n-Qeoa. 

Upi h-inaip acup cpi cuipn acup cpi h-eich 00 pij papepaiji. 

Ipamlaio pin mioijceap pebpa [acup cuapipcla] pig cuach Con- 
ice. Conio 061b po cheao in [bapp buaoac] 6enean [co n-abap] po. 

CUaR?SCa6 cuicio 67 Chonoacc 
ll-lebap chaem 10 chonoapc, 
'n-a (o)-cabaip o'a 68 chuachaib chuaio 
pi Conoacc, ceano in mop pluaij. 

Oli^io in peap lp peapp olb 
00 pil lTluipeaoaig 6'n pij 
pail acup eppib lp each, 
pciach, claioearh acup 6uipeach. 

tJlijio pi Urhaill, cean ace, 

coic eich 'n-a chip cean epomoache, 
cuic claioim choppa chacha, 
cuic lonja, cuic luipeacha. 

t)li£i6 pi Oelbna 6 D(h)puim Ceieh 
pe claioim acup pe peer, 
pe h-eich, pe h-inaip, co n-6p, 
acup pe cuipn pe 69 com -61. 

OI1516 pi Cpecpaioi jloin 
pe 70 h-aipm acup pe 70 h-inaip, 
pe 70 mojaio, pe mnd oaepa, 
pe luipeacha Ian chaerha 71 . 

* Siol Mvireadhaigh See p. 107, note ', supra. 

ncc 5-Ceapc. 113 

Ten steeds and ten cloaks and ten drinking-horns and ten hounds 

to the king of Luighne. 

Five steeds and five matals and five swords, five coats of mail, two 

rings, ten steeds, ten swords and five drinking-horns and ten bondmen 

and ten chess-boards to the king of Ui Briuin. 

Three drinking-horns and three swords and three steeds and ten 

rings and ten chess-boards to the king of the northern Ui Fiachrach. 

Seven bondmen and seven bondwomen and seven drinking-horns 

and three swords and three hounds to the king of Cineal Aedha. 

Three tunics and three drinking-horns and three steeds to the king 

of Partraidhe. 

Thus are estimated the worthiness and the title to stipends of the 

kings of the territories of Connacht. Of them the gifted son Benean 

composed this [poem]. 

THE STIPENDS of the province of Connacht 

In a fair book I have seen, 

Which are given to his chieftaini'ies in the north 

By the king of Connacht, head of the great host. 

Entitled is the man who is best of them 

Of the Siol Muireadhaigh x from the king 

To a ring and a dress and a steed, 

To a shield, sword and coat of mail. 

Entitled is the king of UmhalP, without condition, 

To five steeds in his country without heaviness, 

Five polished swords of battle, 

Five ships, five coats of mail. 

Entitled is the king of Dealbhna z of Druim Leith 

To six swords and six shields, 

Six steeds, six tunics, with gold [ornaments], 

And six drinking-horns for banquets. 

Entitled is the king of fair Greagraidhe a 

To six weapons and six tunics, 

Six bondmen, six bondwomen, 

Six completely beautiful coats of mail. 

y Umhall — See p. 98, note , supra, a Greagraidhe. — See page 99, note d , 

* Dealbhna. — See p. 105, note u , supra. siiprci. 

114 Leabhaji 

Olijio pi Continaicne coip 

oeich (5)-cuipn ap n-oul 'n-a ceac n-6il, 
oeich n-eich luacha pop a lino 7 ' 2 [ling, B.], 
ou pulaij lp oct pichchill. 

TDlijio pi h-Ua maine in meano 

peace m-bpuic, peace n-jabpa cap jleann 73 , 
pecc (5)-coin ppi copao pealja 
i[p] peachc n-maip upp-oeapja 74 . 

t)li^io pi Cui^ne 75 na laech 

oeich n-eich, oeich m-bpuic, — nocho baech, 
oeich (5)-cuipn ppi caichearir 6 meaoa, 
oeich (5)-com chaeriia chnep jela 77 . 

t>liji6 pi h-Lla m-6piuin co m-blaio 78 
cuic eich acup cuic macail, 
cuic claibivh, oeic (g)-cuipn chama, 
oeich mojaio, oeich (b)-picchealla. 

tHijib pi na (j)-Copc 6"n choill 
cuic maipe acup coic macaill, 
cuic claiorhi nap clai 79 ppi cndim 
cuic luipeacha ppi lom jaib. 

tDlijio pf papcpaibi in puipc 9u 
epi cuipn, epi claiovm 'n-o chaic, 
epi h-maip acup rpi h-eich 
6 pig Cpuachan cean cam cleich. 

b Conmaicne Seep. 100, note P , supra. applied to a horse, and it is said to be 

c Ui Maine See p. 106, note P, supra. a corruption of the Welsh 'Goor.'" [Qua>re 

d Horses, Gabhra. — It is stated in Cor- gorwydd?] The author of the Life of Aedh 
mac's Glossary, that when tins word is or St. Aidus, published by Colgan, at 28th 
applied to a horse it should be written with February, translates Lochgabkra by stag- 
sea o; and indeed it generally is, but the man. equi; and Colgan remarks (note 14, 
scribes here have Gabhar in the text of both p. 422) that gahhar is a very ancient Scotic 
copies of the Book of Rights. Cormacsays: and British word for eqmis, which is each 
" Gabhar, written with an a, quasi ca- in modern Irish. 
per ; but when written with an o it is e Luighne — See p. 103, note h , supra. 

net 5-Ceapc. 115 

Entitled is the king of hospitable Conmaicne b 

To ten drinking-horns on going into his drinking-house, 
Ten swift steeds on which to mount, 
Two rings and two chess-boards. 

Entitled is the king of Ui Maine the illustrious 
To seven cloaks, seven horses d over the valley, 
Seven hounds for the purpose of the chase 
And seven deep-red tunics. 

Entitled is the king of Luighne e of the heroes 
To ten steeds, ten cloaks, — not silly, 
Ten drinking-horns for quaffing mead, 
Ten beautiful white-skinned hounds. 

Entitled is the king of Ui Brinin f of fame 
To five steeds and five matals, 
Five swords, ten crooked drinking-horns, 
Ten bondmen, ten chess-boards. 

Entitled is the king of the Corca g of the wood 
To five war-horses and five matals, 
Five swords not to be resisted by a bone, 
Five coats of mail against bare javelins. 

Entitled is the king of Partraidhe' 1 of the port 

To three drinking-horns, three swords as his share, 

Three tunics and three steeds 

From the king of Cruachain without any concealment. 

1 Ui Briuin See p. 107, note r , supra. it would appear from Giolla Iosa Mor Mac 

g Corca. — See p. 104, note k , supra. Firbisigh of Leacan, that this territory was 

h Partraidhe. — This is still the name of originally more extensive See Tribes and 

well-known territory in the county of Customs of the Ui Fiachrach, pp. 47, 152, 

Mayo. It forms the western portion of the 187,189,202. See also O'Fla. 
barony of " Carra," and is now believed to part iii. c. xi., where mention is made of 
be co-extensive with the parish of Odhbha three territories of this name, viz. : " Par- 
Ceara (Ballovey, also " Partry"), in which trigia" of Ceara, which is the one just de- 
there i3 a range of mountains called Sliabh scribed ; " Partrigia" of the Lake, in which 
Partraidhe (Anglice Slieve Partry) ; but is situated the abbey of Cong, and the 


116 Leabliap 

Hpf cuipn 00 pi h-Ua Piachpach, 
cpf cloioriii pe 91 cloo cliachach, 

cpi h-eich noch caibne ceana [1 n-Qibne in leanna, B.] 
oeich (b)-pailji, oeich (b)-pichchilla. 

[t)li£ib pi Ceneoil Qe6a 

peace mnd, peace mojaib oaepa, 

cpf cuipn acup cpf claibirh 

acup cpf coin ppi ourha a n-oaipib]. 

lpeao pin oleajaio cuacha 

choicio Chonoaclic lp Cpuachna 

6 pij lTluiji li-CTe 82 na n-aj, 

do neoch olijeap cuapipcal CUQR1SCQ6. 

plain on which the first battle of Magh tain of St. Patrick (Cruach Phadraig) to 

Tuireadh was fought; and " Patrigia" of Loch Oirbsean (Corrib). 

the Mountain, extending from the moun- i Ui Fiachrach — Seep. 108, note '\ supra. 

na 5-Ceajiu. 117 

Three drinking-horns to the king of Ui Fiachrach', 
Three swords for the overthrow of battles, 
Three steeds in Aidhne of the ale, 
Ten rings, ten chess-boards. 

Entitled is the king of Ceneal Aedha 

To seven women, seven enslaved bondmen, 

Three drinking-horns and three swords 

And three hounds for his forest hunting-shed k . 

To such are the chieftainries entitled 

Of the province of Connacht and Cruachain, 

From the king of Magh Aei of the oxen, 

Such as are entitled to stipend THE STIPENDS. 

k Hunting-shed Ourha is sometimes sat whilst his huntsmen and hounds were 

applied to a shed or hut, put up in a wood engaged around him in the chase — Vide 
or mountain, in which the king or chief OUriia peulga, in the Dinn-Seanchus. 

118 Cecibliaji 

in.— t)6i^heat)h Rio^h ait 15b, omshiatt, a^us 

in. i. Dligheanh R15I1 Q1I15I1. 

C1SSQ pi£ Qilij acup a chuapipcal anb po, acup a chfpa-pon 6 
chuachaib acup a cuapipcul-pon boib-peom. 

Ceo caepach acup ceac bpac acup ceac bo acup ceac cope 06 6 
Chuileanopaioi ino pin. 

Cpica rope acup epicha bo acup epicha mole 6 Uhuaich Rata. 

[Cpi ceac cope acup cpi ceuc bo acup cpi ceac mole 6 [peapaib 

[Upi ceao bo, cpi ceao mapc, ceao cine 6] pij li-Ua Piachpach. 

Ceac mapc acup ceac bo acup ceac cope acup 1 caeca bpac a 
h-Llib mic Caipchaino. 

Cpi cheac cope, cpi ceac bo, cpi ceac mapc 6 Chianoacca ^lenna 

t)eich (j)-ceac 2 luljach, ceac mapc, caeca bam, caeca cope 6 
P(h)eapaib£ 1. 

Ceo luljach, caeca cope, caeca bpac 6 Llib Uuipcpi. 

Ceo mapc, ceac luljach, caeca bpac 6 peapaib ITIui^i 

Saep-cbuacha Q1I15 .1. Culach O5 acup Cpaeb acup lTIa^ 
n-lcba acup Imp Co^ain acup Cenel Conaill: conio 061b po cha- 
chain in c-eolacb .1. 6emen mac Sepcnen 3 : 

a It has already been explained that ster, unlike the other provinces, was at 
these headings are not in the original. this period divided into three great terri- 
They are merely used to make breaks, and tories, Aileach, Oirghialla, and Uladh, go- 
to mark the order of the work ; and it will verned by three chief kings, each indepen- 
here be observed that the province of Ul- dent of the other. 

rice 5-Ceapc. 119 



III. — 1. The Privileges of the King of Aileach\ 

The tributes of the king of Aileach and his stipends here, and b his 
tributes from his territories, and his stipends to them. 

A hundred sheep and a hundred cloaks and a hundred cows and a 
hundred hogs from Cuileantraidhe. 

Thirty hogs and thirty cows and thirty wethers from Tuath Eatha. 

Three hundred hogs and three hundred cows and three hundred 
wethers from the men of Lurg. 

Three hundred cows, three hundred beeves, a hundred tinnes from 
the king of Ui Fiachrach. 

A hundred beeves and a hundred cows and a hundred hogs and 
fifty cloaks from the Ui Mic Caerthainn. 

Three hundred hogs, three hundred cows, three hundred beeves 
from Cianachta of Gleann Geimhin. 

Ten hundred milch-cows, a hundred beeves, fifty oxen, fifty hogs 
from the Fir Li. 

A hundred milch-cows, fifty hogs, fifty cloaks from the Ui Tuirtre. 

A hundred beeves, a hundred milch-cows, fifty cloaks from the men 
of Magh Iotha. 

The free chieftainships of Aileach, i. e. Tulach Og and Craebh and 
Magh Iotha and Inis Eoghain and Cineal Chonaill : of these the learned 
man, viz., Benean, son of Sescnean, sang : 

*>And, acur. This should be .1. id est, c Free chieftainships — These tribes were 

or videlicet, for the second part of the free from tribute, because they were of the 

clause expresses the same as the first, and same blood with the king of Aileach, being 

should not, therefore, be connected with it all descended from Niall of the Nine Hos- 

by a copulative conjunction. tages. 



CeaRC pij CI1I15, eip[c]ib pip 
Icip baipib nach oimip 
bligio cpob, ni ctp uaiehib, 
6 pinib, 6 P(h)op-chuachaib. 

Ceo caepacb, ceao bpac, ceao bo 
acup ceao cope eobaip 66, 
6 Chuileanbpaio in chocaib 
oo pij G1I15 iap n-obaip. 

Upi cheao 4 rope a Cuaich Rachu\ 
epi cheb 6 bo co m-blicc baeha 7 , 
epicha mole a mfp buioi 
blijib pij Q1I1 j, uili. 

Cpi ceuc cope 6 peapuib tuipe, 
cpi cheb bo, ni bee in cpuio\ 
rpi ceac mole 1 n-u' 1 m-beachui^ 
00 pij Q1I15 aile leachain. 

t)lijib 00 pi b-Ua Piachpach 

epi ceac bo, — ni baj 10 bpiachpac, 
ceab mapc lp ceac einbi cpom 
00 pij pebail na (b)-paen long. 

d Aileach. — (Ely, Greenan-Ely) a fort, 
with remains in stone, in Donegal, near 
Lough Swilly, and on the isthmus divid- 
ing it from Lough Foyle, barony of Tnish- 
owen. The remains of Grianan Ailigh (the 
palace of Aileach), which was the palace 
of the kings of the northern Ui Neill (Ne- 
potes Neilli) is minutely described in the 
Ordnance Memoir of the parish of Temple- 
more. See also Colgan's Trias Thaum. 
p. 181, note 169: " A priscis scriptoribus 
Aileach Neid hodie vulgo Ailech appelle- 
tur. Fuit perantiqua Begum Hibernise se- 
des et post tempora fidei per eosdem dere- 
licta, Temoria denu6 repetita ct restaurata. 

Jacet in peninsula." 

e Forthuatha, i. e. strange tribes who 
settled in the province, not of the king's 
own race. 

f Cuileantraidhe — This territory is men- 
tioned in the Annals of the Four Masters 
at the year 1156, but nothing has yet 
turned up to show its exact situation. 

S Tuath Bat ha — (Anglice, Tooraah) a 
territory in the north-west of the county 
of Fermanagh, all included in tin- present 
barony of " Magheraboy." After the es- 
tablishment of surnames, the family of 
O'Flanagain (O'Flanagans) were the chief- 
tains of this territory, but tributary to 

na 5-Ceapu. 121 

THE RIGHT of the king of Aileach* 1 , listen ye to it. 
Among the oak-forests immeasurable 
He is entitled to income, no trifling tribute, 
From the tribes [and] from the Forthuatha e . 

A hundred sheep, a hundred cloaks, a hundred cows 
And a hundred hogs are given to him, 
From Cuileantraidhe f of the war 
To the king of Aileach laboriously. 

Three hundred hogs from Tuath Ratha 8 , 
Three hundred cows with copious milk, 
Thirty wethers in the yellow month [August] 
Are due to the king of Aileach, all. 

Three hundred hogs from the men of Lurg h , 
Three hundred cows, not small the wealth, 
Three hundred wethers living 
To the king of Aileach of the spacious house. 

There is due from the king of Ui Fiachrach 5 
Three hundred cows, — not a promise of words, 
A hundred beeves and a hundred heavy tinnesi 
To the king of Feabhal (Foyle, i. e. of Aileach) of the ready 

Mac Uidhir (Maguire). belonging to the see of Deny. Ussher 

h The men of Lurg — The inhabitants of states (Primordia, p. 857) that the church 

the barony of Lurg, in the north of the of Ardstraw, and man)' other churches of 

county of Fermanagh, are still so called. Opheathrach [O'Fiachrach] were taken 

After the establishment of surnames the from the see of Clogher, and incorporated 

family of O'Maelduin (O'Muldoons) were with that of Deny. This tribe of Ui Fiach- 

the chiefs of this territory, but tributary to rach are to be distinguished from those of 

head chiefs of Fermanagh. Connacht, already mentioned, p. 108, note', 

1 Ui Fiachrach These were the people supra ; these were of the people called 

called by the Irish aunalists Ui Fiachrach Oirghialla, and descended from Fiachrach, 

Arda Sratha (of " Ardstraw"). They were son of Earc, the eldest son of Colla Uais, 

seated along the river Dearg, in the north- monarch of Ireland in the fourth cen- 

west of the county of Tyrone, and their tury. See (/Flaherty's Ogygiu, part iii. 

district comprised the parish of "Aid- c. 7b'. 
Btraw," ami some adjoining parishes, now J Tinne.-THaa word is explained bacun, 



Ceo mapc a h-Uib TTlic Caipcliamo 
acup ceac cope, — ni paipehim, 
caeca bo, cio oul oil ji6", 
caeca bpae co m-ban bilib 1 '-. 

Cpi cheo cope ppi cuillceap ehuai^ 1 
cpi cheao bo ppi biuchao pluai j, 
epi cheao mapc, lp main cocaio, 
6 Chiunoacea in cpom ehocaio 14 . 

t)eich (5)-ceac lul^ach 6 luce 6i, 
ceac mapc, lp bpeach pipmoi, 
lp caeca oam oo oarhaib 
la caeca cope cpom capaio 15 . 

bacon, in the Book of Leacan, fol. 165, and 
muc pailci, a salted pig, in a Glossary 
in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, 
and translated lardum, by O'Colgan, in his 
version of Brogan's metrical life of St. Brid- 
get, Trias Thaum. p. 516, line 23. It is 
translated a sheep in Vallancey's Collecta- 
nea, vol. iii. p. 514, but that was a mere 
guess. It will be observed that the prose here 
differs from the verse, the former having 
three hundred hogs (cope), three hun- 
dred cows (bo), and three hundred we- 
thers (mole); and the latter three hun- 
dred cows (bo), a hundred beeves, and a 
hundred cinni. The word is sometimes 
used, like the modern pine, to denote a ring 
of a chain, as einne apgaiO, a ring of 
silver — Cormac's Glossary, I'OcetDuap; 
einne oip, a ring of gold Irish Calen- 
dar, 17th June. It is quite evident from 
the text of this poem that einne is in- 
tended to denote some animal; and the 
bacun of the Book of Leacan, and the 
lardum of Colgan, prove to a certainty that 
it means a hog killed and salted. 

k Ui Mic Caerthainn, i. e. the descen- 
dants of Forgo, son of Caerthainn, who was 
son of Earc, grandson of Colla Uais, mo- 
narch of Ireland. The territory inhabited 
by this sept was called Tir mic Caerthainn, 
a name still retained in that of the barony 
of Tir Chaerthainn, Anglice " Tirkeerin," 
in the west of the county of Derry. 
O' Flaherty, in his Ogygia, part iii. c. 76, 
very correctly describes this tribe as " near 
the Bay of Lough Fevail" [Feabhail, 
Anglice Foyle], which washes the county 
of Deny, dividing it from the county of 

1 The Cianachta, Chein Iochta, i. e. the 
race of Cian, who was the son of Oilioll 
Oluin, king of Minister in the third century. 
The district is now the barony of " Kee- 
nacht." Before the family of O'Cathain 
(O'Kane) increased in numbers and power, 
this territory was in the possession of O'Con- 
chobhair of Gleann Geimhin (O'Conor of 
Glengiven), descended from Fionnehadh 
Uallach, son of Connla, son of Tadhg, 
son of Cian ; and though so displaced (in 
the twelfth century) the family was never 

via 5-Ceajiu. 


A hundred beeves from the Ui Mic Caerthainn k 
And a hundred hogs, — 'tis not very trifling, 
Fifty cows, a lawful payment, 
Fifty cloaks with white borders. 

Three hundred hogs by which the north is replenished, 
Three hundred cows to feed the host, 
Three hundred beeves, wealth for war, 
From Cianachta 1 of the abundant store. 

Ten hundred milch-cows from the people of Li m , 
A hundred beeves, it is the award of truth, 
And fifty oxen of oxen 
With fifty hogs of heavy bellies. 

rooted out, for the "O'Conors" are still 
numerous in " Glengiven," which was the 
ancient name of the vale of the river Eoa 
(Roe), near "Dungiven," which flows 
tlirough the very centre of this Cianachta. 
— See Dublin Penny Journal, vol. i. p. 103. 
It is curious to observe the great amount 
of the tribute paid to the king of Aileach 
by tins exotic tribe of the race of Eibhear, 
from Munster. 

1,1 The people of Li, called Fir Li and 
Fir Li of the Bann. They were descended 
from Laeghaire, son of Fiachra Tort, son 
of Eochaidb, who was son of Colla Uais, 
monarch of Ireland, in the fourth century. 
See Ogygia, part iii. c. 76. The country 
possessed by this sept was sometimes called 
Magh Li, and sometimes translated Leceo- 
rum fines [Trias Thaum. p. 146], and is 
described in the Book of Leacan as ex- 
tending from Bir to Camus. That it was 
on the west side of the river Bann ap- 
pears from the Irish Calendar of the 
< >'01erighs, at 9th January, which places 
in it the church of Achadh Dubhthaigh 

(Aghadowey) a parish on the west side of 
the Bann, in the barony of " Coleraine." 
Thus: "^jucupe 6eaj 6 Gchao 
i.e. Guaire Beag from Achadh Dubhthaigh 
in Magh Li, on the brink of the Banna." 
But, on the increasing power of the family 
of O'Cathain, the Fir Li were driven across 
the Bann, and were unquestionably on the 
east side of it at the period of the English 
invasion. In the translation of the Tripar- 
tite Life of St. Patrick, Colgan errs egre- 
giously in placing this territory, and the 
mountain of Sliabh Callainn (Slieve Gal- 
lion), on the east side of the Bann ; for, 
though the people were on the east side of 
the river in Colgan's, not St. Patrick's 
time, the mountain, fortunately, remains 
in its original position, and still shows that 
Colgan mistranslated his original — See 
Trias Thaum. pp. 146, 48 ; also the Edi- 
tor's translation of the Annals of the Four 
Masters, p. 58, note b , and Dublin Penny 
Journal, vol. i., article " Dunseverick," 
p. 362. 



Ceo lulgach 6 Uhuuchaib Cope' 6 , 
caeca cinbi, caeca cope, 
[la]caeca 6pac n-oatha bo 
6 D(h)un na h-Uiopi a n-aen 16. 

Ceo mapc 6 peapaib TThngi 
lp ceac lulgach Ian buioi 17 , 
caeca bpac, lp bpeach chdna, 
bo pig CTilij imbana. 

Ni bligeano 18 a Culaig Oj 

cam 00 pig Pebail na (6)-poc, 
oaij gabchap 19 ap a cip ceanb 
pigi pop peapaib Gpino. 

Nocho oleagap ap in Chpaio 
cip bo pig Gilig co n-afb, 
nt bleagap a lT)uig ltha 
cam na 20 cache cap caerii 21 chpicha. 

» The Tuathas of Tort, i.e. of the L'i 
Tuirtre, a people seated on the east side 
of the Bann and Lough Neagh, in Antrim. 
These were also the descendants of Fiachra 
Tort, the grandson of King Colla Uais. — 
See Ogygia (ubi supra). Ui Tuirtre was 
given as a name to a deanery in the dio- 
cese of " Connor," in Colgan's time, and 
its extent can still be determined. The 
parishes of " Racavan," " Ramoan," and 
" Donnagorr," and the churches of " Down- 
kelly" (Driunmaul), and " Kilgad" (Con- 
nor), and the island of Inis Toide in Loch 
Beag near Toom Bridge, are mentioned as 

in it See Colgan's Trias Thaum. p. 183. 

The subdivisions of Ui Tuirtre continued 
to be called "Tuoghs" in the reign of 
James I., and later. — See Pope Nicholas' 
Taxation of Down, Connor and Dromore, 
by the Rev. William Beeves, M. B. 

Fifty tinnes It will be observed that 

the prose has no word corresponding with 
this — See above p. 121, note S, supra. We 
may safely conclude that it is " a salted 
pig," or a pig made into bacon. 

P Dun na h- Uidhre — There is no place 
of this name now in the territory of Ui 

<i Of Magh.—The prose has Magh Itha, 
which is correct. It is an extensive plain 
in the barony of " Raphoe," Donegal. The 
church of " Donaghmore," near the little 
town of Castlefinn, is mentioned in the Tri- 
partite Life of St. Patrick (lib. ii. c 114), 
as in this plain. See Colgan, Trias Thaum. 
p. 144, and p. 181, note 163, where its po- 
sition is described by Colgan as follows : 
" Per regionem Magh-ithe, c. 1 14. Est regi- 
uncula campestris Tir-Conalliaj ad ripam 
fluminis Finnei." According to the bardic 

rice £-Cect|ic. 


A hundred milch-cows from the Tuathas of Tort", 
Fifty tinnes , fifty hogs, 
With fifty colored cloaks [are given] to him 
From Dun-na-h-Uidhre p in one day. 

A hundred beeves from the men of Magh q 
And a hundred milch-cows full rich, 
Fifty cloaks, an award of tribute, 
To the intrepid king of Aileach. 

There is not due from Tulach Og r 

A tribute to the king of Feabhal of the banquets, 
Because it is in its proud land is assumed 
The sovereignty over the men of Eire. 

There is not due out of the Craebh s 

A tribute to the king of Aileach of comeliness, 
There is not due from Magh Iotha', 
A tribute or tax for their fair territories. 

accounts of Ireland, this plain derived its 
name from Ith, the uncle of Milidh of 
Spain, who was slain there by the Tuatha 
de Danaan — See Keating. 

r Tulach Off. — See page 36, note >', 

s Craebh This territory, which in lat- 
ter ages belonged to a branch of the family 
of O'Cathain (O'Kane), who were called 
Fir na Craeibhe, is situate on the west 
side of the lower Bann, and its position is 
defined by the cataract of Eas Craeibhe, 
i. e. the cataract of Craebh, the daughter of 
Eoghan mac Duirtheacht, who lived in 
Dun Da Bheann, now Mount Sandle, and 
was drowned in this cataract, now called 
" the Cutts fishery," near Coleraine. O'Fla- 
herty's Ogygia, p. iii., c. 3. His words 
are : " Banna inter Learn et Elliam, pra- 
ter Clanbresail regionem scaturiens per 

Neachum lacum transiens .Endromensem 
agrum et Fircriviam (pip na cpaoibe) 
Scriniamque in Londinodorinsi agro inter- 
secat, et tertio a Culrania et Cataracta 
Eascribe lapide se in Oceanum transfundit 
totius Europae longe fcecundissimus." This 
was exactly the position of the Fir Li in the 
time of St. Patrick ; and it is now difficult to 
determine where the Fir na Craeibhe were 
seated at the time this poem was composed. 
According to tradition in the country the 
sept called Fir na Craeibhe, which is not 
incorrectly interpreted "men of the branch," 
were seated at " Binbradagh, near Dungi- 
ven ;" tins could not have been the case 
till they dispossessed the more ancient own- 
ers of Gleann Geimhin, as above men- 
tioned. See Annals of the Four Masters, 
at the years 1118, 1192, 1205. 

' Magh Iotha Seep. 124, note", supra. 

126 ceabhcqi 

Mi olea£ap b'lnip 605am 

cip oo'n aipo-pi5, nac oeolai^; 
ni olea^ap bo cloinb Chonaill 
cip, na bep, na ban olaino. 

lac po cuna pi£ G1I15; 
ni pal neach nach pap aipij' 22 ; 
ni olijeano pi- 3 na peachc 
in pi nach coinjeba a ceapc 24 . 

c[eaRC rci oi&ig]-. 

GUGGG GNt) SO 5 oopa acup cuapipcla pij Q1I15 01a 
chuachaib acup Dia aicmib, ap biachao acup ap coimioeachc. 

OI1516 bin 26 pij G1I15 pobepin, in can nach pa 27 pij pop Gpinb, 
leach larh pij Gpinb ac 61 acup ac aenach, acup pem-imchup pi;«j 
Gpino 1 (5)-copaib [ajup 1 (5)-com6alaib] acup 1 (^-corhaiplib 
acup impioib. 

[Gg-up] 0I1516 6 pi j Gpinb caeca claibeam acup caeca pciach 
acup caeca mooaio acup caeca eppio acup caeca each : 00 pi£ G1I15 
ino pin. poblaib-peom bin 58 a chuapipcol pic: 

Coic pceich, coic claioim acup coic cuipno acup coic mna acup 
coic mojaij acup cuic eich do pi£ Caipppi t)poma Cliab. 

Coic pceich, coic mo^aib, coic mna, coic claibim 00 pi£ Cenel 
n-Cfeba Gapa Ruaib. 

Se h-eich, pe pcec- 9 , pe claioim, pe cuipnn, pe bpuic jopma acup 
pe bpuic uaine 00 pi^ Chenel 66jaine. 

Coic eich, coic pceich, coic claioim acup cuic bpuic, [cuij li'n- 
peaca] bo pij Chenel n-Ganoa. 

Seachc mna, peachc mo^aib, peachc n-eich, pechc (5)-claiomi 
do pij Cheneoil 6ujoach. 

Seachc mo^aib, peachc mnu, peachc (5)-claibmi, peachc (5)-cuipn 
do pij lnbpi h-Gojam. 

Se h-eich, pe cuipn, pe claibim, pe pceich 30 , pe coin go pij ITIuiji 

" Inis Eoghain, i. e. the island or penin- sometimes Ennisowen, a barony in the 

sula of Eoghan, who was son of Niall of north-east of the county of Donegal, 

the Nine Hostages, monarch of Ireland in v Race of Conatt, i. e. the inhabitants 

the fifth century ; Anglice Inishowen, and of Tir Chonaill ; see p. 34, note P, supra. 

via s-Ceajir. 127 

There is not due from Inis Eoghain 11 

A tribute to the chief king, nor gratuity, 

There is not due of the race of Conall" 

A tribute, or custom, or white (unwrought) wool. 

Those are the tributes of the king of Aileach ; 
No one is learned who does not well know them ; 
No king is entitled to reign or rule 
Who does not maintain his right THE RIGHT. 

THESE ARE the payments and stipends of the king of Aileach to 
his chieftainries and tribes, for refection and escort. 

The king of Aileach himself, then, when he is not king of Eire, is 
entitled to sit by the side of the king of Eire at banquet and at fair, 
and to go before the king of Eire at treaties and assemblies and coun- 
cils and supplications. 

And he is entitled to receive from the king of Eire fifty swords and 
fifty shields and fifty bondmen and fifty dresses and fifty steeds : these 
for the king of Aileach. He distributes his stipends thus : 

Five shields, five swords and five drinking-horns and five women 
and five bondmen and five steeds to the king of Cairbre Droma Cliabh. 

Five shields, five bondmen, five women, five swords to the king of 
the Cineal Aedha of Eas Ruaidh. 

Six steeds, six shields six swords, six drinking-horns, six blue 
cloaks and six green cloaks to the king of the Cineal Boghaine. 

Five steeds, five shields, five swords and five cloaks, five coats of 
mail to the king of the Cineal Eanna. 

Seven women, seven bondmen, seven steeds, seven swords to the 
king of the Cineal Lughdhach. 

Seven bondmen, seven women, seven swords, seven drinking-horns 
to the king of Inis Eoghain. 

Six steeds, six drinking-horns, six swords, six shields, six hounds 
to the king of Magh Iotha. 

After the establishment of surnames we find (O'Boyles), O'Galchobhair (O'Gallaghers), 

settled there the families of O'Maeldoraidh O'Dochartaigh (O'Dohertys), and various 

(0'Muldorys),0'Canannain(0'Canannans), other collateral tribes who are still minie- 

O'Domhnaill (O'Donnells), O'Buighill rous in the county. 

128 Ceabhaji 

Upi h-eich, cpi pceich 31 , cpi claioivii, cpi cuipn do pi h-Ua piach- 
pach Qpoa Spacha. 

Upi h-eich, cpi pceich 31 , cpi clammi, cpi cuipn do pig peap 
6uip 5 . 

Upi h-eich, cpi pceic 31 , cpi claibim, cpi bputc uaine do pi na 

Cpi mna, cpi maccul, cpi h-inaip bo pij Ua TTlic Caipcainb. 

Upi h-eich, cpi pceich 31 , cpi cuipn, cpt claiomi do pig Ciannacca 
^leanna ^jerhin. 

Se mojaio, pe gabpa, [pe claibim], pe pceich do pi peap C'\. 

Upi mnd, cpi mogaio, cpi h-eich do pi h-UaUuipcpe. 

Caeca mojaiD acup caeca eppiD acup caeca bpac acup caeca 
luipeach do pi Uhulcha Og. Conab Do'n pogail pin acupoo'n poinb 33 
po cacain 6enein [and po pip .1.] : 

Q pite, od n-oeachaip po cuaib 
cap 33 TTlag n-lcha n-imil chpuaio, 
inDip cuapipcal each ain 
6 pig Gilig 34 aBpao cain. 

Qn can nach pig D'Gpino ain 
pig Gilig co n-abbal chain, 
oligio leach-guala 35 cean locc 
6 pig GpeanD na n-apD pope. 

Caeca claioeam, caeca pciach, 
caeca mogao, — lp mop piach, 
caeca eppio, caeca each 
do pig Gilig na n-apo bpeach 30 . 

t)ligiD a pi gpaio co pach 

6 pig Q1I15 na n-apm chach, 
lap pcip cpuabaipcip 37 , po clum, 
cuapipcail ip cibnocail. 

Cuic pceich, cuic claioem, [cuig] cuipn, 
cuic eich, coic mnd, mop a muipnn 39 , 

' Magh lotha — See p. 124, note » supra. 

na 5-Ceapc. 129 

Three steeds, three shields, three swords and three drinking-horns 
to the king of the Ui Fiachrach of Ard Sratha. 

Three steeds, three shields, three swords, three drinking-horns to 
the king of the Fir Luirg. 

Three steeds, three shields, three swords, three green cloaks to the 
king of Craebh. 

Three women, three matals, three tunics to the king of Ui Mic 

Three steeds, three shields, three drinking-horns, three swords to 
the king of Cianachta Gleanna Geimhin. 

Six bondmen, six horses, six swords, six shields to the king of 
the Fir Li. 

Three women, three bondmen, three steeds to the king of Ui 

Fifty bondmen and fifty dresses and fifty cloaks and fifty coats of 
mail to the king of Tulach Og. Of this division and distribution 
Benean sang thus as below, viz. : 

MAN, if thou hast gone northwards 
Across Magh Iotha 1 of the hardy border, 
Tell the stipend of every one (i. e. chieftain) 
From the king of Aileach of the serene brow. 

When over noble Eire reigns not 

The king of Aileach of the vast tribute 

He is entitled to sit without fail 

By the side of the king of Eire of noble mansions : 

Fifty swords, fifty shields, 

Fifty bondmen, — it is a great debt, 

Fifty dresses, fifty steeds [from the monarch] 

To the king of Aileach of high decisions. 

Entitled are his chieftains of prosperity 

From the king of Aileach of the armed battalions, 
After resting from a hard march, I have heard, 
To stipends and gifts. 

Five shields, five swords, five drinking-horns, 
Five steeds, five women, great their hilarity. 

130 teabhccji 

oo pij Chaipppi Opoma Cliab 
6 pij Gilij; na n-dipo ppian. 

t)li jio pi Cenel n-Qe6a 

coic pceic, coic claiorhi caela, 
coic mojairj cap moin^ mapa, 
coic mnd pmou, pip-jlana. 

"Rij Cheneoil 66gaine buain 
0I1516 cuic eochu 39 mapc-pluaij, 
pe pceieh, pe claibim, pe cuipnb, 
pe bpuic uaine, pe bpuic 5111pm. 

t)liji6 pi Ceneil n-Gnba 
coic eich dilli, lmcpenu, 
coic pceich, coic cloioirh chacha, 
coic leanna, coic U'npeacha. 

t)liji6 pi Ceneoil 6u^6ach 

peace (5)-clai6rhi pe cpuao upbach, 
peachc mnd, peachc mojaib, co moch, 
peachc n-eich ana oo'n anpoch. 

u Cuirhre of Druim Cliabh — This dis- of the race of Conall Gulban was seated 
trict is now the barony of " Carlnxry" in in the territory of Tir Aedha, the now ba- 
the north of the county of Sligo. It is rony of " Tirhugh," in the south-west of the 
called of Druim Cliabh (Drumcliff), from county of Donegal. According to O'Dubh- 
a famous monastery erected there in the again' s topographical poem, O'h- Aedha 
sixth century by St. Colum Cille. The (now Anglice " Hughes") was the chief of 
ancient inhabitants of this territory were this territory, which was called the Triocha 
descended from Cairbre, the third son of or Cantred of Eas Ruaidh, from the great 

Niall of the Niue Hostages. It is curious cataract of that name See p. 34, note 1, 

to observe, that it was considered a part supra, and Battle of Magh Rath, p. 157, 

of Ulster, and tributary to the king of note u . 

Aileach, when this poem was written — " Cineal Boghaine, i. e. the race of 

See Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, lib. ii. Earma Boghaine, who was the second son 

c. 110, Trias Thaum. p. 144, and Genea- of Conall Gulban, the progenitor of all the 

logies, Tribes, &c. of the Ui Fiachrach, Cineal Conaill. Their country was called 

p. 278. Tir Boghaine, and is included in the pre- 

v Cineal Aedha, i. e. the race of Aedh, sent barony of " Banagh," in the west of 

commonly Anglicized "Hugh." This sept the county of Donegal. This territory is 

na 5-Cecqir. 131 

To the king of Cairbre of Druim Cliabh u 
From the king of Aileach of grand bridles. 

Entitled is the king of Cineal Aedha v 
To five shields, five slender swords, 

Five bondmen [brought] over thebristling surface of the sea, 
Five fair-haired, truly-fine women. 

The king of the Cineal Boghaine w , the firm, 
Is entitled to five steeds for cavalry, 
Six shields, six swords, six drinking-horns, 
Six green cloaks, six bine cloaks. 

Entitled is the king of Cineal Eanna x 
To five beautiful, powerful steeds, 
Five shields, five swords of battle, 
Five mantles, five coats of mail. 

Entitled is the king of Cineal Lughdhach y 
To seven swords for hard defence, 
Seven women, seven bondmen, early, 
Seven noble steeds to the hero. 

described in the Book of Feanach (Fenagh), sinum de Suilech et ab hoc Enna posses- 

fol. 47, a, a, as extending from the river sam fuisse et nomen sumpsisse tradunt 

Eidhneach (Eany), which falls into the acta Conalli fratris einsdem Ennae, et alias 

harbour of Inbhear Naile (Inver — the bay passim domestical hystoria?." — Acta SS. 

of Donegal), to the stream of Dobhar, p. 370, note 14. The parish of " Taugh- 

which flows from the rugged moimtains — boyne," Ceuc &aeicin (i e. the house 

See Battle of Magh Rath, p. 156, note p. f " St. Baithenus''), in the barony of 

The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, lib. ii. " Raphoe," is in this territory, as appears 

c. 40, places the mountain of Sliabh Liag from Colgan, loc. cit. It is stated in the 

in this territory — See Colgan's Trias will of Domhnall O'Galchobhair (Donnell 

Thaum. p. 135. O'Gallagher), steward to the 

* Cineal Eanna, i. e. the race of Eanna, Aedh Ruadh O'Domhnaill (Red Hugh 

the youngest son of Niall of the Nine O'Donnell), who died hi 1602, that this 

Hostages. The position of the territory of territory contained thirty quarters of land, 

this tribe is described by Colgan as follows, According to O'Dubhagain's topographical 

in a note on the Life of "St. Baithenus :" poem, "MagDubhain" was the chief of this 

"Est in Tir Conalliii inter duo maris Bra- territory. 
chia, nempe inter sinum Loch-Febhuil et v Cineal Lvyhdhach, i. e. the race of 


132 teablictji 

t)b^i6 pi lnopi h-Go£ain 

pe mojaio, — nf mop beolai j, 

peachc n-eich, peachc mna cap muip moip, 

pecc (5)-cuipn chaerha ppi 40 corin-ol. 

t)lijio pi ITIuiji lcha 

pe h-eich 41 chaema cap cpicha, 
pe cuipn 4 ' 2 , pe claibim, pe coin, 
pe peeich pinba cap ppoijehib 43 . 

t)lijib pi h-Ua Piachpach Pino 44 
pe 45 h-eich ailli 'c-a oeij-lino 46 , 
cpi peeich, cpi cuipn, cpi claibim 
6 pij echcac, apb Q1I15. 

tHijic pij peap ^uipj, in laech, 
cpi h-eich ailli cap 47 apo ppaech, 
cpi peeich, cpi cloioim coppa 
acup cpi cuipn chom-6onna 4S . 

t)liji6 pi na Cpaitii cpob, 

cpi h-eich ceanoa, a (o)-cuapipcol, 
cpi peeich, cpi claiomi caca, 
cpi bpuic uaine, aen-bacha. 

Dlijio pi h-Ua ITIic Caipchainb 
cpi h-inaip co n-6p pdichim, 
cpi macail chaema, chana, 
cpi mna oaepa oingbdla. 

t)lijio pi ^Imbi ^emin 

cpi h-eich oonba co bemm, 

Lughaidh, son of Seanna, who was the was in it — See Feilire Aenghuis at 9th 

grandson of Conall Gidban. This was the June ; see poem on the divisions of Tir 

tribe name of the family of O'Domhnaill Chonaill, iu the Book of Feanach, fol. 47, 

(O'Donnells), and, before they became head b, a, and see it quoted in Battle of Magh 

chiefs of Tir Chonaill, their territory ex- Rath, pp. 157, 158. 

tended from the stream of Dobhar to the z Inis Eoghain. — See page 126, note r . 

river Suilidhe (Swilly). Tulach Dubh- In the latter ages this territory belonged to 

ghlaise (Tullydouglas). near Kilmacrenan, O'Dochartaigh (O'Doherty), who was of 

na s-Ceajic. 133 

Entitled is the king of Inis Eoghain* 
To six bondmen, — no great gratuity, 
Seven steeds, six women [brought] over the great sea, 
Seven beautiful horns for drinking. 

Entitled is the king of Magh Iotha a 

To six beautiful steeds from [other] countries, 
Six drinking-horns, six swords, six hounds, 
Six fair shields from beyond the seas. 

Entitled is the king of Ui Fiachrach Fionn b 
To six beautiful steeds at his good lake, 
Three shields, three drinking-horns, three swords 
From the mighty-deeded, noble king of Aileach. 

Entitled is the king of the Fir Luirg c , the hero, 

To three beautiful steeds [brought] from over the deep sea, 
Three shields, three polished swords 
And three brown drinking-horns. 

Entitled is the king of the Craebh d to a gift, 
Three strong steeds, as stipend, 
Three shields, three swords of battle, 
Three green cloaks, of even color. 

Entitled is the king of Ui Mic Caerthahm e 
To three tunics with golden borders, 
Three beautiful, fair matals, 
Three befitting bondwomen. 

Entitled is the king of Gleann Geimhin f 
To three bay steeds assuredly, 

the race of Conall Gulban ; but previous Seep. 121, note r , supra. 

to the fourteenth century it belonged to c MenofLurg — Seep. 121, n. e , supra. 

several families of the race of Eoghan, the u Craebh — See p. 125, note P, supra. 

ancestor of the O'Neills, and was tributary e Ui Mic Caerthainn. — See p. 122, n. h . 

to O'Neill, not to O'Domhnaill. f Gleann Geimhin, i. e. the valley of 

■' Magh Iotha See p. 124, n. n , supra. Geimhin, a man's name. This was the 

b Ui Fiachrach Fionn, i. e., the Li ancient name of the vale of the river Eoa 

Fiachrach Arda Sratha in Tir Eoghain. — (Roe), which runs through the centre of 

134 Cectbhap 

cpi pceich, epf cuipn, cpi claioim 
each bliaona ll-ldim pig Gilig. 

Oligio pi peap Ci in lacha 
pe pceich, pe cloioriu caru, 
pe gabpa peanga, poela, 
i pe mogaio mop obpa. 

t)ligio pi h-Ua Cuipcpe ehuaio 49 
cpi gabpa meapa mapc-pluuig, 
cpi mnd co ceanoaib caema 
lp cpi mogaio mop, oaepa. 

Dligio pi ceano Uulcha O5 
caeca mog pachmap op poo, 
caeca claioeam, caeca each, 
caeca leano, caeca Knpeach. 

Ged punb peanchup ptl Neill ; 
pacbaim il-lebpaib, co lep 30 ; 
lam 6enen, cean oirheap, n-oil, 
api 00 pcpib 51 ami, a pip Q[P1R]. 

in. 2. Oliglieao R15I1 OijijjluaU. 

[t)o Oipjiallaib buoeapca plpanach.] 

t)o seaNchas aipgiaii a»o r o [pip], ni oi.g.o cpa a.p- 

giulla ace ploigeuo cpi coicchigip 1 each epeap bliaoam la h-dipo- 
pig Gpino; acup nf chiagaio ano pin mdb Gappach acup 8 mdo 
Pogrnap; acup pechc (g)-cumala each pip Oib innon in e-[p]loigio 
pm; acup peachemao caca h-aiehgeana uaioib; acup ni icaic .1. 
n-gaic oo gniao ucc luga meplig; acup ni gabchap a n-eicepi 1 n-glnp, 
no 1 plabpao, ace luga po laim pig, nd [mdi B.] eeip app lupam, 
noco n-dgaib foipb ehalman no nirhe. 

the territory of the CSanachta; and "king See p. L22, n. '. supra. 

of Gleann Geimhin" is here intended to B Fir Li — See p. 122, n. i, suprd. 

mean the same as kin;; of the CSanachta. — b Tulach Og. — See p. 36, 11. ". supret. 

na 5-Ceapc. 135 

Three Bhields, three drinking-horns, three swords 
Every year from the hand of the king of Aileach. 

Entitled is the king of the Fir Li 8 of the lake 
To six shields, six swords of battle, 
Six slender, proud horses, 
And six bondmen of great work. 

Entitled is the king of the northern Ui Tuirtre 
To three swift horses for cavalry, 
Three women with fair heads [of hair] 
And three large, enslaved bondmen. 

Entitled is the strong king of Tulach Og h 
To fifty prosperous bondmen over his fields, 
Fifty swords, fifty steeds, 
Fifty mantles, fifty coats of mail. 

Here is the history of Niall's race' ; 
I find [it] in books, clearly; 
Benean's faithful hand, without reproach, 
Was the one that wrote it there, man ! . . . O MAN ! 

III. — 2. The Privileges ok the King of the Oirghialla. 

Of the Oirghialla now here below. 

OF THE HISTORY of the Oirghialla down here. The Oirghialla 
are not bound to attend but on a hosting of three fortnights every third 
year, with the supreme-king of Eire ; and they do not then go if it be 
Spring or Autumn ; and seven cumhals (bondwomen) for every man 
of them [lost] on that hosting ; and they make restitution^ the seventh 
part only ; and they pay not, for the theft they may commit, if the 
thief's oath [deny it] ; and their hostages are not bound in fetters, nor 
in chains, save that they swear by the hand of the king that they will 
not then make their escape, [and] if then they do depart, that they 
shall not have the inheritance of earth or heaven. 

1 NialVt nice See p. 120, n. a , supra. of this race since the introduction of Chris- 
All the kings of Aileach and Uladh wen- tianity. 



Oleajaib bno cpian caeha 
copaib 6 pij Gpino .1. cpian na 66- 
porha .1. cuic pij Ula6 ap n-bich 
Ula6 1 (5)-cach Gchaib 6eich- 
beipjlapna (b)-Cpi Colla; acup 
popao pij Qipjiall lairh pe popab 
pij Gpmb 1 (b)-Caillcin acup a 
n-Uipneach acup ap pepna Sam- 
na; acup ipeao a chorhap coma 
pua a claioearh larh pi j h-Gpino ; 
acup lp leip cionocol each chpeap 
cuipn bo poa co pij Cearhpach. 
Cpian cacha n-olea£aio 6 pij 
Gpino blijio pil Colla TTleanb 
uaibib-peom ap a beich 'n-a 
rpen-peap. Qn cuopuma bip 
(bo) pij Clipjiall 6 pij Cearh- 
pach, ipeao pin blijip a pijan 6 
pijain pi£ h-Gpino. Conao 061b 
po cheab 6enean anb po: 

[Olejaib bna cpian jac co- 
buij 6 pi Gil 15 ajup cpian in 
cpin pin la pil Colla ffleanb; 
a^up popuo pi Oipjiall ppi po- 
puo pij Cailcean; ajup ipeao a 
corhup joma pua claibearh pij 
Qipjiall co h-ino a lama in a- 
learh; agup lp lep ciblacuo jaca 
cpeap cuipn oa poa coi pi Cearii- 
pac. Q pijan an cumac ceanna. 
Conio boib po cacain 6enen in 
paecap-pa pip, B.] : 

GISCl^ cam clumebaip 
peanchup ao peibim 4 : 

i They are entitled. — This passage differs 
widely in the two copies, and both ver- 
sions are here given in the text in full, 
that from the Book of Leaean in the left- 
hand columns, that from the Book of Baile 
an Mhuta in the right-hand columns. 

k Battle of Achadh Leith-dheirg.— This 
battle was fought A. D. 332. The place 
is mentioned by Tighearnach as situate in 
that part of the country' of the Oirghialla 
called Fearn-nihagh, the now barony 
of " Farney," in the county of Mona- 
ghan. The Editor, when he visited the 
county of Down several years since, thought 
that it might be "Aghaderg near Lough- 

brickland," but he has been long since 
convinced that this is an error, inasmuch 
as Fearn-mhagh is unquestionably the pre- 
sent barony of Farney, in the coimty of 
Monaghan, and the parish of " Aghderg," 
Qc oeapj, i. e. the red ford, is in the 
country into which the ancient Ultonians 
were driven, and of which they retained 
pi issessi m. The battle was fought many 
miles to the west of Gleann Bighe, which 
is the vale of the Newry river, beyond 
which the Ultonians were driven ; and it is 
remarked in the accounts of the battle of 
Achadh Leith-dheirg. that they never ex- 
tended their kingdom beyond it, for that a 

na 5-Cecqic. 


Tliey are entitled-*, too, to the 
third part of every [casual] revenue 
from the king of Eire, for instance, 
the third part of the Borumha, that 
is, the king of Uladh's share after 
the overthrow of the men of Uladh, 
in the battle of Achadh Leith- 
dheirg k , by the Three Collas ; and 
the seat of the king of the Oir- 
ghialla, next the seat of the king of 
Eire, at Taillte and at Uisneach 
and at the feast of Samhain [at 
Teamhair or Tara] and the dis- 
tance [between them] is such that 
his sword would reach the hand of 
the king of Eire; and it belongs to 
him to present every third drink- 
ing-horn that is brought to the 
king of Teamhair. The third part 
of what he is entitled to get from 
the king of Eire the race of Colla 
Meann are entitled to receive from 
him on account of his having been 
a mighty man. The same portion 
which the king of the Oirghialla 
receives from the king of Eire, his 
queen is entitled to receive from 
the queen of the king of Eire. 
Of these Benean composed this 
[poem] : 

HEARKEN ! that ye may h 
The history which I relate 

They are entitled.), too, to a third 
of every levy [of tribute or prey] 
from the king of Aileach, and one- 
third of that third is due to the de- 
scendants of Colla Meann ; and the 
seat of the king of the Oirghialla is 
near the seat of the king of Taillte; 
and its distance from him is, that 
the sword of the king of Oir- 
ghialla should reach the top of his 
(the king's) butler's hands ; and 
to him belongs the presenting of 
every third drinking-horn which 
is brought to the king of Teamhair. 
His queen is entitled to the same 
privilege. And for them did Be- 
nean sing this work below : 

definite boundary was formed on this side tolerable preservation, and is now known 

of Gleann Righe, from Newry upwards in Irish by the name of Gleann na Muice 

[i. e. northwards]. See MS. cited p. 36, Duibhe, i. e. " the valley of the black pig," 

n. '. supra. This boundary still remains in and '-the Danes' Cast" in English. 



aenca dpo Qipjiallach 
paio ppi pij Gpino. 

t)leajap 5 6 Gipjialluib 
lap peachcaib piajla 
plojab cpi coicchijip 6 
1 (5)-cinb ceopa bliaona. 

Hi 'n-Gappach chiajaio-peonv, 
ipeao do chuala, 
nctpp pop cino Pojarhatp 
pp) bpuine buubu 9 [buana B.]. 

Seachc (g)-ceac a (bj-cochurhluo^ 
lap n-oul 6 chuachaib, 
peachc (5)-ceae ooib, achappuch 10 , 
oo peabaib pluajai j ; 

Sluajao oap Gipjiallaib 
can lapachc n-dpach, 
peachc (5)-curhala ooib-piorh 
irro iap na rhdpacli. 

t)ia mapbao inoili, — 
o lafoib luaioio, — 

k A hosting of three fortnights. — Tliis 
differs but little from the service of a 
knight's fee in the feudal system, by which 
the knight was bound to attend the king in 
his wars for forty days every year — Coke 
upon Littleton, ss. 75, 76, andBlaekstone's 
Commentaries, book i. c. 13. See Tribes 
and Customs of the Ui Maine, p. 67, where 
it is stated that if the king of Connacht 
should continue longer than six weeks on 
an expedition, the forces which he had 
levied hi Ui Maine (who were, as is there 
shown, an offset of the Oirghialla) might 
return home. 

1 Nor during the Autumn See Tribes 

and Customs of the Ui Maine, p. 67, where 
it is stated that the tribes of that territory 
were freed from the hostings of Spring 
and Autumn, and that there was no power 
to ask them against their will. This is a 
very curious privilege, ceded or continued 
to a race after they had left their original 

m Seven hundred, i. e. should the Oir- 
ghialla send seven hundred men to assist the 
monarch on an expedition, he should pay 
each of them a scad or cow. The term 
peG, or peob, is used throughout the 

net 5-Cea|ic. 139 

The great compact of the Oirghialla 
I recite [made] with the king of Eire. 

There is due of the Oirghialla 
By statutes of regulation 
A hosting for three fortnights* 
Every three years. 

Not in Spring they ever go, 
This is what I have heard, 
Nor at the beginning of Autumn 1 
On the eve of reaping. 

Seven hundred is their rising -out 
On going forth from their territories, 
Seven hundred 111 [are given] to them, in return, 
Of cows for the hosting ; 

A hosting across Oirghialla 
Without respite for the debt, 
Seven cumhals" to them are to be given 
For it on the morrow. 

If they should kill cattle, — 
In poems it is mentioned, — 

Brehon Laws to denote a full-grown cow. longs to the king or a bishop, or shall 

It is stated in the tract already cited, commit any outrage against them, or shall 

p. 36, n. e , that the king of the Oirghialla offer any contempt to them, he shall pay 

was bound to go with his rising-out on an the price of seven bondwomen, or shall 

expedition with the monarch for six weeks do penance with the bishop for seven 

every third year (but not in Spring or Au- years. See his work on the Antiquities 

tumn), and that each of their chieftains of Ireland, c. xx. It is stated in the 

was paid twenty-one cows as wages, during tract on Oirghialla just referred to, that 

that time. if their country should be plundered while 

n Seven cumhals. — Aciunhalwasabond- the forces of Oirghialla were away on an 

maid, and her value was equal to that expedition with the monarch, the latter 

of three cows. Ware quotes an old Irish should give them six cows for every cow 

canon, which says : " Whoever shall pre- which had been carried away by the plun- 

sume to steal or plunder anything that be- derers. 



peachea each aiehjeanu 
do bponcap uaioib. 

1T)u6 luioi Ucheap-porii 
in n-gnirhaib geimlib, 
nocho bleajap otb-peom" 
ace luiji \_an^ riieplij. 

Qicepi na n-Qipjiallach, — 
cia 12 cheip app arhlaij, — 
ache luiji an aicepi 
cean jlap, cean c-plubpuio. 

t)ia n-elooa 13 in c-aioepi, — 
peib eolap oaepoa 
ni calvhain cojaioi 
ni nimi naemoa. 

t)li£i6 pi£ Qipjiall, 
po Gpino no paio, — 
oo pijaib peachema 
epian cacha copaio. 

Q epian in cpin pin, 
co pJp nip panoa, 
la Colla mop TTIeanea 14 
mac-plaich na (5)-Colla. 

" The seventh of each restitution, i. e. 
whatever trespass they may commit in 
killing or injuring cattle, they are bound 
to pay only the seventh part of the tine 
which the general law imposes. This was 
a strange privilege, and, like their other 
privileges, seems to have had its origin in 
the presumed high bearing of the Oir- 

p Without a fetter or chain, i. e. when 
the hostage takes an oath, that is, as the 
prose has it, swears by the hand of the 

king, that he will not escape from his cap- 
tivity, he is left without a fetter ; but if he 
should afterwards escape, he then loses his 
caste, and is regarded as a perjured man. 
The tract on Oirghialla states, that when- 
ever the hostage of the Oirghialla was fet- 
tered, golden chains were used for the pur- 
pose, and that it was hence they were called 
Oirghialla, i. e. of the golden hostages. 

i To the third of each profit See 

Tribes and Customs of the Ui Maine, pp. 
63, 64, 65, where it is stated that the king 

na 5-Ceapc. 141 

The seventh [part only] of each restitution in kind 
Is given by them. 

If they are charged upon oath 

With deeds [deserving] of fetters, 
They are not bound to produce 
But the oath of the thief. 

The hostage of the Oirghialla, — 

Though in such case he may escape, — 

Save the oath of the hostage 

He is left without fetter, without chain?. 

If the hostage should elope, — 
According to the law of bondage 
He is not fit for earth 
Nor for holy heaven. 

Entitled is the king of the Oirghialla, 
Throughout Eire 'tis known, — 
From the rightful kings 
To the third of each proflt q . 

The third of that third, 
Truly not feeble, 

Belongs to the great Colla Meann r , 
The youngest prince of the Collas. 

of Connacht ceded the following emolu- privileges of treasure-trove, jetsom, &c. 

merits to the people of that territory, who r Colla Meann. — The race of Colla Meann 

were a colony from the eastern or original were the inhabitants of Crioch Mughdhorn, 

Oirghialla, planted in Connacht after the " Cremorne," in Monaghan, and not the 

establishment of Christianity, viz., the third mountainous country of " Mourne," in the 

part of every treasure found hidden or bu- east of Ulster, as stated in O'Flaherty's 

ried in the depths of the earth, and the third Ogygia, part iii. c. 76. The mountainous 

part of the eric for every man of their peo- territory in the east of Ulster belonged to 

pie that is killed, and the third part of the ancient Ullta, not to the Oirghialla. 

every treasure thrown by the sea into the From Colla Uais, the eldest of the bro- 

harbours of Connacht. There is a resem- thers, the " Mac Donnells, Mac Dugalds, 

blance here to the Gallo -Norman feudal and Mac Allisters" of Scotland, with their 

142 Leabhap 

O eheajlaib Gpino 

co popuo na Cearhpach 15 
popao pij Gipjiall 
pop beip pij Caillcean. 

Corhap an popaio pin, 
co pip nf h-ainpip 16 , 
co pia a cpuao a claioenrh-pon 
ni [in B.] oailearh bai jlip. 

tDli^io pij Qip^iall 

peach each epiarh rpeboach 
cac chpeap copn oei j-leanoa 
pop beip pij Ceavhpach. 

OI1516 a pijan-pom, 
cean bpeic, cean baili, 
in curhao ceacna pin 
o'n pijain aili. 

Qiecheam in t)uilearhon, 
na n-uili n-epcio, 
in c-aipo-pij, aoarhpa, 
oipnioi, eipcio GlSClt). 

CUG12GSC06 pij Qipjiall 6 pi£ Gpmo ano po [pip], acup 
ruapipcol cuach Qipjiall 6 pij Qipjiall pobepin. 

tDlijio bin pij Gipjiall ceaoamup 6 pij h-Gpino paep-jeillpine 
pop a jiallaib; acup a n-aichni ll-lairh pij Ueavhpach, acup a 

correlatives, sprung; and from Colla Da of the island of Einn Sibhne, now " Island 

Chrioch came the families of Mac Math- Magee," are of the race of Colla Uais. Ac- 

ghamhna (Mac Mahons), Mac Uidhir (Ma- cording to O'Dubhagain's Topographical 

guires), O'h-Anluain (O'Hanlons), Mac An- Poem O'Machaidhen was the chief of Crioch 

na (Mac Canns), and other families of the Mughdhorn. 

Oirghialla (Oriel). It is also stated that the s Reach his sword It is stated in the 

families of O'Floinn (O'Lyn), &c, ofMagh tract on Oirghialla, that the king of the 

Line (Moylinny), and Mac Aedha (Magee) Claim Colla was entitled to sit by the side 

net 5-Ceapc. 143 

[Everywhere] from the mansions [of the chiefs] of Eire 
To the throne of Teamhair, 
The throne (seat) of the king of the Oirghialla 
Is at the right of the king of Taillte [i. e. of Ireland]. 

The distance of that seat, 
Truly 'tis no mistake, 

[Is such] that his hard sword should reach 5 
The cup-bearer who distributes. 

Entitled is the king of the Oirghialla 
Beyond each lord of tribes 
To every third horn of goodly ale 
On the right of the king of Teamhair. 

Entitled is his queen, [too], 

Without falsehood, without boasting, 
To the same distinction 
From the other queen. 

We implore the Creator, 

[The receiver] of all supplications, 

The supreme-king, adorable, 

Venerated, to hear us HEARKEN ! 

THE STIPEND of the king of Oirghialla from the king of Eire 
down here, and the stipends of the chieftainries of Oirghialla from the 
king of Oirghialla himself. 

The king of the Oirghialla in the first place is entitled to get from 
the king of Eire free hostageship for his hostages ; and their custody 
to be in the hand of the king of Teamhair (Tara), and they are to be 

of the king of Ireland, and all the rest were own family, and that they had carried this 
the length of his hand and sword distant through fifteen generations ; and he adds 
from the king. See the Banquet of Dim na immediately after, that they had claimed 
n-Geadh, Battle of Magh Eath, p. 29. the see of Ard Macha, and maintained pos- 
St. Bernard, in the Life of St. Malachy, session of it for two hundred years, claim- 
says that the Oirghialla would not allow ing it as their indubitable birth-right. See 
any bishop among them except one of their Colgan's Trias Thaum. pp. 801, 802. 

144 Ceabhaji 

n-eiceao acup a m-biachao 061b, acup a m-beich a piunib pi£ 17 ; 
acup meach ooib-peom ma popluiopeao 18 ap a n-jeillpine. 

Oligio pi h-Lla Niallan cheaoamup cpi pceich acup cpi claioim 
acup cpf cuipnn acup cpi h-eich 6 pij Gpino [ino] pin. 

Coic bpuic copcpa acup coic claioim acup coic eich do pij h-Ua 

Se bpuic acup pe pceich acup pe claioim acup pe cuipn acup pe 
h-eich do pig h-Lla n-Gachach. 

Ceichpi cuipnn acup ceichpi claiomi acup ceirpi pceich, [ceirpi 
bpuic] oo pi j h-Ua iTIeich. 

Cpi bpuic acup cpi pceich acup cpi claiomi acup cpi luipeacha 
oo pig h-Ua n-t)opcain. 

Se h-eich, pe mojaio, pe mna oo pi h-Ua m-6piuin Qpchoill' 9 . 

Ochc m-bpuic acup occ n-eich acup ochc pceich acup ochc 
(5)-clai6irh acup ochc (g)-cuipn acup ochc mojaio oo pij f,eamna 
acup h-Ua Cpeamchaino acup Sll n-t)uibchfpi. 

Cpf h-eich, cpi pceich, cpi claioim, cpi bpuic, cpi luipeacha oo 
pij (Leichpeano 20 . 

Ceichpi h-eich, ceichpi mogaio, ceichpi cloioim, [ceicpi pceic] 
oo pij t)apcpaioi Coinoinopi. 

Se luipeacha, pe cuipn, pe pceich, pe claiomi, pe mna, pe pich- 
cilla oo pij Peapn-muiji. 

Coic 21 bpuic, coic 21 pceich, coic 21 claiomi, coic 21 longa, [pe luip- 
eaca] oo pi peap TTlanach. 

Se mojaio, pe pceich, pe claiomi, pe cuipn, Oa bpac oec bo 
pij TDujoopn lp 12op 22 . Conio oo coimeao na cana pin acup in co- 
chaip pin pop pij 23 6enen [in paice] ano po [pip]. 

in cheisc-sea F o P chiomo Coiia 

pop pluaj luchaip Ciach-opoma 

can pip a (o)-cuapapcail call 

6 pij Puaib na (b-)pino peapano. 

1 Liath-druim, i. e. the hill of Liath the a mountain in the county of Armagh, the 

son of Laighne Leathan-ghlas. See Petrie's highest of "the Fews" mountains. See 

Antiquities of Tara Hill, p. 108. TJiis O'Flaherty's Ogygia, part iii. cc. iv. and 

was an old name of Teamhair (Tara). xvi., and Heating's History of Ireland, 

" Fuaid Usaally called Sliabh Fuaid, Haliday's Edition, pp. 168, 300, 382. Its 

ncc 5-Ceapc. 145 

clothed and fed by them, and they are to be in the secrets of the king; 
and withering (a curse) is upon them if they escape from their hostage- 

The king of the Ui Niallain, in the first place, is entitled to three 
shields and three swords and three drinking-horns and three steeds from 
the king of Eire. 

Five scarlet cloaks and five swords and five steeds to the king of 
Ui Breasail. 

Six cloaks and six shields and six swords and six drinking-horns 
and six steeds to the king of Ui Eachach. 

Four drinking-horns and four swords and four shields, four cloaks 
to the king of Ui Meith. 

Three cloaks and three shields and three swords and three coats of 
mail to the king of Ui Dor tain. 

Six steeds, six bondmen, six women to the king of Ui Briuin 

Eight cloaks and eight steeds and eight shields and eight swords 
and eight drinking-horns and eight bondmen to the king of Leamhain 
and Ui Creamhthainn and Siol Duibhthire. 

Three steeds, three shields, three swords, three cloaks, three coats 
of mail to the king of Leithrinn. 

Four steeds, four bondmen, four swords, four shields to the king of 
Dartraidhe Coinninnse. 

Six coats of mail, six drinking horns, six shields, six swords, six 
women, six chess-boards to the king of Fearn-mhagh. 

Five cloaks, five shields, five swords, five ships, six coats of mail to 
the king of the Feara Manach. 

Six bondmen, six shields, six swords, six drinking-horns, twelve 
cloaks to the king of Mughdhorn and Ros. It was to preserve this regula- 
tion and this tribute that Benean the sage wove this [poem] below here: 

THIS DIFFICULTY [rests] upon the race of the Collas, 
Upon the bright host of Liath-druim 1 
[That they] know not their own stipends, there, 
From the king of Fuaid" of fair lands. 

position is marked on an old map in the of " Sliew Fodeli," which is an attempt at 
Statr Papers' Office, London, under the name writing Sliub Puuib. 




CIca puno; ploinopeab-pa baib !b 
peanchop cloinbi Caipppi cafrii 29 ; 
cluinij, a luce Pad na (b)-Pian, 
cuapipcla dilli Gipjiall. 

OI1516 pi Qipjiall co n-aiB 
6 pig h-Gpmo aijeab 30 chain 
paep-jellpine, — paep a chop, 
cuapipcol ip cibnocol. 

Nae n-jeill bo pi Porla ap peachc 
bo beoin 31 pij Qipjiall, aen-peachc 
a n-airni ac pi Ulaccja eaip, 
cean chapepa acup cean cheanjal' 2 . 

Gppao a n-bingbala boib, 

each, claibeam co n-eltaib oip, 
cocop 33 cumaij, cumbaij niarii 
b'aieipib ailli Gipjiall. 

JTIeach boib-peom bia n-elao ap, 
mepa bo'n pi£ jebeap glap 34 ; 
ace pin, nl blij neach ni 6e 
bo pig Clip^iall oipnioe. 

Upi pceich, epi claiomi, epi cuipn, 
epi h-eich, epi mna, mop a M muipn, 
oo pi h-Ua Niallan mam cloeh 
6 36 pij Gpino na n-uap loch. 

Uuapipeol pij h-Ua m-6peapad 
cpi bpuie copepa ip caerh chapaip, 

T The race of fair Cairbre, i. e. the 
Oirghialla, descended from Cairbre Lif- 
eachair, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 277. 
See O'Flaherty's Ogygia, part iii. c. 70 ; 
and see also Mr. Shirley's recent work, 
cited p. 153, n. k , infra, p. 147. 

" Nine hostages, i. e. a hostage for each 
cantred, for Oirghialla consisted of nine 
Triocha Ceads. Battle ofMagh Rath, p. 29. 

" The Ui Niallain, Anglicized into 
" Oneilland," a territory now divided into 
two baronies (east and west) in Armagh. 

5-Ceajiu. 147 

Here it is : I shall tell to you 

The history of the race of fair Cairbre v ; 
Hear, ye people of Fail of the Fians, 
The grand stipends of the Oirghialla. 

Entitled is the majestic king of Oirghialla, 

From the king of Eire of the benign countenance, 
To free hostageship, — generous his engagement, 
To stipend and presents. 

Nine hostages w [are given] to the king of Fodhla truly 
By consent of the king of the Oirghialla, together 
To be kept by the king of Tlachtgha in the east, 
Without incarceration and without fettering. 

A befitting attire for them, 

A steed, a sword Avith studs of gold, 
Secret confidence, elegant apartments 
For the comely hostages of the Oirghialla. 

Withering (a curse) upon them if they elope thence, 
Still worse for the king who will put on the fetter ; 
Save that, no one is entitled to aught 
From the illustrious king of the Oirghialla. 

Three shields, three swords, three drinking-horns, 
Three steeds, three women, great their merriment, 
To the king of Ui Niallain x of shining lame 
From the king of Eire [Oirghialla] of the cold lakes. 

The stipend of the king of Ui Breasail y [is] 
Three purple cloaks of fine brilliance, 

The Niallan from whom this tribe derive was the chief of this tribe, 
their name and origin was the son of Fiach, >' Ui Breasuih — These were otherwise 
son of Feidhlim, son of Fiachra Casan, who called Ui Breasail Macha, and were de- 
was son of Colla Da Chrioch. See Ogi/ffia, scended from Breasal, son of Feidhlim, 
part iii. c. 76. Daire, who granted the site son of Fiachra Casan, son of Colla Da 
of the cathedral of Armagh to St. Patrick Chrioch. See Ogygia, ubi supra. In lat- 




coic pceich, coic claiorhi cucha, 
coic eich Diana, beu^-bacha. 

Olijio pi h-Lla n-Gachach aipo 37 

coic 38 bpuic copcpa cheachap dipb 39 , 
coic 3H pceich, coic 39 cloibirh, coic 3S cuipn, 
coic M eich jlapa, jabal-^uipm. 

t)li£i6 pi h-Lla TTIeich, in mdl, 
6 pij TTlacha na mop oal 

ter ages this territory was more usually 
called Clarui Breasail (Angliee Clanbrazil). 
According to O'Dubhagain's Topographical 
Poem, the tribe of O'Gairbheth (O'Gar- 
veys) were the ancient chiefs of this terri- 
tory, but in more modern times it belonged 
to the "Mac Canns," who are not of the Ui 
Niallain race, but descend from Rochadh, 
son of Colla Da Chrioch. This territory is 
shown on a map of Ulster made in the reign 
of Elizabeth (or James I.), as on the south 
of " Lough Neagh," where the upper Bann 
enters that lake, from which, and from the 
space given it, it appears to be co-extensive 
with the present barony of " Oneilland 
East." This view shows that in the forma- 
tion of the baronies more than one territory 
was placed in that of " Oneilland ;" and the 
fact is that all the eastern part of Oir- 
ghialla, called Oirthear, was occupied by 
septs of the race of Niallan, that district 
including the present baronies of East 
and West "Oneilland" and also those of 
East and West " Orior ;" for the sept of 
O'h-Anluain (O'Hanlons), who possessed 
the two latter baronies, were descended 
from the aforesaid Niallan. 

z Ui Eachacfi, i. e. the descendants of 
Eochaidh, son of Feidhlim, son of Fiachra 
Casan, son of Colla Da Chrioch. This tribe 

is to be distinguished from the Ui Eachach 
Uladh, or ancient inhabitants of the baro- 
nies of " Iveagh," in the county of Down, 
who were of the Clanna Eudhraidhe. They 
were a tribe of the Oirghialla, descended 
from Eochaidh, son of Cairbre Damh-air- 
gid, chief of the Oirghialla in the time 
of Saint Patrick. This sept were seated 
in the district of Tuath Eachadha, i.e. 
Eochaidh's district, a territory comprised 
in the present barony of "Armagh." This 
district is mentioned in the Annals of the 
Four Masters at the year 1498, and it is 
shown on the old Map of Ulster, already 
referred to, as " Toaghie," and represented 
as the country of " Owen mac Hugh mac 
Neale mac Art O'Neale." 

a Ui Meith, i. e. the descendants of 
Muireadhach Meith, the son of Iomchadh, 
who was the son of Colla Da Chrioch. 
There were two territories of this name in 
Oirghialla, one called sometimes Ui Meith 
The, from its inland situation, and some- 
times Ui Meith Macha, from its contiguity 
to Armagh ; and the latter Ui Meith Mara, 
from its contiguity to the sea. The latter 
was more anciently called Cuailghne, and 
its name and position are preserved in the 
Anglicized name of " O'Meath," a district 
in the county of Louth, comprising ten 

na g-Ceapc. 


Five shields, live swords ui' battle, 
Five swift, goodly-colored steeds. 

Entitled is the king of Ui Eachach 2 , the noble, 
To five purple cloaks of four points, 
Five shields, five swords, five drinking-horns, 
Five grey, dark-forked steeds. 

Entitled is the king of Ui Meith a , the hero, 

From the king of Macha (of Oirghialla) of great meetings 

townlands, situate between Carlingford and 
Newry. The former, which is evidently 
the country of the Ui Meith referred to in 
Leabhar na g- Ceart, is a territory in the 
present county of Monaghan, comprising 
the parishes of "Tullycorbet, Kilmore, and 
Tehallan," in the barony of Monaghan. 
Colgan has the following note in editing 
the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, lib. iii. 
c. 9: 

" Regio dicta Hua- Meith. hodie O'Meith 
est in Orientali parte Ultonia;, hinc Airthear, 
id est Orientalis dicta, et pars ejus mari 
vicinior Hua-Meith-mara, .i. Hua Methia 
maritima, et pars a mari remotior compa- 
ratione prioris Hua-Meith-tire, .i. Hua 
Methia terras sive continents quia conti- 
nent! Ultonia? jacet : hie et ab aliis priscis 
scriptoribus vocatur. Nomen illud Hua- 
Meith .i. posterorum Meith, videtur sor- 
tita a posteris Muredachi cognomento 
Meith, id est Obesi, rihi Imchadii filii 
Colla-da-Chrioch ; de quo Sanctilogium 
Genealogicum, c. 13, late in eo tractu tem- 
pore Patricii et postea dominantibus : Trias 
Thaum. p. 184, n. 16. 

From this note O'Flaherty, and from 
both Harris, in his edition of Ware's Anti- 
quities, have concluded that " Hy-Meith- 
tire" was the barony of Orior (O'Hanlon's 

country) in the county of Armagh; but 
incorrectly, for we have irrefragable evi- 
dence to prove that Ui Meith Tire was 
much further to the west. 1. The Tripar- 
tite Life of St. Patrick places the church 
of Tegh-Thellain, i. e. Teach Theallain, An- 
glice "Tehallan," in the barony of Mo- 
naghan, in regione de Hua-Mtdtlitire, a 
territory adjoining to regio Mugdornorum, 
which is the Latinized form of Crioch 
Mughdhorna, " Cremome," in Monaghan, 
in which the Tripartite Life places the eh inch 
of Domhnach Maighean (Donaghinoyne). 
2. We learn from the Irish Calendar of the 
O'Clerighs, at 26th January, that Tulach 
Carboid (Tullycorbet, in the said parish 
ofTehallan), was i n-U ib TTIeir fllaca, 
i. e. in Ui Meith Macha. 3. It appears 
from the same Calendar, that Cill Mor, 
the church of St. Aedhan mac Aenghusa, is 
in the territory of Ui Meith, and this is un- 
questionably the church of " Kilmore," 
near the town of Monaghan. 4. Colgan, 
Acta SS. p. 713, places the church of Muc- 
namh (Mucknoe), at Castleblayney, in this 
territory. Hence the conclusion is inevita- 
ble, that the territory of the Ui Meith Tire, 
Ui Meith Macha, was in the present county 
of Monaghan, and not in that of Armagh. 
We have, moreover, the authority of the 



ceirpi cloibirii, ceichpi cuipn, 
ceichpi bpuic, ceichpi h-ec juipm. 

Uuapipcol pij h-Lla n-t)opcain 4u 
cpi bpuic copcpa co coppccup, 
cpi pceich, cpi claibiTh caca, 
cpi lenoa, cpi luipeacha. 

t)liji6 pi h-Ua m-6piuin Qpchoill 41 
cpi h-incup co n-6p paicum, 
pe h-eich, pe mojcuo malla, 
pe mna oaepa oinjbala 4 -. 

tDlijio pi h-Uu Uuipcpe lp cip 43 , 
cuapipcol culi oo'n pij, 

Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, to show that 
it met the barony of Cremorue at a place 
called Omna Renne, where their ancestor 
Muireadhach was interred. " Sepultus 
autem est [Muredachus] in confinibus Hua 
Methiorum et Mugdornorum in loco Omna 
Renne nuncupate, qui licet sit in limitibus 
utriusque regionis ad jus tamen Mugdor- 
norum spectat."^- Vita Tripart. lib. hi., 
c. 11. Trias Thaum. p. 151. 

All our modern writers, even to the pre- 
sent, have been led astray by the assumption 
that the Crioch Mughdhorna of the ancient 
writers is the present mountainous barony 
of " Mourne;" but as that territory is on 
the east side of the boundary at Gleann 
Righe, it could not have been a part of 
" Oriel," and consequently not the country 
of the descendants of Mughdhorn Dubh, 
the son of Colla, which lay far west of 
Gleann Righe. It appears from a pedigree 
of the " Mac Mahons," in the Library of 
Trinity College, Dublin, that the moun- 
tainous district of Mourne in Uladh (which 
originally bore the appropriate appellation 

of Beanna Boirche, see p. 38, note s, 
supra), was so called from a tribe of 
the inhabitants of Crioch Mughdhorn in 
Oirghialla, who emigrated thither in the 
reign of Niall the Haughty, the son of 
Aedh, who was son of Maghnus Mac 
Mathghamhna. See the Annals of the 
Four Masters at the year 1457, where a 
range of heights in " Cremorne" is called 
Sliabh Mughdhorn, i. e. mons Mugdorno- 
rum. According to O'Dubhagain the tribes 
of 0' h-Innreachtaigh (O'Hanrattys) were 
the ancient chiefs of Ui Meith Macha, and 
this is confirmed by the tradition in the 
country which remembers that they were 
the ancient chieftains of this part of the 
county of Monaghan before they were dis- 
possessed by the sept of Mac Mathghamhna 
(Mac Mahons). It also adds that Maeldoid, 
the patron saint of Mucnamh (Mucknoe, 
at Castle Blayney), was of the same stock 
as the Ui Innreachtaigh (O'Hanrattys), the 
ancient dynasts of the district. This curious 
tradition is fully borne out by the following 
note in Colgan's Trias Thaum., p. 184, on 

na 5-Ceapc. 


To four swords, four drinking-horns, 
Four cloaks, four iron-grey steeds. 

The stipend of the king of the Ui Dortain b [is] 
Three purple cloaks with borders, 
Three shields, three swords of battle, 
Three mantles, three coats of mail. 

Entitled is the king of Ui Briuin Archoill c 
To three tunics with golden hems, 
Six steeds, six heavy bondmen, 
Six befitting bondwomen. 

Entitled is the king of Ui Tuirtre d in his land 
To another stipend from the king ; 

" Eugeniiis" (Eoghan), the chief of this ter- 
ritory in St. Patrick's time. Fit. Tripart. 
part iii. c. 11. " Fuit hie Eugenius ex 
Briano filio nepos Muredachi Meith a quo 
diximus num. 16, regionem illam Hua 
Meith nomen desumpsisse; vt colligitur 
ex Genealogia S. Maldodij Abbatis ejus- 
dem regionis, quae Mucnamia dicitur, quani 
Sanctilogium Genealogicum, cap. 13, sic 
tradit. S. Maldodius de Mucnam, jilius 
Finffini, Jilij Aidi, Jilij Fiachrij, Jilij 
Fiachce, Jilij Eugenij, Jilij Briani, filij 
Muredachi, filij Colla fochrich. Colitur 
autem S- Maldodius 13 Maij juxta dicenda 
posted de ipso." — Trias Thaum., page 184, 
note 19. See also Mac Firbisigh's pedigree 
of O'h-Innreachtaigh. 

b Ui Dortain These were otherwise 

called Ui Tortain, i. e. the descendants of 
Dortan or Tortan, son of Fiach, son of 
Feidhlim, son of Fiachra, who was son of 
Colla Da Chrioch. This was in that part 
of Oirghialla included in the present county 
ofMeath, in which the celebrated old tree 
called Bile Tortan, which stood near " Ard- 

braccan", was situate. See O'Fla. Ogygia, 
part iii. c. GO ; Book of Baile an Mhuta, 
fol. 229, b. ; Colgan, Trias Thaum. p. 129, 
c. ii. ; and p. 184, n. 23, 24; and Feilire 
Aenghuis, 8 July. 

c Ui Briuin Archoill, i. e. the descend- 
ants of Brian of Archoill, who was the 
son of Muireadhach Meith, the progenitor 
of the Ui Meith. See Dubhaltach Mac 

Firbisigh's genealogical work, p. 309 

Colgan thinks that this was the district in 
Tyrone called Muintir Birn in his own 
time, which is a district shown on the old 
map of Ulster, already referred to, as a 
district in the south of the barony of 
" Dungannon," adjoining the territory of 
"Trough," in the county of Monaghan, 
and "Toaghie," now the barony of Ar- 
magh. See Trias Thaum., p. 184, n. 2. 
In St. Patrick's time the Oirghialla had 
possession of the present county of Tyrone, 
but they were gradually displaced by fami- 
lies of the race of Eoghan, the son of Niall 
of the Nine Hostages. 

d Ui Tuirtre — See p. 124, n. k . supra. 

152 Leabhap 

Pip teurhna lp h-Ui Chpeamchcnnb 44 chcnp 
Sfl t)uiochfpi cpiach arhnaip. 

Ochc n-eich bonnet oleaoap 45 bo, 

ochc m-bpuic chopcpa bup caerh 16, 

ochc pceich, ochc (5)-clai6im, ochc (g)-cuipn, 

ochc mosaic oiana, beaj-ouipn. 

Oli^io pi Ceichpinb na laech 
cpi h-eich dilli — ni h-in£aec, 
cpi pceich, cpi claiorhi caca, 
cpi leanna, cpi luipeacha. 

Oli^io pi Oapcpaibi inb a»j 
ceichpi mo^am mop apccnp, 
ceichpi claibim, cpuaib 1 46 (5)-cleich, 
ceichpi h-eich, ceichpi h-6p pceich 47 . 

TDli^io pi Peapn-riiuiji in pinb 
pe cuipn Ian 48 £lana im 49 lino, 
pe pceich, pe claioirii cama 50 , 
pe pinb Thnct, pe pichcilla 51 . 

e Fir Leamhna — The territory of this Deaghaidh Duirn, son of Rochadh, son of 

tribe of Leamhain, says Colgan, " Est regio Colla Da Chrioch. This Creamhthann was 

campestris Tironiae Dioecesis Clocharensis chief of the Oirghialla, and his descendants 

vulgo Mag-lemna aliis Clossach dicta." — were very celebrated. See O'Fla. ( 

Trias Thaum., p. 184, n. 11. It is shown part iii. c. 76. Colgan informs us that the 

on the old map of Ulster, already often territory of the race of Creamhthann was 

referred to, as " the conn trie of Cormac known in his own time, and considered as 

Mac Barone" [O'Neill]. The River Black- included in the barony of " Slane," [in 

water is represented as running through it, Meath]. 

and the fort of Augher and the village of " Est regiuncula Australia Oirgielliae, 

Ballygawley as in it ; the town of Clogh- nunc ad Baroniam Slanensem spectans, 

er on its western, and the church of vulgo Crimthainne dicta." — Trias Thaum. 

Errigal Keroge on its northern boundary. p. 184, n. 1. 

O'Caemhain was the chief of tliis territory e Race of Duibhthire O'Dubhagain 

according to O'Dubhagain. states that O'Duibhthire was chief of the 

f Race of Creamhthann, i. e. the descend- race of Daimhin. See Annals of the Four 

ants of Creamhthann, son of Fiach, son of Masters, A.D. 1086, and Mac Firbisigh's 

na 5-Ceajic. 153 

The Fir Leamhna e and the descendants of comely Creamh- 

thann f , 
[And] the race of DuibhthirS of warlike chiefs. 

Eight bay steeds are due to him, 
Eight purple cloaks of fine texture, 
Eight shields, eight swords, eight drinking-horns, 
Eight hard-working, good-handed bondmen. 

Entitled is the king of Leithrinn h of the heroes 
To three beautiful steeds, — it is no falsehood, 
Three shields, three swords of battle, 
Three mantles, three coats of mail. 

Entitled is the king of Dartraidhe 1 of valor 
To four bondmen of great labor, 
Four swords, hard in battle, 
Four steeds, four golden shields. 

Entitled is the king of Fearn-mhagh k the fair 
To six beautiful drinking-horns for ale, 
Six shields, six curved swords, 
Six fair women, six chess-boards. 

genealogical work, p. 304. Their exact nagh. According to O'Dubhagain, the sept 

situation has not been yet determined. of O'Baeigheallain (O'Boylans) were the 

h Leithrinn. — This territory is not men- chiefs of this territory. 
turned in the Annals of the Four Masters, k Fearn-mhagh, i. e. the plain of the 

in O'Dubhagain's poem, or in any other alders, "Farney," a celebrated barony in 

tract upon Irish topography that the Editor the south of the county of Monaghan, 

has met. The tribe who inhabited it were for a very copious and interesting account 

descended from Lughaidh, son of Creamh- of which the reader is referred to Mr. 

thann, son of Rochadh, who was the Shirley's work entitled " Some Accoimt of 

son of Colla Da Chrioch. See Dubhaltach the Territory or Dominion of Farney, p. 1, 

Mac Firbisigh's genealogical work, page where the author shows that the alder is 

309. the prevailing native plant of tins barony. 

' Dartraidhe, i. e. of Dartraidhe Coinn- The battle of Cam Achaidh Leith-dheirg, 

innsi, as the prose has it, now the ba- in which the Three Collas defeated the 

rony of " Dartry" in the south-west of the Clanna Kudhraidhe, was fought in thister- 

county of Monaghan, adjoining Ferma- ritory. See p. 136, n. k , supra. 

154 Leabhcqi 

tDlijib pi peap manach mop 

cuic* 8 bpuir co coppcapaib b'6p M , 
coic pceich, coic claiomi cacha, 
coic lonja, coic luipecha. 

OI1516 pi ITIujoopn lp Rop 54 
pe mojaio co mop bochop", 
pe claibim, pe pceich, pe cuipn, 
pe bpuic copcpa, pe bpuic juipm. 

Qca punb peunchap na ploj 

o'd i5 (o)-cuc 5puo co bpuch 6eneon ; 

ace in ct bup cpeopach cepc 

ap each n-eolach ip dpb cepc. IN [CG1SU-SQ.] 

in. 3. Oli^heaoh R15I1 Ulaoh. 

OO OCHRQ16 acup 00 chuapipcalaib Ulao ano po. 

tDlijio pi j Ulao cheaoamup, in can nach pi pop Gpino h-6 pein, 
.1. leach lam pij h-Gpino, acup cop ob h-e bup cuipci beap 'n-a cho- 
cap acup chaemcheachca in comaipeao beap 1 (b)-pail pi j Gpmo. 
Qcup in can mupceapab 1 caeca claioeam acup caeca each acup 
caeca bpac acup caeca cocholl acup caeca pgmj acup caeca lui- 
peach acup epicha palach acup oec mil-choin acup oeich macail 
acup oeich (g)-cuipn acup beich longa acup pichi glac lopa acup 
pichi uj pailino. t)o pig Ulab pin uili each chpeap bliaoan [6 pi 

Poolaib oin pij Ulab cuapipcol b'u pijaib .1. 

Pichi copn acup pichi claioeam acup pichi mil-con acup pichi 
mojaio acup pici each acup pichi bpac acup pichi macal acup pichi 
curhal 6 pij Ulao bo pij t)ul n-Gpaibi. 

Upi h-eich, epi mojaib, epi mna, epi longa bo pij Dctl TJtaea. 

1 Feara Manach A territory co-exten- giiires) since the year 1202 ; infra, p. 173. 

sive with the present county of "Ferma- m The King of Mughdhom and Ros — 

nagh," of which the chiefs of the trihe of See above p. 150, notes. The territory of 

O'h-Egnigh (O'Hegnys) were the ancient Feara Ros is not well defined, but we learn 

lords, but the chiefs of Mac Uidhir (Ma- from the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, that 

na 5-Ceapu. 155 

Entitled is the great king of the Feara Manach 1 
To five cloaks with golden borders, 
Five shields, five swords of battle, 
Five ships, five coats of mail. 

Entitled is the king of Mugkdhorn and Ros m 
To six bondmen of great energy, 
Six swords, six shields, six drinking-horns, 
Six purple cloaks, six blue cloaks. 

There is the history of the hosts 

On whom Benean bestowed his love for ever ; 
But, save to the person of guiding knowledge, 
To every learned man it is a high difficulty. 


III. 3 — The Privileges of the King of Uladh. 

OF THE WAGES and of the stipends of Uladh here. 

In the first place the king of Uladh, when he himself is not king of 
Eire, is entitled to be by the side of the king of Eire, and he is to hold 
the first place in his confidence and society while he is along with the 
king of Eire. And when he is departing he obtains fifty swords and 
fifty steeds and fifty cloaks and fifty cowls and fifty scings and fifty 
coats of mail and thirty rings and ten greyhounds and ten matals and 
ten drinking-horns and ten ships and twenty handfuls of leeks and 
twenty sea-gulls' eggs. All these are given to the king of Uladh every 
third year from the king of Eire. 

The king of Uladh thus distributes stipends among his kings, viz. : 

Twenty drinking-horns and twenty swords and twenty greyhounds 
and twenty bondmen and twenty steeds and twenty cloaks and twenty 
matals and twenty cumhals from the king of Uladh to the king of Dal 

Three steeds, three bondmen, three women, three ships to the king 
of Dal Eiada. 

the church of Eanach Conglais (Killany, in that the parish of Machaire Rois (Magh- 
tlie barony of Farney), was in it. See eross), and that the town of Carraig Ma- 
Trius Thaum., p. 184, n. 21. It is also chaire Rois (Carrickmacross) were com- 
highly probable, if not absolutely certain, prised in it. 

156 Lectbhap 

Ceichpi lonja, ceichpi mojaio, ceichpi h-eich oo jiij in Qipp- 

Se mojaij, pe h-eich, pe cuipn, pe 2 claioirh Do pij h-Lla n-6apca 
Chein 3 . 

Ochc (5)-cuipn, [occ (5)-cumala, occ n-cnpo eoca], ochc n-eich, 
ochc mojaio do pi Odl nv&uin&i 4 . 

Ochc mojaio, ochc n-eich co n-a6allaib apjaio 5 oo pi h-Ua 

Da pdlaij acup oeich lonja acup oeich n-eich acup oeic ppein 
acup oeic pcihgi do pij Ouibcpin 6 . 

Occ lonja acup ochc mojaib acup ochc n-eich acup ochc 
(5)-cuipn acup ochc m-bpuic oo pij na h-Qpoa. 

Ochc mojaio acup ochc mnd acup ochc n-eich acup occ lonja 
do pij Ceichi Cachail. 

Upi h-eich acup cpi macail acup cpi cuipn acup cpi com oo pi 

Oeich (5)-cuipn acup oeich (5)-claibirh acup Deich longa acup 
oeich m-bpuic oo pij Coba. 

Se cuipn acup oeich lonja acup oeich [n-ec] acup oeich n-maip 
Oo pig muipcherhne. Conio Do caipcio na pochap pin po jni 7 6e- 
nean ann po [pip] : 

acd sund sochorc uiao 

cen Dochap, cean opoch bunao, 
map icchaip cuapipcal chaip 
6 pi 66ipchi beanbuchcain. 

Cpach nach pi o'6pin0 uili 
pi Lllao na h-uplai6i 9 , 

" Uladh — This was originally the name poem ; but it must be observed that the 
of the whole province of Ulster ; but after Clami Colla intruded further upon their 
the destruction of the palace of Eamliain kingdom in a few centuries after. Colgan 
Macha by the ThreeCollasin 332, it became has the following note on this subject on 
the name of the eastern part of the province the 31st chapter of Joceline's Life of St. Pa- 
only, as already explained, p. 36, n. e . The trick, Trias Thaum. p. 109 : " Tota pro- 
exact extent of this circumscribed kingdom vincia quae hodie Vltonia appellate, priscis 
of the ancient Ullta will appear from this temporibus sennonc patrio nunc Vita nunc 

na 5-Ceapc. 157 

Four ships, four bondmen, four steeds to the king of Oirthear. 

Six bondmen, six steeds, six drinking-horns, six swords to the 
king of Ui Earca Chein. 

Eight drinking-horns, eight cumhals, eight noble steeds, eight 
bondmen to the king of Dal m-Buinne. 

Eight bondmen, eight steeds with silver bits to the king of Ui 

Two rings and ten ships and ten steeds and ten bridles and ten 
scings to the king of Duibhthrian. 

Eight ships and eight bondmen and eight steeds and eight drink- 
ing-horns and eight cloaks to the king of the Arda. 

Eight bondmen and eight women and eight steeds and eight ships 
to the king of Leath Chathail. 

Three steeds and three matals and three drinking-horns and three 
hounds to the king of Boirche. 

Ten drinking-horns and ten swords and ten ships and ten cloaks to 
the king of Cobha. 

Six drinking-horns and ten ships and ten steeds and ten tunics to 
the king of Muirtheimhne. And it was to preserve these stipends 
Benean composed this [poem] below : 

Without diminution, without evil origin, 
As stipends are paid in the east 
By the king of Boirche of the blessing. 

When over all Eire reigns not [as monarch] 
The king of Uladh of the conflict, 

Ulaidh dicebatur, et Latine Fltonia, Vlidia, cliulitur, ccepit temporis successu Vlidia 

vel rectius Vladia ; sed postquam primd et incolaj Vlidij appellari ; quomodo a Ioce- 

Dalfiatacii, postea stirps Colleana, ac de- lino hie et infra, cap. 194, et ab alio prsa- 

inde tilij Neill potenti manu eandem pro- cedentium vitarum scriptoribus appellatam 

uineiam inuaserunt, et in suam potestatem reperimus." 

maiori ex parte redegerunt, priscis ha- " King of Boirche — See p. 38, n. ", snpru. 

bitatoribus ad angustiores terminos repul- The king of Uladh or Ulidia is meant ; 

sis ea eiusdem provincial regio, qiue hodie the name Boirche properly belonged to the 

tenninis Comitatus Dunensis pcene con- chain of mountains in his territory. 

158 Ceabhap 

0I1516 1 (b)-Cearhpaib-' na (b)-cpeb 
lam pig 6anba na m-buaileao 10 . 

Caeca claioeam, caeca pciuch, 
caeca bpac, caeca eacb liach, 
caeca cochall, caeca pcin^, 
lp caeca luipeach lun jpino" ; 

Cpicha pdlach, — ip pip pin, 

oeich mil-chom ip beich mucail, 
oeich (g)-cuipn opolrhacha oeapa 
ip oeich longa Ian oeapa 12 ; 

Pichi UJ5 pailino peappoa, 
pichi glac lopa leappoa, 
pichi ppian, ppeacach, pocal, 
bo chpuan ip do chapprhojal; 

lp h-e pin cuapipcal caip 

olijeap pij Cuailjne ceacaij 

each chpeap bliaoan,— ni baio baech, 

6 pig Poola na (b)-piao ppaech 13 . 

Pichi copnn, pichi claioearh, 
pichi mil-chon, — ip muipeap, 
pichi mojaio, muipn n-uabaip u , 
pichi gabap gnach [glan B.] pluajaij. 

Pichi bpac bpeac, — ni bee ni 15 , 
pichi macal maech al-li, 
pichi copn, pichi caili 
00 pi echcach Qpaioi. 

PKingofBanbhaofthebuailes,i.e.kwg however, the reading is na m-buain- 

of Ireland of great dairy districts, called pleao, i- e. of the constant banquets. 
" booleys" in Spenser's View of the State 1 Sdngs — See p. 70, note ', supra. 

of Ireland, p. 82, Dublin edit, of 1809. See r Cruan.— Some precious stone of a red 

p. 46, note J, supra. This expression would and yellow color. 

show that the monarch was considered in s Cuailghne. — Tliis is another name for 

some measure "a shepherd king." In B., the king of Uladh, for that mountainous 

na 5-Ceapc. 159 

He is entitled in Teamhair of the tribes 

To be by the side of the king of Banbha of the buailes p . 

Fifty swords, fifty shields, 
Fifty cloaks, fifty grey steeds, 
Fifty cowls, fifty scings q , 
And fifty coats of mail, perfectly suitable; 

Thirty rings, — that is true, 
Ten hounds and ten matals, 
Ten drinking-horns with handsome handles 
And ten ships, very beautiful ; 

Twenty eggs of goodly sea-gulls. 
Twenty handfuls of broad leeks, 
Twenty bridles, flowing, gorgeous, 
[Adorned] with cruan r and carbuncle; 

That is the stipend in the east 

That is due to the king of Cuailghne s of hundreds 
Every third year, — no foolish promise, 
From the king of Fodhla of heathy lands. 

Twenty drinking-horns, twenty swords, 
Twenty greyhounds, — it is a good number, 
Twenty bondmen, a proud troop, 
Twenty horses fit for expeditions. 

Twenty speckled cloaks, — no small matter, 
Twenty matals soft in texture, 
Twenty drinking-horns, twenty quern-women 
To the valorous king of Araidhe 1 . 

region, at the period of this poem, was in- or Clanna Rudhraidhe, and is described 
eluded in his kingdom, though soon after in the Book of Leacan, fol. 140, b, as ex- 
wrested from him by the vigorous Claim tending from Iubhar (Newry), to Sliabh 
Colla. See p. 21, note r , supra. Mis (SlemmishJ, in Antrim ; and from 
1 Araidhe, i. e. of Dal Araidhe, as in Carraig Inbhir Uisee to Linn Duachaill 
the prose. This was the largest territory (Magheralin), in the west of Down. The 
in the circumscribed kingdom of the Ullta Dal Araidhe derive their name and origin 



Cnapipeal pi t)ul Riaca 
cpf h-eich 6uba, bdij-piaca, 
cpi mnu, cpi mojam mopu 16 
lp rpi longa Ian chpooa 17 . 

Cuapipcal pi£ an Qipchip 

ceichpi mojaio nach muippio, 
ceichpi h-eich bon&a, oeapa, 
ceichpi longa Ian oeapa 18 . 

OI1516 pi h-Ua n-Deapca Che in 19 
coic 20 gabpa glana pe jpen, 

from Fiacha Araidhe, king of all Ulster, 
A. D. 240. See Ussher's Primordia, p. 
1047 ; O'Fla. Ogygia, part iii. c. 18. 

" Dal Eiada, i. e. the tribe of Cairbre 
Riada, the son of Conaire II. monarch of 
Ireland, A.D. 212. Another branch of this 
tribe settled amongst the Picts, a fact men- 
tioned byBede Hist. Ecclesiast. lib. i.e. 1. 

Bede explains Dal in this compound as 
signifying part in the Scotic language, and 
the same explanation is given in Connac's 
Glossary ; but O'Flaherty says that it sig- 
nifies with greater propriety an offspring 
( Ogygia, part iii. c. 63) ; and Charles 
O'Conor of Belanagare, in his edition of 
Ogygia Vindicated, p. 175, observes that 
" Dal properly signifies posterity or de- 
scent by blood," but that "in an enlarged 
and figurative sense it signifies a district, 
i. e. the division or part allotted to such 
posterity;" and he adds : " Of this double 
sense we have numberless instances ; thus 
Bede's interpretation is doubtless, in the 
second sense, admissible." 

Colgan, in his Annotations on the Life 
of St. Olcan, at 20th February, has the 
following curious note on Dalredia, to which 
all modern writers, except Ussher, are in- 

debted for what they have told us concern- 
ing this territory : 

" Hsec regio nomen sortita est a peran- 
tiqua. et nobilissima familia Dalrieda dicta, 
qua? nomen hoc suum quod a progenitore 
accepit, regioni quam possedit impertiit. 
Ea enim familia oriunda est ex quodam 
principe Hiberno, cui nomen Carbreus et 
cognomen Rif hoda secundum vocis etymon ; 
secundum vero modum pronuntiandi Kioda, 
et nunc secundum vsum vulgarem et mo- 
dum etiam scribendi Rioda, vel Rieda. 
Vnde huius progenies, Dal rieda, id est, 
stirps, seu propago Rieda? Hibernice appel- 
latur: Latine vero, ut Venerabili Beda? 
placet, Dal Reudini ; sed rectiiis Dalriedini 
appellantur. Fuit autem hajc progenies 
Celebris et potens multis saaculis, non solum 
in praxlieta regione Hibernian, verum etiam 
in Albania, quam hodie communiter Sco- 
tiam vocamus. Hiberni enim prsedicti re- 
gionis principe Rieda, seu vt Beda loquitur, 
Reuda duce, inuaserunt prius insulas He- 
bridum et aliquas viciniores continentis 
Albania? regiones, quas aliquamdiu possi- 
derunt, vt lib. i. hyst. cap. 1. docet Beda 
his verbis : ' Procedente autem tempore Bri- 
tannia post Britones et Pictos tertiam Sco- 

net g-Cectpc. 


The stipend of the king of Dal Riada" [is] 
Three steeds, black, well-trained, 
Three women, three huge bondmen 
And three ships, right gallant. 

The stipend of the king of Oirthear* [is] 
Four bondmen who will not kill, 
Four handsome, bay steeds, 
Four ships, very beautiful. 

Entitled is thejdng of Ui Dearca Chein y 
To five horses bright as the sun, 

torum nationem in Pictorum parte recepit ; 
qui duce Reuda de Hibernia egressi, vel 
ferro, vel amicitia sibimet inter eos sedes 
quas hactenus habent vindicarunt : a quo 
videlicet duce vsque hodie Dalreudini vo- 
cantur ; nam lingua eorum Dal partem 
significat.' Hsec Beda. Posteri eiusdem 
Reudse tandem a Britannis expulsi reversi 
sunt in patriam suam Dalreudiam, donee 
tandem duce Fergussio, de quo infra, anti- 
quas sedes in Albania circa annum Do- 
mini 445 repetierunt : vbi temporis suc- 
cessu suos fines ita extenderunt vt devictis 
Pictis tota fuerint Scotia potiti." — Trias 
Thaum. p. 377, note 3. 

According to a letter written by Randal, 
Earl of Antrim, to Archbishop Ussher, the 
Irish Dalriada extended thirty miles from 
the River Buais (Bush) to the cross of 
Gleann Finneachta, now the village of 
Glynn, in the east of the county of Antrim. 
See Ussher's Primordia, p. 1029 ; and Dub- 
lin Penny Journal, vol i. p. 362. 

How long the posterity of Cairbre Riada 
remained powerful in this territory, or what 
family names they assumed after the esta- 
blishment of surnames in the tenth century, 
we have no documents to prove, but it i 

highly probable that they were driven out 
at an early period by the Clann Colla, for 
we find the Ui Tuirtre and Fir Li, of whom 
O'Fhloinn (O'Lyn), a descendant of Colla 
Uais, was king, were in possession of all 
the territory of Dal Riada in 11 77. The 
Fir Li, as has been already stated, were on 
the west side of the River Bann in the time 
of St. Patrick, but they were certainly on 
the east side of it when Sir John deCourcy 
invaded Ulster. However, we have no do- 
cument to prove the exact period at which 
they established themselves in the country 
of the Dal Riada. 

The name Dal Riada (or Reuda) is still 
preserved in the corrupted form of " Ruta," 
Anglice " Roote" and " Route," a well- 
known district in the north of the county 
Antrim. See Ussher's Primordia, p. 611. 

N Oirthear, i.e. eastern. This is to be 
distinguished from Crioch nan-Oirthear in 
Oirghialla (see p. 148, n. y), but its exact 
situation has not yet been determined. 

y Ui Dearca C/tein — Colgan says that 
this was the name of a valley in the barony 
of Antrim and diocese of Connor. See Trias 
Thaum. p. 183, note 221-223. The Ui 
Earca Chein are mentioned twice in the 



pe claioirh choccuo, pe cuipn 
1 pe mo^aio pe mop rhuipno-'. 

OI1516 pi t)al m-&mnbi m-ban- 

ochc (;jj)-cuipn acup ochc (£)-copu[i]n, 
ochc mojaio, ochc mnd oeapa 23 
lp ochc n-jabpa jlan cpeapa. 

Cuapipcal pij h-Uu m-6laichmeic 
ochc mojaio chaevha, chaichrhio 54 , 
ochc n-eich, a pliabcub ni plac w , 
co ppianaib bo pean apcao 26 . 

Annals of the Four Masters, first at the 
year 1199, and next at the year 1391, 
where it is mentioned that Mac Giolla 
Muire (Gillimurry), who was otherwise 
called Cu Uladh O'Morna, was chief of the 
Ui Earca Chein and Leath Chathail, from 
which it would appear that the two terri- 
tories were conterraneous, which could not 
be the case if the former were in the barony 
of Antrim. Rymer mentions a " Mac Gil- 
mori dux de Auderkin," 3 Edw. I. 1275. 
At a later period the " Gilmers" were set- 
tled in Holywood. See Stuart's Armagh. 
The name occurs in the Tripartite Life of 
St. Patrick, part ii. c. 133, where it is stated 
that the Irish apostle erected there a church 
which was called Rath Easpuig Innic, from 
a Bishop Yinnocus, whom he placed over 
it. Trias Tltavm, p. 147. According to 
the pedigree of this tribe, given by Dubh- 
altach Mac Firbisigh, in his genealogical 
work (Lord Roden's copy), p. 205, the Ui 
Earca Chein are a Connacht tribe descended 
from Cruitine, son of Eoghan Sriabh, who 
was son of Duach Galach, king of Con- 
nacht, in the fifth century ; but no account 
lias been discovered of how or when they 
settled in Dal Araidhe. The descent of 

Cionaeth (Kenny) O'Morna, of this race, 
chief of Leath Chathail (Lecalc) is thus 
given by Mac Firbisigh (iibi supra) : 

" Cinaeth, son of Ruarcan, son of Mael- 
sneachta, a quo O'Morna, in Leth Chathail, 
is called, son of Fearchar, son of Oisen, son 
(if ( Inchu, son of Broc, son of Aine, son of 
Sinell, son of Amergin, son of Cruithne, son 
of Eoghan Sriabh, son of Duach Galach." 

It would appear from the same work, 
p. 508, that there was a more ancient line 
of Chiefs in Leath Chathail than the 
O'Mornas, and that this older line was 
of the ancient Ullta, or Clanna Rudhraidhe, 
and descended from Cathal, from whom 
Leath Chathail was named, the son of 
Muireadhach, son of Aenghus, son of Mael- 
cobha, son of Fiachna, son of Deaman, king 
of Ulidia, or circumscribed Uladh, slain in 
the battle of Ardcoran in Dal Riada, A. I). 
027. From the various references to this 
family of Mac Giolla Muire, alias O'Morna, 
occurring in the Irish Annals, and other do- 
cuments, it is quite evident that they ori- 
ginally possessed the barony of " Lecale," 
a part of "Kinelarty," and the barony of 
" Upper Castlereagh," in the county of 
Down ; but after the English invasion their 

na 5-Cecqir. 


Six war-swords, six drinking-horns 

And six bondmen of great merriment. 

Entitled is the king of fair Dal Buinne' 
To eight drinking-horns and eight cups, 
Eight bondmen, eight handsome women 
And eight horses of fine action. 

The stipend of the king of Ui Blathmaic 3 [is] 

Eight handsome, expensive bondmen, [trained,] 

Eight steeds, not driven from the mountains, [i. e. not un- 
With bridles of old silver. 

territory was very much circumscribed by 
the encroachments of the families of the 
Whites and Savadges, and afterwards of 
the O'Neills of Claim Aedha Buidhe (Clan- 
naboy), and Mac Artains. It would appeal-, 
however, from the Anglo-Irish Annals, 
that the "Mac Gilmories," or " Gilmors," 
were very stout opposers of the English in 
their original territory in the beginning of 
the fifteenth century. The two notices of 
this family following, which occur in Ware's 
Annals of Ireland, are sufficient to prove 
this fact : 

" Anno 1407. A certain false fellow, an 
Irish man named Mac Adam MacGilmori, 
that had caused forty churches to be de- 
stroyed, who was never baptized, and 
therefore he was called Corbi [coipbci, 
wicked], took Patrick Savadge prisoner, 
and received for his ransom two thousand 
marks, and afterwards slew him together 
with his brother Richard."' 

It is difficult to say where the good and 
honest Ware got this passage, but it is 
quite evident that Coirbi does not mean 
unbaptized, and that Savadge had not so 
much money as 2000 marks in the world, 

''Anno 1408. This year Hugh Mac Gil- 

more was slain in Carrickfergus, within the 
church of the Fryars Minors, which church 
he had before destroyed, and broke down 
the glass windows to have the iron bars 
through which his enemies, the Savages, 
had entered upon him." — Edition of 1705. 

The O'Neill pedigree quoted by Dr. 
Stuart, in his History of Armagh, p. 630, 
states that the " Clannahoy" O'Neills gave 
to the Gilmors the lands of Holywood. 
The parish of Dundonald would also ap- 
pear to have belonged to this tribe. 

z Dal Buinne, i. e. the race of Buinne, 
son of Fearghus Mac Roigh, king of 
CTladh (Ulster), just before the first cen- 
tury of the Christian era. See O'Flaherty's 
Ogygia, part. iii. c. 46. This tribe pos- 
- sssed the present barony of " Upper Mas- 
sareene," with the parishes of " Kilwarlin 
and Drumbo," on the other side of the River 
Lagan. The exact number of churches and 
chapels in the territory is given in Pope 
Nicholas's Taxation. See Taxation of the 
Diocese of Down and Connor and Dro- 
more, about the year 1291. Edited by the 
Rev. IV111. Reeves, M.B., 1847. Hodges 
and Smith. 

a 77/e UiBlathmaic, i.e. the descendants 
M 2 



Cuupipcol pi£ Ouibchpin oem 

Da palai£, oeich n-eich, oeich pceich", 

oeich pcinji, nach pcichenn pluaj**, 

ip oeich niojuio [lonja B.] pop Coch Cuan. 

tTuapipcal pij na h-Gpoa 

ochc n-£cnll, ochc n-jabpa japja, 

ochc (£)-cuipn, ochc m-bpuic co m-buinoib*' 

lp ochc lonjjja Idn chuillij 30 . 

t)liji6 pi 6eichi Cachail 

ochc mojaio cacha mop achaio 31 , 
ochc n-eich o'eachaib oonoa 3 * ac oun, 
ochc (5)-cuipn chpoma ppt caerh-cluo. 

t)lij;i6 pi 66ipchi in bill 33 
pe 34 jabpa mopa ap mipi, 
cpi macail, cpi cuipn claena 3i , 
cpi coin ailli, pip chaerha 36 . 

Cuapipcol pij Coba cuib 37 

oeich (5)-cuipn, oeich (5)-clco6irh ochaip M , 

of Blathmac. See Mac Firbisigh's genealo- 
gical work, p. 510. In 1333 Blathewyc, 
Blawiek, Blavico, were names for the 
then Comitates Nova Villa, extending all 
round " Newtown- Ards," including "Ban- 
gor." Inq. post mart. Com. Ult., 1333. See 
also Calend. Cane. Hib., vol. i. p. 48, b. 
This Comitates Nova Villa de Blathwyc 
evidently comprised the northern portion 
of the barony of "Ards,"' and the greater 
part of the barony of " Lower Castlereagh," 
in the county of Down. 

b Duibhthrian, i. e. the black third or 
tenia] division, Anglice " Dufferin," a ba- 
rony extending along the western side of 
Loch Cuan (by its Norse name Strang 
Fiord. Anglici "Strangford"), in the county 

of Down. The tribe of Mac Artain were 
chiefs of this and the adjoining baro- 
ny of Cineal Fhaghartaigh, " Kinelarty." 
Thej descend from Caelbhadh, the brother 
of Eochaidh Cobha, the ancestor of the 
family of the Mac Aenghusa ( Magennisses i 

c Stings — See page 70, note ', supra. 

A Loch Cuan — This is still the Irish name 
of ' • Strangford." See the last note but one. 
According to the bardic accounts, this inlet 
of the sea forced its way through the laud 
in the time of Partholan, who came to Ire- 
land 312 years after the flood according 
to O'Flaherty's Chronology. See Ogygia, 
part iii. cc. 2 and 3. 

e Arda, now called " the Ards," a barony 
in the east of the county of Down, lying 

rice 5-Cectpc. 165 

The stipend of* the king of the fine Duibhthrian b [is] 
Two rings, ten steeds, ten shields, 
Ten scings c , which fatigue not on an expedition, 
And ten ships on Loch Cuan d . 

The stipend of the king of the Arda e [is] 
Eight foreigners, eight fierce horses, 
Eight drinking-horns, eight cloaks with ring- clasps 
And eight exquisitely beauteous ships. 

Entitled is the king of Leath ChathaiK 

To eight bondmen [tillers] of each great field, 

Eight steeds, bay steeds at [his] fort, 

Eight curved drinking-horns for interchanging. 

Entitled is the king of Boirche^, the hero, 
To six great, spirited horses, 
Three matals, three inclining drinking-horns, 
Three fine hounds, truly beautiful. 

The stipend of the king of Cobha h of victory [is] 
Ten drinking-horns, ten wounding swords, 

principally between Loch Cuan and the i. e. the peaks of Boirche, called (accord- 
sea. The name of this territory is trans- ing to the Dinnseanchus) after Boirche, 
lated Altitudo Ultorum, in the Life of the shepherd of Kos, king of Ulster in the 
St. Comhghall, founder of Beannchor( Ban- third century, who herded the king's cat- 
gor), which is situate in this territory. tie on these mountains. See O'Fla. Ogygia, 

' Leath Chathail, i. e. Cathal's half, or part iii. c. t?9. in the Dinnseanchus it is 

portion, Anglice " Lecale," a well-known stated that the shepherd Boirche could 

barony in the county of Down, anciently view from these mountains all the lands 

called Maigh Inis, i. e. the insular plain. southwards as far as Dun Dealgan (Dun- 

The name Leath Chathail was derived from dalk), and northwards as far as Dun 

Cathal the son of Muireadhach, son of Sobhairce. This is another proof that the 

Aenghus, son of Maelcobha, son of Fiachna, present barony of " Mourue" was not the 

who was the son of Deaman, king of Ulidia, Crioch Mughdhorna of the Oirghialla. 

slain in the year G27. See p. 163, note \ " Cobha — This territory is more usu- 

supra, ally called Magh Cobha, i. e. the plain of 

b Boirche.— Sec p. 3X, note L ', as to the Eochaidh Cobha, the ancestor of the tribe 

mountains usually called Beanna Boirche, called Ui Eathach Cobha, who were seated 



beich lon^a b'u 39 leanann plo£, 
oeich m-bpuic co n-a m-bopbaib o'op. 

t)liji6 pi muipchevhne in minb 
pe cuipn leabpa Ian bo 40 lino, 

in the present baronies of " Upper and 
Lower Iveaga" in the county of Down. 
See O'FIa. Ogygia, part iii. c. 78. The 
Four Masters, and from them Colgan and 
others, have erred in placing this plain in 
Tyrone ; and Dr. Lanigan has been set 
astray by them in his Ecclesiastical His- 
tory of Ireland (vol. iv. p. 11, note 26), 
where he conjectures that Magh Cobha 
was probably the name of the plain around 
the present village of" Coagh" in the county 
of Tyrone. But the situation of the plain 
of Magh Cobha is fixed by the older writers, 
who place it in Ui (Uibh) Eathach (Iveagh), 
and place in it the monastery of Druim 
Mor (Dromore) and the church of Domh- 
nach Mor Muighe Cobha, which is unques- 
tionably the present " Donaghmore" (in 
•• Upper Iveagh"), nearly midway between 
Newry and Lough Brickland. See the 
Feilire Aenghuis at l6thof November, and 
Haliday's edition of the first part of Keat- 
ting's History of Ireland, p. 318, where 
the plain of Magh Cobha, which is said to 
have been cleared of wood in the reign of 
I rial Faidh, is placed in " Aoibh Eachach," 
which llaliday Anglicizes "Iveagh." See 
also the Annals of Tighearnach at the 
years 735 and 739, and Ada Sancton/m, 
apud Bolland. 7 Junii. The family of Mac 
Acnghusa (Magennises) were chiefs of this 
territory for many centuries before the 
confiscation of Ulster; but (according to 
O'Dubhagain) O'Gairbhith, and Oh-Ain- 
bhith (Anglice O'Garvey, and O'Hanvey 

or O'Hannafey), preceded them. " Magen- 
nis" descends from Saran, chief of Dal 
Araidhe in St. Patrick's time, and this 
Saran was the eleventh in the descent 
from Fiacha Araidhe, and the fourth from 
Eochaidh Cobha, the ancestor of all the 
Ui Eathach Cobha. 

' Muirtheimhne See page 21, note s . 

This territory is more usually called Magh 
Muirtheimhne and Conaille Muirtheimhne, 
from the descendants of Conall Cearnach 
(of the Clanna Kudhraidhe race), the most 
distinguished of the heroes of the Red 
Branch in Ulster, who flourished here for 
many centuries. Colgan describes its situa- 
tion as follows, in his notes on the Scholiast 
of Fiach's Hymn on the Life of St. Patrick : 

" In Conallia Murthemnensi. Est cam- 
pestris Regio Australis Vltonise a monte 
Bregh prope Pontanam ciuitatem [Drog- 
heda] vsque in sinum maris Dun-Delga- 
nice, seu vt valgus loquitur, Dun-dalchiae 
vicinum ; iuxta quod est campus ille in 
patriis historiis celebrati nominis vulgo 
Mug-murthemne dictus ; a quo et ilia 
Regio Murthemnensis vocatur quae hodie 
Comitatus Luthse vulgo vocatur." — Trias 
Thaum. p. 8, note 10. It appears from 
the lives of St. Brighid (Bridget) and St. 
Monenna, and from the Feilire Aenghuis 
and other calendars, that the churches of 
Fochard, Iniscaein, Cill Uinche, and Druim 
Ineaschuinn, were in this territory. Ussher 
informs us that the district of Campus Mur- 
themene (in quo Conaleorum gens maxime 

na 5-Cecqir. 


Ten ships which a host mans, 

Ten cloaks with their borders of gold. 

Entitled is the king of Muirthehnhne 1 , the hero, 
To six tall drinking-horns full of ale, 

viget) was called fclagheiy-Conall in hi* 

time. See his PiinwrdUi, pp. 705, TOG, 
and O'Fla. Ogygiu, part iii. c. 47. 

This territory had been wrested from the 
descendants of Conall Cearnach several 
centuries before the English invasion, by 
the Oirghialla, so that the present county 
of Louth, instead of being regarded as a 
part of Uladh or Ulidia, as it certainly 
was when this poem was written, has been 
considered as the Machaire or plain of the 
Oirghialla, and the part oftenest called 
" Oriel" or "Uriel," by English writers. 

From the territories here enumerated as 
in Uladh (i. e. in Ulidia, or the circum- 
scribed territory of the ancient Ullta), it is 
quite evident that it comprised, when this 
poem was written, the present counties of 
Louth, Down, and Antrim, except a por- 
tion of the last, which was in the posses- 
sion of the L T i Tuirtre, who were a family 
of the Oirghialla, as already mentioned; 
and it looks very strange that it should not 
have been tributary to the king of Uladh, 
being on the east side of Loch n-Eathach 
{ Lough Neagh), in the heart of his coun- 
try, and separating his subjects of Dal 
Araidlie from those of Dal Riada, to whom 
lie gave stipends, and from whom he re- 
ceived tribute. 

The dominant family in this territory 
when it was invaded by Sir John De 
Courcy in 1177, was of the Dal Fiatach 
race. He wasCu Uladh, i.e. < !anis Ultonia< . 
Mac Duinnshleibhe (Dunlevy) h-Eoch- 

adha, called by Giraldus Cambrensis, Dun- 

levus, to whose warlike character he bears 
the following testimony in his Hibeniia 
Expugnata, lib. ii. c. xvi. : 

" Videns autem Dunlevus se verbis mi- 
nime profecturum corrogatis vndique viri- 
bus cum 10 bellatorum millibus infra S 
dies hostes in vrbe viriliter inuadit. In 
hac enim insula sicut et in omni natione, 
gens borealis magis bellica semper et tru- 
culenta reperitur." 

But the greater number of his sub-chiefs 
were of the Clanna Rudhraidhe. Thus we 
see that the ancient limits of the Clanna 
Rudhraidhe and Dal Fiatach of Ulster 
were greatly restricted at the period of the 
English invasion by the npspringing vigor 
and increasing population of the race of 
the Collas, and the more powerful race of 
Niall of the Nine Hostages. Dnbhaltach 
Mae Firbisigh, in his pedigrees of the Irish 
families says, that the Dal Fiatachs, who 
were the old kings of Ulster, and blended 
of old with the Clanna Rudhraidhe, were 
hemmed into a narrow corner of the pro- 
vince by the race of Conn of the Hundred 
Lattles, i. e. the Oirghialla and L'i Xeill 
of the north, and that even this narrow 
corner was not left to them [he alludes 
to the obtrusion of the O'Neills of Clanna 
Aedha Buidhe (Clanaboy), who subdued 
almost the entire of Ulidia], so that they 
had nearly been extinguished, except, a few 
who had lei'l tin.' original territory. And, he 
says, grieving, " this i^ the case with all 

168 Uabliap 

beich lonja do laech 6lja, 

oeich n-eieh, beich n-maip beapja. 

Seanchap pij Cuailjne ip 66ipche 41 
cuimnij cacli Id ip each n-oibce 
6einein po leapaij pe let 1 ' 2 
in pochap pin map acd. . CiCd SUNO SOCCtR. 

61QCG ocup cfpa ehuaeh n-Ulao anb po [pip] .1. ap cpich 43 
moip TTIuiji Cine cheabamup, a cheo biaehao. 

Cpi ceac mapc acup cpi cheb bpac al-Cine 14 ino pin. 

Se 4S chaeca bam a t)al TJiaea acup pe 4S cbaeca cope acup cpi 
cliaeca bo acup cpi chaeca bpac a Semne. 

Od ceac cope acup od ceac bo a £,aehaipne 4fi . 

Ceb bo acup ceac bpac acup ceac mole a Cpocpaidi 47 . 

Ceo bo acup ceac bpac acup ceac mole acup ceac cope ap in 
frpeaeaij 48 . 

Ceo mapc acup ceao mole acup ceac cope 6 P(h)opchuaehaib 
inb pin. 

Cpi chaeca mapc acup cpi chaeca cope 6 na lTlanchaib 49 . 

Cpi ceac oariri acup cpi ceac bo ap in Duibchpiun. 

Cpi cheb bo acup cpi ceac cope acup cpi ceac bpac a Ceich 

Ice pin a biaea 6 paepchuachaib ceanmoedic 50 a baep-chuaeha. 
lplaipibe 51 , imoppo, eupjnonV 2 loma acup leanba acup uamai can 
cacha [ugup aem ajup eppaoa] uaibib". Conao boib pin po cha- 
chain in pui [buaba] .1. 6enen anb po. 

t)Cl^lt) pij Gamna acup Lllab 54 , 
dpb in peel, 

the Gaoidhil of Ireland in this year 1666." of Connacht and Meath; the Ciarraidhe 

But he adds, " God is wide in a strait." in Minister and Connacht ; the Corcom- 

But it must he remarked that these tribes ruaidh, &c. See pp. 48, 65, 100, supra. 
had sent forth numerous coloniesor swarms, k Hero of E alga — This is a bardic name 

who settled in various parts of Ireland, as for the king of Uladh, because he repre- 

the seven septs of Laeighis (Leix), in sented Cuchulainn, who was the champion 

Leinster ; the Soghains and the Conmaicne of Ireland in his day. 

na 5-Ceafic. 169 

Ten .--hips from the hero of Ealga* (Ireland), 

Ten steeds, ten red tunics. 

The history of the king of Cuailghne and Boirche 1 
Remember each day and each night; 
Benean inculcated in his day 
That revenue as it is HERE IS THE STIPEND. 

THE REFECTIONS and tributes of the territories ofUladh down 
here, viz., first on the great region of Magh Line, his first refection. 

Three hundred beeves and three hundred cloaks from Line. 

Six times fifty oxen from Dal Riada and six times fifty hogs and 
three times fifty cows and three times fifty cloaks from Semhne. 

Two hundred hogs and two hundred cows from Latharna. 

A hundred cows and a hundred cloaks and a hundred wethers from 
the Crotraidhe. 

A hundred cows and a hundred cloaks and a hundred wethers and 
a hundred hogs from Breadach. 

A hundred beeves and a hundred wethers and a hundred hogs from 
the Forthuatha. 

Thrice fifty beeves and thrice fifty hogs from the Mancha. 

Three hundred oxen and three hundred cows from Duibhthrian. 

Three hundred cows and three hundred hogs and three hundred 
cloaks from Leath Chathail. 

Such are his provision-tributes from the noble tribes, exclusive of 
the unfree tribes. He has also the collecting of milk and ale and uamha 
(sewing thread) without any opposition from them. Concerning which 
things the gifted sage Benean composed this [poem]. 

ENTITLED is the king of Eamhain and Uladh™ 
Noble the story, 

1 King of Cuailghne und Boirche This m King of Eamhain and Uladh Here 

ia another bardic appellation for the king the king of Uladh is, by a poetical liberty, 

of Uladh, from the two great mountain called " of Eamhain," although his ances- 

ranges already described. See p. 21, n. r , tors had not possession of that palace since 

ami p. 38, n. s, supra. A. D. 332. See further, p. 36, n. fi , supra. 

170 Leabhap 

ap vinmj" fflacha, 
pop a chacha nocho chel, 

Se chaecaio mnpc a TTlui^ Cine, 

ni luab mip : 

pe chaeca bo, — 
bpeach cean mine 46 beapap lib. 

Cpi chaeca bam a t)dl ^iaca 

nop 0I15 bib, 
acup cpi chaeca muc m-biaca 

can bpeich pfl. 

Upi chaeca pdp bpac a Serhne 

puno 00 chdch 57 , 
ip cpi chaeca pdp bo pelbe 

pe 58 bd chpdch. 

"Olijio a Cachaipnib loma, — 

ni luao n-56, — 
od cheb cope co piaclaib cpoma i9 , 

od ceab bo. 

t)leajap a Cpocpaioi 60 in choblaij, — 
cumnij lac, — 

" Magh Line — This name (which is Castle, Lord O'Neill's seat, near the town 
Anglicized " Moylinny") is that of a level of Antrim), where the aforesaid river Six- 
territory, lying principally in the barony mile-water discharges itself into Lough 
of " Upper Antrim," in the county of An- Neagh. See p. 163, note z , supra. 
trim. According to an Inquisition taken ° Dal Riada — Seep. 160, note ", supra. 

7 Jac. i, the territory was bounded on the P Semhne This is otherwise called 

south and south-east by the river Six-mile- Magh Semhne, and was the name of a 

water, on the north and north-west for two plain in Dal Araidhe, lying to the north 

miles by the stream of Glancurry (now of Magh Line above described. Colgan 

gleanna' coipe, Anglice Glenwherry), gives the following note on its situation, 

as far as the mountain ofCarneally; its &c, in his notice of the church of Imleach 

boundary then extended southwards to Cluana, in his notes to the Tripartite Life 

Connor, and thence in a southern direction of St. Patrick : 

to Edenduffcarrick (now called Shane's " Mag Si nine, id est campum Semne 

na 5-Ceapc. 


On Madia's plain, 
From his battalions I will not hide it, 

To six times fifty beeves from Magh Line", 
No hasty saying : 
Six times fifty cows, — 

Sentence without mitigation pass ye. 

Thrice fifty oxen from Dal Riada 

Are due of them, 
And thrice fifty fatted pigs 

Without producing young. 

Thrice fifty very good cloaks from Scmhin: 1 ' 

Here for all, 
And thrice fifty good cows of the herd 

In two days. 

Entitled he is from the bare Latharna q ,— 

No false report, — 
To two hundred hogs with crooked tusks, 

[And] two hundred cows. 

There is due from Crotraidhe r of the fleet, — 
Bear it in thy memory, — 

in Dal-aradia e syluis excisis per Neme- 
thum Regem eiusque iilios vendicatum anno 
mundi 2859, ut tradunt Quatuor Magistri 
in Annalibus. Eeclesiam autem eiusdem 
agri, qua? Lie Imleach Cluana appellator, 
puto esse qua; hodie KUl-Chluana appel- 
lator; vol saltern quse Kill Choemhain 
dicitur : cum in ca Sanctum Coemanum 
quiescere hie feratur. Kill- Choemain au- 
tem est in regione de Hi-Tnirtre : et utra- 
que Dicecesis Connerensis in Dal-aradia."— 
Trias Thaum. p. 183. 

'i Lathama, Anglice " Larne." This 
was the name of a tuath or reaiuncula in 

the diocese of " Connor," in Colgan's time. 
In 1605, as appears from an Inquisition 
taken at Antrim in that year, " Larne" was 
a barony " in le Rowt." It is now included 
in the barony of " Upper Glenarm," which 
consists of the parishes of " Camcastle, Kil- 
lyglen, Kilwaughter, and Larne," which 
last preserves the name. The present town 
of " Larne" was anciently called Inbhear 
Latharna, and in the Mac Donnell patent it 
is called Inver-in-Laheme. See Dubour- 
dieu's Stat. Surv. of Antrim, p. 621, and Col- 
gan's Trias Thaum. p. 183, nn. 216, 217. 
r Crotraidhe — Unknown, unless it be 



ceo mole, [ceao bo], nap bo oojpai^'. 
ip ceac bpae. 

Ceo mole, ceac bo ap in (m)-6peoaij, 

bopb in peel, 
acup ceac cope 1 n-a 62 (o)-epeoaib, 

map ao bep. 

Ceo mole a Popchuachaib upoa, 
ip ceac m-bpac [mapc, B.] 

acup ceac cope oia 63 nop capoa 
la ceac m-bpac. 

Upi chaeca mapc 6 na manchaib 64 , 

nip bo 63 mall, 
cpi caeca 66 caem chopc co coppchaip 67 

nocho cam. 

Upi cheao Oam ap in n-Ouibepiuin 

olea£ap 6ib, 
ip cpi ceac bo co n-a n-uich bpijr 

cop in pij 68 . 

[Cpi ceao cope 6 cuaehaib Caeail, 

noco cpuato, 
cpi ceao oaj-bpac co n-oachaib 

0I1516 cuaio.] 

Cathraidhe, now the barony of " Carey," 
in the north-east of the county of Antrim. 

9 Breadach This is the real territo- 
rial name of the country of the Ui Dearca 
Chein. Previously to the seventeenth cen- 
tury, Breadach was the name of a parish in 
the barony of " Upper Castlereagh," now 
incorporated with "Cnoc," under the name 
of Cnoc Breadaigh, " Knockbreda." In the 
Taxation of Pope Nicholas (circ 1291), it 
is called Bradach, and its burying ground, 
still bearing this name, remains within 
Belvoir Park, the seat of Sir Robert Bate- 

son. See the Ordnance Map of the County 
of Down, sheet 9. We have seen above in 
the note on Ui Dearca Chein, p. 161, n. ?, 
that Mac Giolla Midre was chief of that 
tribe, and it appears from the Registry of 
John Prene, who was Archbishop of Ar- 
magh, from 1439 to 1443, that "Patricius 
Pallidus O'Gilmore" was chief parishioner 
of "Bredac" in 1442. 

1 Forthuatha, i. e. the extern tribes who 
were not of the king's own race. See p. 78, 
n. f , p. 120, n. e , supra. 

" Mancha, more usually called Moncha, 

net 5-Ceapc. 1 7;; 

A hundred wethers, a hundred cows, not sickly cows 

And a hundred cloaks. 

A hundred wethers, a hundred cows from Breadach', 

Hard the story, 
And a hundred hogs in their droves, 

As I do relate. 

A hundred wethers from the high Forthuatha 1 , 

And a hundred beeves, 
And a hundred hogs to him are given 

With a hundred cloaks. 

Thrice fifty beeves from the Mancha", 

Not slow is [the payment], 
Thrice fifty fair cloaks with borders 

Not crooked. 

Three hundred oxen from Dubhthrian v 

Are due, 
And three hundred cows with their distended udders 

To the king. 

Three hundred hogs from the territories of Cathal, 

Not severe, 
Three hundred goodly cloaks of [good] colors 

He is entitled to in the north. 

or Monaigh Uladh. They were a Leinster anterior to the Ui h- Eignigh and Meg 

tribe, descended from Monach, son of Oilioll Uidhir. See Dubh. Mac Firbisigh's genea- 

Mor, son of Bracan, son of Fiac, son logical work, p. 466. The exact situation 

of Daire Barrach, sou of Cathaeir Mor, of this tribe has not been determined, but 

monarch of Ireland. They had slain their they were somewhere in the barony of 

relative Eanna, the son of the king of Iveagh, in the county of Down. They 

Leinster, and fled to Eochaidh Gundat, existed down to so late a period as 1173, 

king of Uladh, their mother's relative, when, according to the Annals of the Four 

and under the protection of St. Tighear- Masters, Mac Giolla Epscoip (Mac Gilles- 

nach of Cluain-Eois (Clones). Another pick), of this race, was chief of Claim 

branch of the same tribe settled at Loch Aeilabhra, and legislator of the tribe of 

Eirne, and gave name to Fir Manach (Fer- Monach. 
managh), a territory which they possessed » Duibhthrian. — See p. 164, n. b , supra. 



Gc pin a chfpa sia choBaip, 

cluinib lib, 
ceanmora oaep-clanoa an domain 

i n-a fi9 n-olij 


w Unfree tribes, daer-chlanna. — The ce- 
lebrated Irish antiquary, Dubhaltach Mac 
Firbisigh, mentions, in the preface to his 
smaller genealogical work, six classes of 
daer-chlanna among the ancient Irish, in 
terms -which run as follows : 

The Athach Tuath, or daer-cltlann be- 
fore mentioned: 1. The first race of them 
was the remnant of the Fir Bolg them- 
selves, together with the remnant of the 
Tuath De Danann 2. The second race, 
the people who passed from their own 
countries, — they being descended from saer- 
chlann, — who went under daer-chios (ser- 
vile rent) to another tribe. 3. The third 
people were the race ofsaer-chhmn, whose 

land was converted into fearann cloidhimh 
(sword-land or conquered country) in their 
own territory, and who remained in it, in 
bondage, under the power of their enemies. 
4. The fourth race were people of saer- 
chlann, who passed into bondage for their 
evil deeds, and who lost their blood and 
their land through their evil deeds, accord- 
ing to the law. 5. The fifth people were 
those who came (descended) from stranger 
soldiers, i. e. from external mercenaries, 
who left posterity in Eire. 6. The sixth 
race were the people who were descended 
from the bondmen who came with the chil- 
dren of Mileadh (Milesius) into Eire. 
Thus, the daer-chlanna were not always 

na 5-Ceapu. 

Such are his rents to assist him, 

Hear ye them, 
Besides what the unfree tribes' of his kingdom [pay] 

In what they owe ENTITLED. 

slaves, nor of ignoble descent. They were 
sometimes men of the chieftain's own race, 
but who had lost their privileges in conse- 
quence of their crimes ; and very often 
families of best Milesian blood, who were 
expelled from their own native territories, 
and who had settled in other territories, 
where they were admitted on condition of 
rendering tributes and services not required 
of those who were native there. See Tribes 
and Customs of the Ui Maine, p. 84, where 
it is stated that the family of O'Maeilfinn- 
ain (who were of noble race) were among 
the daer-thnatha of Ui Maine on account 
of their exile; and that the arch-chiefs of 

l i Maine could increase the rents on all 
the daer-thvatha, ad libitum. 

In the prose, p. 1 08, the correlative terms 
saer-thuatha and daer-thuatha occur. The 
relation is not fully expressed by the terms 
of the translation, " noble tribes" and " un- 
free tribes." Strictly, the tuatha were 
the territories, inhabited by the clunna or 
tribes. The saer-chlanna were tribes of 
equal nobility with the chieftain ; their tri- 
butes and privileges were fixed, and it is 
about them that the book before us is prin- 
cipally conversant ; the daer-clilanna were 
of the inferior castes above indicated, ami 
were subject to arbitrary tributes. 

17G Ceabhctji 

iv.— otisheaoh re 15b ueamh reach. 

OO t)6l^eat) pig Uhearhpach anb po. 

Gin zan nach pig pop Gpino pig Cearinpac, ipeao oligeap ceao 
claioeam acup ceac pciaeh acup ceao n-ech acup ceao n-eoach 
n-baeha acup ceao luipeacha : 6 pig Cpinb bo pigCearhpach ino pin. 

O pig Ceampach bna oa pigaib acup oo chuaehaib na THioi' : 

Pichi copn, pichi claioeam, piclu mogaib, pichi milchon bo pig 

Coic pceich, coic claioirh acup coic bpuic acup coic eich acup 
coic coin oo pig lDuigi Cacha. 

Oeich n-eich, oeich mogaio, [beich mna], oeich (g)-cuipn bo pig 
Caegaipi 2 . 

Seace pceich acup peachc n-eich acup peace mogaio acup 
peachc mna acup peachc (g)-com oo pig Qpogail. 

Seachc n-eich, peachc (g)-cluioriu, peace (g)-cuipn, peachc 
m-bpuic oo pig F ea P Cell 3 . 

Se h-eich, pe claibim, pe pceich, pe mogaib bo pig peup 

Occ pceich, oche (g)-claioim, ochc (g)-cuipn, ochc n-eich bo pig 
Peap Ueaehpu 4 . 

Se pceich, pe gabpa, pe bpuic, pe mogaib, pe cuipn bo pig 

Coic eich, coic claiomi, coic bpuic bo pig h-Ua m-6eccon. 

Coic mna, coic eich, coic cuipn, coic pceich oo pigChailli Pal- 
lama in 5 . 

Ochc mogaio acup ochc mna acup ochc n-eich acup ochc pceich 
acup ochc (g)-claioim oo pig Oealbna Dloipi 6 . Comb ooib-pin 7 po 
chachain [in pai pencupa] 6enen [na buaoa]: 

not 5-Ceoqir. 177 


OF THE RIGHT of the king of Teamhair (Tara) here. 

When the king of Teamhair is not king of Eire, he is entitled to 
receive a hundred swords and a hundred shields and a hundred steeds 
and a hundred colored dresses and a hundred coats of mail ; these are 
from the king of Eire to the king of Teamhair. 

From the king of Teamhair, too, to the kings and territories of 
Midhe (Meath) : 

Twenty drinking-horns, twenty swords, twenty bondmen, twenty 
greyhounds to the king of Breagh. 

Five shields, five swords and five cloaks and five steeds and five 
hounds to the king of Magh Locha. 

Ten steeds, ten bondmen, ten women, ten drinking-horns to the 
king of Laeghaire. 

Seven shields and seven steeds and seven bondmen and seven women 
and seven hounds to the king of Ardghal. 

Seven steeds, seven swords, seven drinking-horns, seven cloaks to 
the king of Feara Ceall. 

Six steeds, six swords, six shields, six bondmen to the king of 
Feara Tulach. 

Eight shields, eight swords, eight drinking-horns, eight steeds to 
the king of Feara Teabhtha. 

Six shields, six horses, six cloaks, six bondmen, six drinking-horns 
to the king of Cuircne. 

Five steeds, five swords, five cloaks to the king of Ui Beccon. 

Five women, five steeds, five drinking-horns, five shields to the king 
of Caille Fhallamhain. 

Eight bondmen and eight women and eight steeds and eight shields 
and eight swords to the king of Dealbhna Mor. Of which the gifted 
historical adept Benean sang: 


178 Cectbhcqi 

t)61(5't> pig Ueampa euipim 
po inbip 6enen bi'nli^, 
i n-a n-olijeanb 1 (o)-Ce(iriipai6 <! , 
pai £aione po Ian meampaio y . 

Ceo claioeab acup ceo pciaeh 
olijeap pi Ceampa 10 na (b-)epiae, 
ceao n-eppao acup ceae n-each, 
ceao leano" acup ceao luipeuch. 

t)lijio pino pij placha 6peaj 
pichi copn, pichi claioeam, 
pichi milcon, pichi moj 
6 ptj Ueampa t 12 (o)-euapipeol. 

tDlijib pi TTluiji 6acha 

coic pceich, coic claibmi caea, 

coic bpuie capa acup coic eich, 

coic eich jela 13 [cuij coin jeala B.] 'n-jlan ppeich. 

t)li£ib pi Caejaipi 14 luaieh 

oeich n-eich eheanoa oo 'n-a ehuaieh, 

bee mojaio, beich mna mopa, 

oeich (5)-coin, beich (j)-cuipn corh-ola. 

Cuapipcal pi j din' 5 Qpojail 

pe [peace B.] pceich, pe h-eich [peace n-ecB.] a h-Glbam, 

pe [peace B.] mna mopa, pe [peace B.] mojaio 

acup pe pe coin bo'n aio [peace (g)-coin bu conaib B.]. 

t)li£ib pi Cailli eachach ,s 

pe com epena [peace n-ec cpen B.] oo'n epebeach, 

* Breagh — See p. 11, note*, supra. retains the name. 

b Magh Locha The name of this ter- c Laeghaire. — A territory in East Meatlt, 

ritory is preserved in that of the parish of which comprised the baronies of " Upper 

" Moylagh," in the barony of " Fore," or and Lower Navan." This was the inheri- 

" Demifore," as it was till i-ecently called, tance of O'Coirmealbhain (Quinlan), the 

in East Meath ; but the territory was cer- senior representative of the monarch Laegh- 

tainly more extensive than the parish which aire, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. 

na^-Ctapr. 179 

THE RIGHTS of the king of Teamhair reckon 
[Which] the beautiful Benean told, 
What is due to him at Teamhair, 
A Latin scholar has fully observed it. 

A hundred swords and a hundred shields 
The king of Teamhair of lords is entitled to, 
A hundred dresses and a hundred steeds, 
A hundred tunics and a hundred coats of mail. 

Entitled is the fair king of the principality of Breagh a 
To twenty drinking-horns, twenty swords, 
Twenty greyhounds, twenty bondmen 
From the king of Teamhair as a stipend. 

Entitled is the king of Magh Locha b 
To five shields, five swords of battle, 
Five short cloaks and five steeds, 
Five white hounds in tine array. 

Entitled is the rapid king of Laeghaire 
To ten strong steeds in his territory, 
Ten bondmen, ten large women, 
Ten hounds, ten horns for drinking. 

The stipend of the noble king of Ardghal d [is] 

Seven shields, seven steeds out of Alba [Scotland], 
Seven large women, seven bondmen 
And seven hounds [all] of the same kind. 

Entitled is the king of Caille Eachach e , 
The populous, to seven strong steeds, 

The church of "Trim," Tealaeh Ard, and the d Ardghal. — A territory in East Meath, 

hill of Tlachtgha, were in it. See the Mis- hut its exact position has not hoen deter • 

cellany of the Irish Archaeological Society, mined. Its chief is mentioned in the Annals 

pp. 138, 142. See also Ussher's Primordia, of the Four Masters at the year 712, as 

p. 853 ; O'Flaherty's Ogygia, part hi. c. 85 : lord or tighearna Ardghail. 

Petrie's Ancient Architecture of Ireland, e Caille Eachach, i. e. the wood of Eo- 

p. 28: and page 10. note '. supra. chaidh. This was another name for the 



pecc (5)-claioirii pe cop cacha, 

peuchc (5)-cuipn, pecc m-bpuic oej oara. 

Oli^io ceano pi£ peap ^"lach 
pe h-eich a cpeapcub cupach, 
pe cloibirh, pe pceich oeap^a 
i pe joill 17 cean ^aeioealja. 

Uuapipcol [pi] peap Ueachpa ,, 

ochc pceich, ochc (5)-clai6rhi oerpa 19 , 
ochc (5)-cuipn, ochc leanna 'n-a laim, 
ochc mnd oaepa o'a-° oinjbail. 

t)li£ib pi£ Cuipcne in chalaib 
pe pceich acup pe jabaip, 

territory of Feara Ceall, i. e. men of the 
churches, which comprised the modern ba- 
ronies of "Fircall," " Ballycowan," and 
"Ballyboy," in the King's County. This 
was the most southern territory of the an- 
cient Midhe (Meath), and is still comprised 
in the southern portion of the diocese of 
Meath. It was bounded on the south by 
Eile Ui Chearbhaill, which was a part of 
Minister. After the establishment of sur- 
names, the dominant family in this terri- 
tory took the name of O'Mael-mhuaidh, 
now Anglicized O'Molloy. The celebrated 
churches of Rathin Mochuda, Lann Elo 
(Lynally), Druim Cuillen, Dur-mhagh Cho- 
luim Chille (Durrow), and Rath Libhthen, 
are mentioned by old writers as in this ter- 
ritory. See Ussher's Primordia, pp. 910, 
962; Colgan's Trias Thavm. p. 373, 
n. 26 ; Irish Calendar of the O'Clerighs, 
10th June. 

f Feara Tulach, i. e. the men of the hills, 
now the barony of " Feartullagh," in the 
south-east of Westmeath. After the es- 
tablishment of surnames the chief family 

in this territory took the surname of 
O'Dubhlaighe (O'Dooley). They were dis- 
possessed by the O'Maeil-eachlainns (O'Me - 
laghlins) and the Anglo-Norman family 
of Tyrrell, and they settled in Eile Ui 
Chearbhaill (Ely O'Carroll), where they 
are still numerous. See Feilire Aenghuis, 
9th January ; O h-Uidhrin's topographi- 
cal poem; Colgan's Acta SS. p. 135 ; and 
Mac Firbisigh's pedigree of O'Maeil-each- 

S Teabhtha. — This name, also written 
Teathbha, Teathfa, was Latinized " Teffia." 
See pp. 10, 11, mi. u , x . In St. Patrick's 
time it was applied to a very extensive ter- 
ritory forming the north-west portion of 
the ancient Midhe (Meath). It was divi- 
ded into two parts by the River Eitlme 
(Inny), called North and South Teabhtha, 
the former comprising nearly all the pre- 
sent county of Longford, and the latter 
about the western half of the present county 
of "Westmeath, namely, the districts of 
Calraidhe, Breagh-mhaine ("Brawney"), 
Cuircne (now the barony of " Kilkenny 

na 5-Cea]iu. 


Seven swords for fighting in battle, 

Seven drinking-horns, seven well-colored cloaks. 

Entitled is the stout king of Feara Tulach f 
To six steeds from the middle of boats, 
Six swords, six red shields 
And six foreigners without Gaeidhealga [Irish]. 

The stipend of the king of the men of Teabhtha g [is] 
Eight shields, eight swords for battle, 
Eight drinking-horns, eight mantles in his hand, 
Eight bondwomen befitting him. 

Entitled is the king of Cuircne of the Caladh 11 
To six shields and six horses, 

West"), besides the lands assigned to the 
Tuites, Petits, and Daltons, and the barony 
of " Kileoursey" in the north of the King's 
County. But the Conmaicne or Ui Fear- 
ghail (O'Farrells), gradually extended 
their power over the whole of North 
Teabhtha, and gave it their tribe-name of 
Anghaile, Anglice "Annaly;" and after 
the English invasion various families of 
Anglo-Normans settled in South Teabhtha, 
so that the ancient Irish chieftains of the 
territory, namely, the Ui Cathaniaigh 
(O'Caharneys, now Foxes), were driven 
into a very narrow stripe of it, namely, 
into the present barony of " Kileoursey," 
to which they gave their tribe- name of 
Muintir Thadhgain. See the Feilire Aen- 
ghuis at 6th February ; Colgan's Trias 
Thaum., p. 133; O'Flaherty's Ogygia, 
part iii. c. 85 ; Lanigan's Feci. History of 
Ireland, vol. ii. p. 100 ; and the Miscellany 
of the Irish Archaeological Society, pp. 184, 

h Cuircne of tlie Caladh, i. e. of the 
marshy district, the local meaning of the 

word caladh, " callow," along the River 
Sionainn (Shannon). This territory is still 
called in Irish Cuircneach, and comprises 
the entire of the present barony of " Kil- 
kenny West," in Westmeath, and that part 
of the parish of Forgnuidhe (Forgney), lying 
on the south side of the River Eithne (Inny). 
After the establishment of surnames the 
chief family of this territory took the name 
of O'Tolairg, a name now, probably, un- 
identifiable. After the English invasion the 
ancient families of Cuircne were dispossessed 
by the Dillons. See the Tripartite Life of 
St. Patrick, lib. ii. c. 2, published by Col- 
gan in his Trias Thaum., p. 129 ; D. Mac 
Firbisigh's genealogical work (Marquis of 
Drogheda's copy), pp. 115, 308, 309, 
330; O'Flaherty's Ogygia, part iii. cc. 81, 
85 ; and the Editor's edition of the second 
part of the Annals of the Four Masters, 
p. 822, n. p. See also the Feilire Aenghuis, 
at 1 3th October, and the Irish Calendar of 
the O'Clerighs, at 11th July, 13th Octo- 
ber, and 18th December, from which it 
will appear that the churches of Disert 

182 Leabhaji 

pe bpuic acup pe bacblaio, 
pe cuipn oala, oian acblcnm 

Uuapipcol pig h-Ua m-6eccon 
coic eicb luacba pe licon, 
coic bpuic bpeaca buun a n-oach 
acup coic claioirh i (5)-cacb. 

DI1516 pi Cbailli in Ollaim 91 

coic pceicb, coic cuipn nop congaib, 
cuic eicb a longaib l&na, 
coic mna oaepa oingbula. 

t)liji6 pig tDealbna na n-oam 

ochc (g)-claioim, ocbc pceicb cap pal, 
coic eich [occ n-ec B.] co copaib caela, 
ocbc mojaio, ocbc mna oaepa. 

ll-e pin peancbap 22 pig Uearhpacb, 
ni pibip 23 cacb bapo belgach, 
ni oip 53 bdipo, acbc bip pileao 24 
pip cacb pig ip a oligeo 25 t)fJ£jlt). 

CUGUOSUOC pig cbuacb lDioi ariiail po paiopeamap- 6 . 

Conloeha, Cluain Conaidh, and Forgnui- Beccon. 

dhc were in this territory. J Caille anOllaimh, i. e. the wood of the 

' Ui Beccon, i. e. the race of Beg-on (a Ollamh, or chief professor. It is more cor- 

man's name signifying " of little blemish"), rectly called Caille Fhallamhain, i. e. Fal- 

who was seventh in descent from Eochaidh lamhan's (Fallon's) wood, in the prose 

Muigh-mheadhoin, monarch of Ireland in anatomy of this poem. The situation of 

the fourth century. See Genealogies, Tribes, this territory appears from a note in the 

and Customs of Ui Fiachrach, p. 13. This Feilire Aenghuis at the 14th September, 

tribe is mentioned in the Annals of the and also from the Irish Calendar of the 

Four Masters, at the year 1066, and their O'Clerighs, at the same day, which place 

territory of "Tir Beccan," at the year in it the church of Roseach (Russagh), in 

1159. This territory would appear to be the barony of "Moygoish," and county of 

included in the present barony of " Ra- Westmeath. 

toath," in the county of Mcath, where k Dealbhna, the " Delvins," scilicet, the 

there is a fort and parish called Rath districts so called in Meath. These were 

net 5-Ceapc 183 

Six cloaks and six bondmen, 

Six drinking-horns for distribution, fully prepared. 

The stipend of the king of Ui Beccon" [is] 
Five swift steeds [ready] to start. 
Five chequered (plaid) cloaks of lasting color 
And five swords for battle. 

Entitled is the king of Caille FhallamhainJ 
To five shields, five drinking-horns to posses?, 
Five steeds from out of full ships, 
Five bondwomen befitting [him]. 

Entitled is the king of Dealbhna k of poets 

To eight swords, eight shields [brought] across the brine, 
Eight steeds with slender legs, 
Eight bondmen, eight bondwomen. 

That is the history of the king of Teamhair ; 
It is not known to every prattling bard 1 ; 
It is not the right of a bard, but the right of a poet 
To know each king and his right THE RIGHTS. 

THE STIPENDS of the kings of the territories of Midhe (Meath) 
are as we have said. 

Dealbhna Mor, now called the barony of lishment of surnames, O'Fionnallain was 
" Delvin," in the comity of Westmeath ; the chief of Dealbhna Mor; O'Maeil-chal- 
Dealbhna Beag, now called the barony of lainn (Mulholland), of Dealbhna Beag; 
" Demi Fore," in the same comity ; Dealbh- Mac Cochlain (Mac Cognlan), of Dealbh- 
na Eathra, now called the barony of " Gar- na Eathra; and O'Scolaidbe (Scully), of 
rycastle" in the King's Co., and Dealbhna Dealbhna Teannmuigh, which wasotherwise 
Teannmuigh, whichwas a part ofTeathbha, called Dealbhna larthair, or western Dealbh- 
i lie exact situation of which has not been na. See O'Dubhagain's topographical poem, 
yef determined. See O'Flaherty's Ogygia, in which this last-mentioned territory is 
part iii. c. 82, and D Mac Firbisigh'a ge- placed in the country ofTeathbha." 
uealogical work (Marquis of Drogheda's ' Bard. — This word, among the ancient 
copy), pp. 57, 345. See page 105, note y, Irish, meant an inferior poet or rhymer. 
supra, for the tribes of this name seated in The < »llamb fileadh was a man of far higher 
the province of Connacht. After the estab- distinction. 

184 (,eabhaji 

Cipa bin* 7 acupbepa acup biaca pij Uearhpach 6 chuaehaib ano 
po, peib po epnec acup po fcaio ppi Conb acup ppi Copmac acup 
ppi Ccnpppi, conic bib gabpab pi^i lap puibiu. Comeap cana acup 
coirh-ica cean copmach ap odij paibbpi, cean eapnarii ap oai[6]bpi, 
ace minacheajairh 29 oich pop pinib 89 no plai£ no una 30 no buinebdch, a 
chobach lap (^-coiriieab acup lap (jrj-covhlai^eab in each bliabain. 
Cpian cobaio na cana pin 31 bo poipb pinib na Ceariipach, il-lon acup 
ll-lonjao boib, acup ap caipcib co h-uam acaipic lap n-uapi 8 *; 
conio 061b [pm] ac bepc 33 6enen: 

Cl'S CUCICh mit)l M , mop in peel, 
po inoip pill pip chpean, 
map po^naib bo U(h)earhaip ehcnp 35 
6 aimpeip Chuinb Chec Chachaij. 

t)lijio pij Ceariipach na (o)-cuach, — 

pal no pealba 36 co pap luach [pluaj B.] — 
caeca oarri o'n odirii Depi 37 , 
caeca cpdn, caeca ceipi. 

Upicha barii a t)dil n-lachap, 
rpicha cpdin, lp cip bpiueap, 
epicha mole, maich an monap, 
oo pi niioi in riiop rhonao 3 *. 

Upi cheo oarri 6 na tDealbnaib 
do chopachcain co Ueariipaib, 
epi ceac cope, cpl cheao cinbi, 
cpf ceac mole o'n mop pine 39 . 

m Conn of the Hundred Battles. — Hebe- Meath. They are said to have been ex- 
came monarch of Ireland A. D. 177. See pelled thence by their relative Cormac, the 
Ogygia, part iii. c. 70. grandson of Conn of the Hundred Battles, 

n Deise — The people so called were de- about the year 254, when they settled in 

scended from Fiacha Suighdhe, the elder the present county of Waterford. See page 

brother of Conn of the Hundred Battles. 49, note k ; but it would appear from this 

They were seated in, and gave name to the poem that they were in Meath at the time 

territory of Deise Teamhraeh, now called of its composition, unless by Deise in the 

the barony of " Deece,'' in the county of text we are to understand not the tribe but 

net 5-Ceapc. 185 

The rents and the customs and the refections of the king of Teamhair 
from his chieftains here, as they yielded and paid them to Conn and 
to Cormac and to Cairbre, from whom (i. e. from whose race) they sub- 
sequently selected kings. The tribute and the payment must be the 
same [at all times] without any addition for increased wealthiness, 
without any deficiency for impoverishment, unless in case of a destruc- 
tion of the tribe, or plague, or famine, or mortality, — to be levied, be 
it great or be it little, every year. The third of this tribute, for col- 
lecting it, belongs to the local families of Teamhair, for store and 
provision for them, and to be stored by them for future occasion ; of 
which Benean said : 

THE TRIBUTES of the territories of Midhe, great the narrative, 
A truly potent poet has related, 
As they are rendered to Teamhair in the east, 
From the time of Conn of the Hundred Battles™. 

Entitled is the king of Teamhair of the territories, — 

A chief who possesses [his kingdom] with a choice host, — 
To fifty oxen from the tribe of Deise 11 , 
Fifty sows, fifty young pigs. 

Thirty oxen from Dal Iarthair , 

Thirty sows, which is a tribute to be talked of, 

Thirty wethers, good the store, 

To the king of Midhe of much money. 

Three hundred oxen from the Dealbhna p 
To be conveyed to Teamhair, 

Three hundred hogs, three hundred tinnes (salted pigs), 
Three hundred wethers from the great tribe. 

the territory to which they had given name, or were supplanted by others. 

but in which a tribe of a different race were ° Dal Iarthair, i. e. the Western Tribe. 

then established. There are many instances This name does not occur in the Irish An- 

of this in Ireland, as Tir Oiliolla, in the nals or in any other authority that the 

county of Sligo, and Tir Eanna, in the Editor has ever seen. It was evidently a 

county of Donegal, &c, which retained name applied to a tribe in the west of West - 

names derived from ancient proprietors, meath. 

though their races either became extinct, P Dealbhna — See p. 182, n. h , supra. 



Upi chaecaio leano a £,ui£nib, 
cpf chaecaio cope, nop cuiprhio, 
cpi chaeca mapc, cean mebail, 
do chobaipe co cpovn Ceumaip 40 . 

Ceo mapc 6 Peapaib Qpoa, 
ceao pino mole, mmap papja 41 , 
ceac cope, lp cpom in cuirhne, 
ceac bpac, pib na mop ^v'njne 4 *. 

Cet> pap bpac lp na Saicnib, 
ceo cpun, lp cpoo ppi caicio, 

'i Luighne, also called Luaighne, and now 
corruptly Luibhne. This was a territory of 
considerable extent in Meath, and its name 
is still preserved in that of the small barony 
of " Lune," near the town of Trim, in the 
west of the county of East Meath ; but the 
territory of Luighne was much more ex- 
tensive than the modern barony, for we 
learn from the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick 
published by Colgan, lib. ii. c. 10, Trias 
Thaum. , p. 130, that the church of Domhnach 
Mor Muighe Eachuach, " Donaghmore," 
near the town of " Navan," was in this 
territory. xVfter the establishment of sur- 
names the chief family of this territory took 
the surname of O'Braein (O'Breen), but he 
is to be distinguished from O'Braein, of 
Breagh-mhaine (Brawny), in Westmeath, 
who is descended from Maine, the fourth 
son (if the monarch Niall of the Nine Hos- 
tages; whereas O'Braein of Luighne, in 
Meath, is of the race of Cormac Gaileang, 
sonofTadhg, son of Cian, son of Oilioll 
Olum, king of Minister. Sec (('Flaherty's 
Ogygia, cc. 69, 85. See also O'Dubha- 
gain's topographical poem, and Annals of 
the Four Masters, A. D. 1201 ; and p. 103, 
n. h , supra. 

r Feara Arda, i. e. the men of the heights, 
now the barony of " Ferrard," forming the 
southern portion of the county of Louth. 
The hills of SliabhBreagh extend across this 
barony, from near " Gallon" to " Glogher 
Head," and from this range of hills this 
people took their name. The territory was 
otherwise called Arda Cianachta. The 
churches of Cluain Mor and Disert Meithle 
Caeile are mentioned in the Irish Calendar 
of the O'Clerighs, as in this territory. See 
Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, lib. ii. c. 48, 
and Colgan's note in Trias Thaum., p. 177, 
note 90. O'Dubhagain does not mention 
this territory under either name in his topo- 
graphical poem, nor is it referred to in the 
Irish Annals after the tenth century, so that 
we have no means of determining the name 
of the principal family seated here before 
the English invasion. This barony, and 
all the region extending from Glais Neara, 
near Druim Inascluin (Drumiskin), in the 
county of Louth, to Cnocaibh Maeldoid, at 
the River Liffey (but not including Teamh 
air or Tara) were granted to Tadhg, son 
of (ian, son of Oilioll Olum, by king Cor- 
mac, the son of Art, after the battle of 
Crinna, fought A. D. 2a4. See Annals of 

na 5-Ceapr. 


Thrice fifty mantles from the Luighne q , 
Thrice fifty hogs, as was reckoned, 
Thrice fifty beeves, without default, 
To be brought to great Teamhair. 

A hundred beeves from the Feara Arda r , 

A hundred white wethers, unless they procure those [the beeves], 

A hundred hogs, heavy the remembrance, 

A hundred cloaks, the enumeration of the great Luighne. 

A hundred best cloaks from the Saithne s , 
A hundred sows, a stock for wealth, 

Tighearnach, apud O'Conor, Rerum Hiber- 
nicarum Scriptores, vol. ii. p. 45 ; Keating, 
in regimine Fearghus Duibhdeadach, and 
(('Flaherty's Ogygia, part iii. c. 68. For 
fume notices of the chiefs of this tribe of 
the Cianaehta, see Annals of Tighearnach 
at the years 662, G88, 735, 742, 748, 749 ; 
and. Annals of the Four Masters at the years 
226, 528, 570, 732, 7G5, 789, 848, 849, 
and 918. 

s Saithne This tribe were descended 

from Glasradh, the second son of Connac 
Gaileang, son ofTadhg, son of Cian, son of 
Oilioll Olum. They were a subsection of 
the Cianaehta Breagh, and were seated near 
the sea, in the east of " Bregia," or " Fin- 
gall," to the north of Dublin. See O'Fla- 
herty's Ogygia, part iii. c. 69, and D. Mac 
Firbisigh's genealogical work (Marquis of 
Drogheda's copy), pp. 348, 353. After the 
establishment of surnames the chief family of 
this territory took the surname of O'Catha- 
saigh, now Anglice Casey; they were dis- 
possessed by Sir Hugh de Lacy, who sold 
their lands, as we are informed by Giraldus 
Cambrensis in bis Hibemia Expugnata, 
lib. ii. <•. 24, where he states that Philippus 
Wigorniensi3, Justiciary of Ireland, seized 

on the lands of "Oeathesi," to the king's 
use, though Hugh de Lacy had formerly 
sold them. According to Alan's Register, 
fol. 21, amongst other grants, king John, 
when he was Earl of Morton, confirmed to 
Archbishop Comyn " Medietatem Decima- 
rum Terre O'Kadesi, de Ffinegall." And 
in the same Register, fol. 110, is contained 
a charter by which John Archbishop of 
Dublin grants "omnes ecclesias, capellas, 
et decimas de tota terra que fuit O'Kadesi, 
que in paroehia Dublin est," to the prior 
and convent of Laothonia, Gloucester, and 
in which the following places are mentioned 
as in it, viz : " Ecclesia de Villa Ogari, cum 
capella que quondam fuit Richardi Came- 
rarii ; ecclesia de Sancto Nemore [Holy- 
wood] cum capella que dicitur Gratas ; 
ecclesia de Villa Stephani de Crues cum 
pertinentibus suis," &c. Ecclesia de Villa 
Macdun cum decimis; et Villa Willielmi 
Bartinet et Ecclesia de Terra Rogeri de 
Waspeile et ecclesia de Villa Kadulphi 
Pastons et capella Richardi Lafelde." 

In D' Alton's History of the County of 
Dublin, p. 497, the parish " De Sancto 
Nemore," i. e. Holy wood, is called the 
church of St. Nemore. 



acup ceac mapc ap moijib 
lp ceac mole oia mopoi jto 4 '. 

Ceo cope a Cuipcne 44 in chocaio, 
ceao mapc, lp mop an obuip, 
acup ceac luljach lana 
oo pi laioech t",iach Upaja 4 \ 

Cpi cheo cope a cip ^aileang, 

epi ceao mole, cpi ceac pa leann* 6 , 
epf cheuo oam, oiun in chobaip, 
oo'n C(h)luen Raich, oo cliualabaip 1 

Ceo mole a 49 Peapaib Uulach, 
c£o cope oo'n oun nach oubach, 
ceao lul^ach co n-a laejaib, 
ceac oam, nocho beupc baejail 49 . 

Upicha mole a TTIui£ £acha 
oo pij Claen I2aea in caea, 
epicha lul^ach buioi blench, 
epicha oam ip a' oea£ paieh i0 . 

; ( 'nil cue, now called the barony of " Kil- 
keiiny West," in Westmeath. Here tlic 
poet jumps from the extreme east of East 
Meath to the extreme west of Westmeath. 
See page 181, note h , supra. 

" Liath Thraigk, i. e. the grey strand. 
The Editor never met this name in any 
other Irish authority. 6iach tDpoma 
in B., seems the correct reading. 

v Gaileanga This tribe also was de- 
scended from Connac Gaileang, son of 
Tadhg, son of Cian, son of Oilioll Oliun. 
There were two territories of this name in 
the ancient Midhe (Meath), the one called 
( taileanga Mora, or the Great Gaileanga, the 
name of which is still preserved in that of 
the barony of Mlop-jaileanj, Anglice 

" Morgallion," in the county of Meath ; but 
the territory was more extensive than the 
barony, for we learn from the gloss to 
the Feilire Jenghuis, 13th October, that the 
mountainous district of Sliabh Guaire, now 
a part of the barony of "Clankee," in 
the county of Cavan, originally belonged 
to Gaileanga, Pmopech, nipgo, -| 6p- 
naioe nomen ciuicaeip eiup, In 
Sleib ^uaipe, h. n-^ailean^aib, 
i. e. Finnseach Virgo et Ernuidhe nomen 
civitatis ejus in Sliabh Guaire in Gailean- 
giis. The other, called Gaileanga Beaga, 
was situate in Bregia, in East Meath, near 
the River Liflfey. Its position is known only 
from the fact that the monastery of Glais 
Naeidhin (Glasnevin), near Dublin, was in 

ncc 5-Ceapr. 189 

And a hundred beeves on the plains 

And a hundred wethers to he slaughtered. 

A hundred hogs from Avarlike Cuircne', 
A hundred beeves, great is the store, 
And a hundred full milch-cows 
To the mighty king of Liath Druim". 

Three hundred hogs from the territory of Gaileanga v , 
Three hundred wethers, three hundred best mantles, 
Three hundred oxen, vast the assistance, 
To the Claen Rath, ye have heard. 

A hundred wethers from the Feara Tulach w , 

A hundred hogs to the fort [which is] not cheerless, 
A hundred milch-cows with their calves, 
A hundred oxen, without any failure. 

Thirty wethers from Magh Locha x 
To the king of warlike Claen Rath", 
Thirty goodly beautiful milch-cows, 
Thirty oxen to the goodly fort. 

it. Dr. Lanigan asserts that Glais-naidhen the elder, and his followers, shortly after the 
must have been on the south side of the English invasion, and the descendants of 
River Liffey, for no other reason than be- the conquered Gaileanga have remained in 
cause Eaw son, in his Introduction to the obscurity ever since, for none of this family 
Statistical Survey of Kildare, had said or have risen beyond the rank of cottiers or far- 
conjectured that Caelan was bounded by mers;" but the " O'Hennessys" of the race 
the Liffey on the north ; but Rawson was of Cathaeir Mor furnished a colonel to sup- 
misled by Beauford, who forged an ancient port the claims of James II. who followed 
Topography of Ireland, which was pub- his fortunes beyond seas. 
lished in the eleventh number of the Col- w Feara Tulach — See page 180, note 1 , 
lectanea. According to O'Dubhagain's to- supra. 

pographical poem, O'Leochain, Anglice x Magh Locha See page 178, note '', 

" Loughan," and Barbarice " Duck," was supra. 

chief of Gaileanga Mora, and h-Aenghusa y Claen Rath, i. e. the inclining fort, a 

(Hennessy), of Gaileanga Beaga. Both name of Teamhair (Tara). See Petrie's 

were dispossessed by Sir Hugh de Lacy, Antiquities of Tara Hill, p. 197. 

190 Ceabhccji 

Seapca bpac a h-Uib 6eccon, 
peapca mapc, mop in c-eagop, 
la peapcao cpanao cubaib, 
peapca bpac 'p- a ' m °P chulaij 51 . 

lpeab pin blijeap oo chpuo 
pi TTliDi, cean mop opoul, 
1 (b)-Uearhpai6 buioi, map bip: 
ipeao pin uili a n-apo chip. CIS CUCICh [IDlbej. 

* Ui Beccon See p. 182, n. ', sttpra. 

net 5-Cea]ir. 191 

Sixty cloaks from the Ui Beccon*, 
Sixty beeves, great tlie collection, 
With sixty excellent sows, 
[And] sixty cloaks to the great hill [TeamhairJ. 

That is what is due in cattle 

To the king of Midhe, without great error, 

At good Teamhair, as he is : 

Such be all his high rents THE TRIBUTES. 

192 Uabhdji 

v. onsheaoh rei^h cai^hean, a^us uiomwa 
chauhaeiR mhoirc. 

ace aNt> so cimNa chacaire mam F o P a [ciamo] 

pop a rhacaib aipea^baib acup pop a clomo chorhapbaip; acup oo 
pao ni each meic bib bia poipb acup oia inbmup. 

acup ap beapc ppi TCop puilgi ,c_a ' beanoochab : — 

"mO pCaiChlS, mo opoan, 
mo pafpi, mo puncaioi, 

mo peoib, mo poinepci 2 , 

mo cumap comaipgi 
bo-m' T2op pojap, bo-m' pail.51 paebpach : 
copab cuirhneach comapbaip 

bo chach ap a m-[b]iao, 
ap 3 ip bo ip can cibnocol, 

tnpab peoib pfp-tliaipceap, 
peapnap do chuch caem para; 

cain in mino mop maipeach, 
mo mac mopjap min aicnij 4 , 

cach-buaouch coicpichi; 

impoa pia (b)-Ceamaip mui^, 
ni oella oo bpachaippi; 

3 Testament of Cathaeir Mor This will " Thus I find the will of king Cathair has 

has been noticed by O'Flaherty, Ogygia, been committed to writing." The words 

part iii. c. 50, where he gives a short ac- of Cathaeir's will are in that peculiar metre 

count of it, from which it appears that the called by the Irish poets " Rithlearg" (and 

document he used was different from our " Ritairec"), an example of which occurs 

text; but he does not inform us where it is in the Battle of Magh Rath, p. 154, and 

preserved, or whether he believed it was an many other examples will be found in the 

authentic document. He merelv remarks : ancient Irish historical tale called " Forbais 

ia 5-Cea|ic. 193 


children, to his principal sons and his heirs, and he gave to each son 
of them a part of his patrimony and of his wealth. 

And he said to Ros Failghe 1 ', blessing him ; — 

" MY SOVEREIGNTY, my splendor, 
My nobleness, my vigor, 
My wealth, my strength, 
My power of protection 
To my fierce Ros, to my vehement Failghe, 
That they may be the memorials of succession 
To every one [of his race] on whom they descend, 
For to him belongs to make presents, 
That he is not to hoard wealth perpetually, 
[But] let him give unto all fair wages; 
Clement is the great and comely hero, 
My vehement son, smooth-minded, 
Victorious in his border-battles; 
He shall contend for the plain of Teamhair, 
He shall not abandon it to his relatives ; 

Droma Damghaire," preserved in the Book b Ros Failghe, i. e. Eos of the rings. He 

of Lios Mor (Lismore), in the Library of is the ancestor of the Ui Failghe, of whom 

the R. Irish Academy. See Introduction. O'Conchobhair Failghe (O'Conor Faly), 

Cathaeir Mor was monarch of Ireland in and O'Diomasaigh (O'Dempsey) of Claim 

the second century. According to the Irish Maeiliaghra (Clanmalier), and O'Duinn 

genealogists he had three wives and thirty (O'Dunne) of Iregan, were the most dis- 

sons, but only the ten mentioned in this will languished families after the establishment 

had issue. SeeO'FIa. Ogygia, p. iii. c. 59. of surnames. See p. 216, n. r , infra. 


194 Leabhaji 

beapa baij le-m' buan macaib' 6 
ppi nichaib a n-ecpaca ; 

co bpach buioneach beanoacc 7 , — 
pob peapp cac peap puilji Rop." 

Qcup do beapc* 06 oeich pceich acup oeich (b)-pail£i acup oeich 
(5)-clai6ini acup oeich (5)-cuipn, acup ao beapc Fpip, — 

" 6GO SQGRQ 00 clanoa iap clanoaib mo cloinoi-pea." 

Gp 9 pin ap beapc ppi Ocnpi 6appach 10 : 

"TTIO ^aiSCeaO, mo j&ip-luinoi 

00-m' t)(h)aipi bupb, beooa-pa: 

pob mac ochca aipeachca 

each mac buan oo-o' Bpomo pine; 

a t)(h)aipi, co n-oanoup 11 
puij aip inach 12 Uuach £ai£eun; 
cpaibpea epicha Oeap ^Jabaip; 
na jab peoou i-o' chomaipgi 13 ; 
buaio bpeici 14 Do-c' mjeanpaio 
01a (b)-paepuO; oo' 5 pean achaip 
Cachafp, ceano in choicio-pea, 
do bep duid a beanoachcain 
co mab nia co pobapchain 16 

op ^ailianchaib 5 lap . . . RIO gaiSCeCIO. 

Qcup ao 17 beapc 06 la pooain ochc mojaio acup ochc mna acup 
ochc n-eich acup ochc (5)-cuipn. 

Qp beapc 19 Din pope ppi 6peapal n-6ineachlaip: 

c Daire Barrack. — He was the ancestor of sixth in descent from him, according to 

the family of Mac Gorman, chief of the Ui the O'Clerighs. 

Bairrche, for the situation of which see page A Deas Ghabhair According to the An- 

212, n. m , infra. St.Fiac of Sleibhte, now nals of the Four Masters, at the year 920, 

"Slatey,"in"Omargy,"issaidtohavebeen this was another name for Ui Ceinnsea- 

the great-grandson of this Daire Barrach, laigh. See the Introduction, 

and St. Diarmad, the founder of the church of e Gailians. — An old name of the Laigh- 

Gleann Uissen, a remarkable valley, situate nigh, or Leinstermen. See Introduction. 

two miles to the west of Carlow, was the ' Eight bondmen. — O'Flahertv savs. ubi 

na 5-Ceapr. 195 

He will give his aid to my steadfast sons 

Against the attacks of their enemies; 

To the multitudinous day of judgment [is this] blessing, — 

Better than every man shall Failghe Eos be." 

And he gave him ten shields and ten rings and ten swords and ten 
drinking-horns, and he said to him, — 

" NOBLEST SHALL BE thy descendants among the descendants 
of my children." 

Then he said to Daire Barrach c : 

" MY VALOR, my martial impetuosit}' 
To my fierce, vigorous Daire; 
The darling of the assembly 

Shall every steadfast son of the tribes of thy loins be ; 
O Daire, with boldness 

Sit on the frontier of Tuath Laighean (north Leinster) ; 
Thou shalt harass the lands of Deas Ghabhair' 1 (south Leinster); 
Receive not price for thy protection ; 
Thy daughters shall be blessed with fruitfulness 
If they wed; thy old father 
Cathaeir, the head of this province, 
Gives thee his benediction 
That thou shouldst be a powerful champion 
Over the green Gailians e ." MY VALOR. 

And he gave him, thereupon, eight bondmen f and eight women and 
eight steeds and eight drinking-horns. 

He said afterwards to Breasal Eineack-ghlais g : 

siijtro, that before king " Cathir" fell in silver richly carved, fifty swords of a pe- 

the battle of " Talten," he ordered his son, culiar workmanship, live rings of gold ten 

" Ross Failge," to give legacies to the rest times melted, one hundred and fifty cloaks 

of his sons, and to the other nobles of Lein- variegated with Babylonian art. and seven 

ster, and that lie presented " to Daire Barry military standards." 

one hundred round spears, with silver S Breasal Eineach-ghlais — He is the an- 

blades, fifty shields incases of gold and cestorof a tribe called the Ui Eineach-ghlais, 


196 teccbhaji 

" lTlO 66QR, co n-a lun-copad, 
Do-m' 6peapal bino Bpiachpach -pa; 
jeib lac Innbeap n-Qimipjin, 
)ap pelbao na pean poinoi : 
pip paepa, co puchame 19 , 
uaio-peo; lapurii aipevhchap 2 " 
cuipc chpaechpao 21 a chiuj-paoup 
1 (5)-cin lanim 22 lainichiji; 
cia cpeapao a ppichipi, 
nf ba pealba peapcaiopib 
i (j)-cup nochpatub. 

Gcup oo beapc oo pe lonja ucup p6 luipeacha acup pe h-inaip 
acup pe pceich acup pe h-eich; acup oo beapc oo pe ooim pooepm 
co I in a (b)-pualaipc 23 . 

Qcup oo beupc ppi Ceacach 84 : 

"1TIO ChRlCha peachcapou 

oo Ceacach cpioeochaip" ; 
ba Oich bopb oo-o' 26 bpachippi ; 
cia beich peal w ppia paep popba, 
uao ni ^enpipeap" 8 ." 

Qcup ni chuc a chuio cimnao oo. 

lap pin ap beapc ppi Peapjup Cuapcdn: 

" peaR^US, peap co n-imjloine 29 , 
luaioeap a luapc leanrhaioi ; 

or Ui Feineachlais, who were seated along h Inbhear Aimherghin — So called be- 

the sea to the north of the Ui Deaghaidh, cause this was the portion of the country 

and in the present barony of Arklow, in the which fell to the lot of Aimherghin, one of 

county of Wicklow. This tribe is incor- the sons of Milidh (Milesius), and the 

rectly called " Ui Ineachruis," in all the poet and judge of their expediton. This is 

copies of O'h-Uidhriu's topographical poem. more usually called Inbhear Mor. It was 

The church of Inis Mocholmog belonged to originally the estuary of the Abhainn Mhor 

this territory. See the Feilire Aenyhuis, (Avonmore), but it was afterwards, after a 

and the Irish Calendar of the O'Clerighs, at manner used elsewhere, applied to the town 

14th November. of Arklow, which, after the Danish and 

na 5-Ceapc. 197 

•' MY SEA, with its full produce, 
To my sweet-spoken Breasal ; 
Take thou unto thee the Inbhear of Aimherghin h , 
According to the possession of the ancient division : 
Free men, and of long duration, 
[Shall descend] from thee; afterwards shall arise 
Princes who shall destroy his last chieftainship 
For the crime of the arm of an unjust man ; 
And though it shall return again, 
It shall not be a happy possession 
Because it shall be liable to oppression." 

And he gave to him six ships' and six coats of mail and six tunics 
and six shields and six steeds ; and he gave him his own six oxen with 
all their appointments. 

And he said to Ceatach* : 

" MY LANDS external [to my mensal lands] 
[I give] to my beloved Ceatach ; 
It will be a violent destruction to thy brotherhood ; 
Though thou wilt be for a time in possession of a free inheritance, 
From thee none shall be begotten." 

And he did not give his testamentary portion to him. 
Then he said to Fearghus Luascan ; 

" FEARGHUS, a man of purity, 
He speaks of his infantine rockings; 

English invasions, became the principal five chariots with their horses. This is a 

fortress of Ui Eineaeh-ghlais. According further proof that the document consulted 

to O'h-Uidrin's topographical poem, by O'Flaherty was totally different from 

"O'Fiachra"' was the chief of this tribe any of the copies now known to exist. 

after the establishment of surnames. k Ceatach — This is probably the Cea- 

• Six ships, &c O'Flaherty says that tach after whom the barony of Ui Ceataigh 

" Cathir" gave "Breasal Enachlas" five (Ikeathy), in the north of Kildare, received 

ships of burden, fifty bossed shields, su- its name. The criocha seachtar were the 

perbly inlaid with silver and gold round lands which were not mensal, or parcel of 

the edges, five golden-hilted swords, and the king's inheritance or succession. 

198 Ceabhccp 

ni pil lim Do chionocol, 
ap ni maenach 30 nach macaemoo; 
ace ma cheagma oino appao 
caiman, calam cpiun, lapcain, 
nim&am oeirhneach oichioean 
oo'n pip luaioeap luapc." 

Qcup ni chuc nf do. 

Qpbeapc lapam ppi Cpimchanoan: 

"CTClTTIUhQNt), mo chup cluicheocaip 11 ; 
glap pop lunu lean-maioi ; 
j^ebup lachu ainocpeannca ; 
ni oil learn a 6dn maipi 33 ; 
ni ba coimpij caoupa 

ace md checma aen. 
.1. Colam mac CpimchainD. 

Qcup oo pao do pechc n-eich acup pe cuipn acup pe maclu acup 
pe Dam co lin a (b)-pualaip 33 . 

Qenjup Nic ono mac do poinDi Cachaip epia mepci pi a 34 injin 
1. ppi TTluccna injin Cachaip, lp ppip ao 35 beapc Cachaip : 

"N1CC, nimcha peilb paep 36 popba 
oo mac TTluccna michipi, 
ap a' meao lp imnaipi 37 
cuipmeao clano ppi coiboelchu. 
lp peapp 6caib achaipi 38 ; 
ole buanuouj beo." 

Qcup ni chuc ni Do. 

[Qjup] aD beapc lap pin ppi h-6ochaio Uimine : 

1 Except one, i. e. Colam mac Criomh- (" Terryglass," near the Shannon, in Lower 

thainn It will be remarked that " Colam Ormond, Tipperary), where his festival was 

mac Crimthainn" is here a mere scholium. It celebrated on the 13th of December. The 

is not in B. at all. According to the Feilire O'Clerighs remark that he was really the 

Aenghuis, and the Calendar and Genealo- son of Ninmidh, who was the fifth in de- 

gies of the Irish Saints, compiled by the scent from Crimhthann, the son of Cathair 

O'Clerighs, he was abbot of Tir Da Ghlais Mor. He should therefore have been called 

na 5-Ceapr. 199 

I have naught to present, 

For every youth cannot be wealthy ; 

But if we happen to have possession 

Of land, powerful land, hereafter, 

I am not certain but I may give leavings [a remnant] 

To the man who talks rockingly (at random)." 

And he did not give anything to him. 
He said then to Criomhthann : 

" CRIOMHTHANN, my boyish hero; 
He is a lock upon the blackbirds of the meadows ; 
He shall conquer weak territories; 
I love not his profession of fame ; 

There will not be [any of his race] worthy of veneration 
Except one 1 [who] shall prove [so]. 
i. e. Colam mac Criomhthainn. 

And he gave him seven steeds™ and six drinking-horns and six ma- 
tals and six oxen with their full appointments. 

Aenghus Nic, too, a son that Cathaeir begat in his drunkenness, 
by his daughter, i. e. Muchna, daughter of Cathaeir, to him Cathaeir 

" NIC, there shall not be possession of free land 
With the son of hapless Muchna, 
Because of the greatness of the disgrace 
Of begetting children by relatives. 
Better is the death of a disgrace; 
111 is the continuing of infamy." 

And he did not give anything to him. 
And he said then to Eochaidh Timine: 

Colam Ua Crimhthainn. He died in the of elegant construction, two chess-boards 

year 552. with their chess-men distinguished with 

m Seven steeds O' Flaherty says that their spots and power, on which account 

"Cathir" gave this " Crimhthann" fifty he was constituted master of the games in 

hulling balls made of brass, with an equal Leinster, but the Editor has not found any 

number of brazen hurlets, ten pair of tables original Irish authority for this. 

200 ceabhaji 

" mo eochaiO 39 cimiNe, 

cpeich pep, nf rip cheajlamap; 40 
ni cpeom 41 6 cip chuip^eboaib; 
nipob apeapmap 42 oil fine; 
ni ba bupach beachpaiji; 
mo painbi, mo eapcaine 
peach a bpcnchpi[b] buanma[pa] 
paip-peom co bpach biap." 

Qcup ni chuc cimna 06, acup nip 43 chaipmipc a beirh 1 (b)-pail 
a bpaichpeach 44 amail chocapc. 

Qo 15 bepc ono ppi h-Qilill Ceabach mac Cachaip : 

" 01£166, oil peap 1 46 pelbaio 

pean maib, pean bpuoao, 

ni ba puaip 00 pach 47 ; 
peap popaio ppi pichchillacc 

uap po maijib par." 

Do pao ano pin a pichcill co n-a piccillachc 00 Qilill Ceaouc. 
Co luio ono Piacha pa 48 h-Gicib a bochum a achaip 49 , acup ba 
pe popap a mac acup ap beapc ppip: 

"NimCllQSQ Nf bo beapap lac ace mo beannacc acup ma 
beip 1 n-aicci cac bpachap ouic co m-bab peiopeach." 

C116 in jilla [Piaco] piao a achap; ap beapc lapam [a acaip 1.] 
Cachaip ppip. 

" PGGI miS la each m-bpachaip ouib acup pai peachc 
m-bliaona la Ropa 50 pailji mac Cachaip. Oia nam copachc 00 
beannacc 1 pon pelbi 00 jnipinb 51 anb pin." 

Conao anb ap beapc Cachaip : 

" SRUlCh in popap poineamail, 
Piacha peap a n-ilceaoaib M , 

11 Asacogart — As a servant or villanus, tor of a sept seated in a territory called 
Sec on the cogarts of Leinster, infra, p. 219. Crioeh na g-Ceadach, in the north-east of 
n Oilioll Ceadach He was the ances- the King's County. 

na g-Ceajir. 201 


Weak man, it is not land he will acquire ; 

It is not brave men from countries he will expel ; 

From him will not descend a great tribe ; 

He shall not be a man of lowing herds ; 

My weakness, my curse [or foolishness] 

Beyond his enduring brothers 

Upon him for ever shall be." 

And he gave him no testamentary [share] ; but he forbade him not 
to live with his brothers as a cogart n (steward). 
He said to Oilioll Ceadach , the son of Cathaeir : 

" OILIOLL, a great man in the possession 
Of old plains of old brughaidhs [farmers] ; 
Noble shall not be thy rath [abode] ; 
A man intelligent in chess playing, 
[Who shall rule] over many prosperous plains." 

And he gave his chess-board and his fithcheallachtP (chess furni- 
ture) to Oilioll Ceadach. 

Then Fiacha Ba h-Aicidh went to his father, and he was the youngest 
of his sons, and the father said to him : 

" I HAVE NOT AUGHT that thou couldst take with thee but 
my blessing and that thou abide with each of thy brethren till thou 
art of maturity." 

The youth Fiacha wept in the presence of his father ; his father, 
i. e. Cathaeir, then said unto him : 

" ABIDE A MONTH with each of thy brothers, and abide seven 
years with Ros Failghe the son of Cathaeir. If, then, thou retain the 
blessing I would ensure to thee prosperity of possessions." 

And then Cathaeir said: 
" A CHIEF shall the prospei'ous junior be, 
Fiacha a man of many hundreds [of cattle] ; 

i 1 His chess with his fithchilkacht — piccillectce on Cnomhthann, not on 
OTlaherty makes Cathaeir bestow the Oiliol Ceadach. 

202 Ceabhap 

buaib-jean 6eapBa bpurhrhaipi; 
po^nipeo a bpuchaip pine; 
Qillinb apb co n-upjeba; 
Capmon 53 clocach coimjebaib; 
biaib op Cllmam aipmioin 54 ; 
Wap amnicha neapcaijpib; 
luam £aopano co luchmaipi"; 
peap ariipa op Gipjeao Rop; 
lachu Qilbi oll-jebaio; 
domain op lip loinjpigpib; 
rpiacha Ceampa cpaipceapaib; 
aenach Uaillcean copmaibpib ; 
each cpfch po chipe choriiaoaip 
pob lip buaoa beannaccan 
ap bo pil co puchaine, 
a h-Ui Piacha aipriiionij 46 ; 
oo chuib cimna cappaoaip 

co poinrheach, co ppuich SRUICh. 

Mo bai peom om 47 a (b)-pail a bpaiehpeach 58 amail ap beapc 
Caehaip ; conio be pin po 111 Piacha Pa h-Qicib 59 be ap a beich 
a n-aicci a bpenchpeach; acup po bai la T3op map y\n peachc 

<i AiUinn A celebrated fort of the kings situate on the sea coast, in the territory 

of Leinster, the extensive remains of which of Ui Ceinseallaigh. See Colgan, Acta 

are still to be seen on the hill of Cnoc Ail- Sanctorum, Vita S. Maidoci, p. 210. " Et 

linne, near " OKI Kilcullen," in the county intravit portum in regione Hua-Kinselach 

of Kildare. in oppido quod dicitur Ardlathrann." Tlvis 

r Carman. ^-This was a seat of the kings place was known in the time of Colgan, 

of Leinster, and its site is occupied by the who describes it as a place in the diocese of 

present town of Wexford ; see p. 15, n. 4. Ferns, and county of Wexford, called after 

9 Almhain, Anglicd" Allen," a celebrated Ladhrann, a soldier (and companion of the 

hill about five miles to the north of the Antediluvian " Ceasair,"), who was there 

town of Kildare; see p. 14, n. '. interred. Acta SS. p. 217, note 22. 

• Nas, another seat of the kings of Lein- The editor could not find any place in 

ster, Anglice " Naas ;" see p. 0, n. <i. the comity of Wexford according with the 

" Ladhrann, i. e. Ard-ladhrann. This notices of this place in the Life of St. Mai- 
was another fort of the kings of Leinster, doc, except " Ardamine," on the sea coast, 

net 5-Ceajir. 203 

The gifted man from the boiling Bearbha; 

Him his brother- tribes shall serve ; 

The noble Aillinn q he will inhabit ; 

The famous Carman 1- he shall obtain ; 

He shall rule over the venerable Almhain s ; 

The impregnable Nas 1 he shall strengthen ; 

The active pilot of Ladhrann" ; 

An illustrious man over Airgead Ros v ; 

The lands of Ailbhe w he shall mightily obtain ; 

Liamhain x , over the sea, he shall pilot; 

The chiefs of Teamhair he shall prostrate ; 

The fair of Taillte he shall magnify ; 

Every country under the control of his justice [he will bring] ; 

Numerous will be the gifts of the blessing 

On thy seed for ever, 

Thou grandson of Fiacha the venerable ; 

Thy testamentary portion thou hast received 

Happily, like a chieftain A CHIEF, 

He abode then with his brothers, as Cathaeir had ordered, and hence 
the name of Fiacha Ba h-Aicidh adhered to him for living on his bro- 
thers. And he remained seven years with Ros in that manner; and it 

in the barony of "Ballaghkeen," where there ancestor of the Laighnigh (Lagenians), or 
is a remarkable moat, level at top, and Leinster race of princes, is said to have 
measuring about eighty links in diameter. erected a fort called Rath Beatha. See 
See the Annals of the Four Masters, ad Haliday's edition of Keating's History of 
arm. mund. 2242, 3519, and Haliday's Ireland, pp. 306, 308, 310, 318, 328, 334, 
Edition of Keating's History of Ireland, 346 ; and O'Flaherty's Ogyyiu, part iii. 
pp. 150, 318; D. Mac Firbisigh's Genea- c. 19. This fort is now called " Rath- 
logical work (Marquis of Drogheda's copy) veagh." See Tighe's Statistical Account 
pp. 23, 185, 240, where it is stated that of the County of Kilkenny. 

the tribe of Cineal Cobhthaigh were seated w Ailbhe An extensive plain in the 

at Ard Ladhrann ; and see O'Flaherty's present county of Kildare. See Magh Ailbhe, 

Ogggia, part iii. cc. 1 and 19. p. 16, note i, supra. 

' Airgead Ros A district on the River x Liamhain. — This is put for Laighin, 

Feoir (An Fheoir, Anglicd the Nore) in Ui as appears from the copy in the Book of 

Punch, where Eireamhon (Hcremon), the Ballymote. See p. 228, n. m , infra. 

204 Uabhcqi 

m-bliaona, conio laip po 50b apmo acup conaio 6 pil Ruip olijeap 
each 61 peap do pil piachach ceab-jabdil 'n-aipm 62 . 

t)o luio Cachaip pope co Caillcin acup 00 bep each Uaillcean 
co copchaip 65 ant> pin la Pein Cuaibne 66 . 

t)d mac bin 67 peiolimio pip Up-jlaip .1. TTIaine lTlal 138 in pinbpeap 
acup Cuchafp in popap; unbe® £u£aip Idn-pili [bipcic .1.] : 

Opap eipclop, opoan, din, [.1. pine TTIaine, B. inter Uneas.'j 
nip bo chdip pa 70 popgla peap ; 
pacbao Cachaip, cono each c-pluaij, 
la ^.uaijne chuato a TTIuij 6pej. 

Conao bo olijeao acup 00 chuapipcol cloinoi na mac pin uo 
beapc [in pai buaoa] 6enen ann po: 

C6QRC pij taij^ean po luaio 6enen, 
a m-bpeich ubaip [p]uapipcaip, 
1 n-a 71 n-olijeno pij each chuaichi, 
epia chuaich lin a chuapipcol 72 . 

Gn epdeh nach pi b' Gipinb uili 
aipo-pij 6aijean lino uaine, 
leip copach in each chip cpein ein$ 
6 pij 6ipinb [F]inb (p)uaipe. 

tDeich mojaib bo laech-pi £,aijean, 
oeich (5)-coin c-polma, puileacha, 
oeich pcinji pop pcibpeac conoa, 
beich longa, beich luipeacha. 

Cpicha palach, caeca claibearh, 

ceac n-each n-bonb, beich n-bin bpacaib, 
caeca cochall, nip bab pach buibb 73 , 
beich pach 74 chuipn, beich pij-vhacail. 

Se cuipn, pe Failji b'[U]ib Paeldin, 
pe leanna ap in lacaip pin 75 , 

y Tailllc, now absurdly Anglicized " Navan." "Teltown'' is taken from the 
Celtown," midway between " Kells" and oblique cases, Caillcean, &c. B.ofMagh 

na 5-Ceajic. 205 

was from him he took arms, and it is from the descendants of Ros that 

every man of his descendants is bound to receive his first arms. 

Cathaeir afterwards went to Taillte y , and he fought the battle of 

Taillte, and he Avas killed there by the Fian of Luaighne. 

Feidhlimidh Fir Urghlais had two sons, namely, Maine Mai, the 

senior, and Cathaeir [Mor], the junior; whence Lughair the full poet 


A famous, illustrious, honorable junior, 

He was not despicable among the choicest men ; 

Cathaeir, the prop of each host, was killed 

By the Luaighne, in the north, in Magh Breagh. 

And it is of the rights and stipends of the descendants of those 
sons Benean the gifted sage spoke here : 

THE RIGHT of the king of Laighin [Leinster] Benean related, 
In the decision of an author he found it, 
What the king of each territory is entitled to, [and], 
Throughout his country, the number of his stipends. 

When not king of all Eire 

Is the supreme king of Laighin of green waters, 

To take the van in going into every country of strong frontier 

From the king of temperate Eire. [is his [privilege] 

Ten bondmen to the heroic king of Laighin, 
Ten fleet, quick-eyed hounds, 
Ten scings 2 over which the waves glide, 
Ten ships, ten coats of mail. 

Thirty rings, fifty swords, 

A hundred bay steeds, ten sheltering cloaks, 

Fifty cowls, not a common stipend, 

Ten choice drinking-horns, ten royal matals. 

Six drinking-horns, six rings to the Ui Faelain 3 , 
Six mantles on that same time, 

Rath, p. 108,n. b . Luaighne. — Seep.86,11. 1 . "trappings" does not seem applicable here. 
z Scings. — Seep. 70, n. ', but the meaning a Ui Faelain — This was the name of a 



pe h-eich luacha co n-a laichpib; 
jta^ buijchip, nip bpachaippi. 

Ceo n-each uao-pom do chupc Chomaip, 
ceo m-bo ap ruillearii 77 cuapipcail, 
cpica ban pe meo ip muipeap, 
ceao claiDearh, ip cpuad apcaio. 

Ochc lonja d'n laech :s do plaich Chualano, 
co peolaib co peol [ppol B.] BnaeaiB, 
ochc (5)-cuipn, ochc (5)-clui6irh co cinaio 7 ", 
occ n-inaip, ochc n-6p macail. 

Seachc pceich, peachc n-eich do pij Popchuach 
lap n-6l pina aipiDT", 

peachc (5)-cmpn co n-a mio oo'n maipig, 
peachc (jVclaioirii 'n-a (5)-caipi6ib. 

Se h-inaip oo pij an lnobep, 
pe Doirii luacha, leimneca 81 , 

tribe and territory containing about the 
northern half of the present county of Kil- 
dare. Tt comprised the baronies of" Clane" 
and " Salt," and the greater part, if not the 
entire, of those of " Ikeathy" and " Ough- 
teranny." The town of Nas (Naas), and 
the churches of Claenadh (Clane), Laith- 
reach Bruin (Laraghbrine, near " May- 
nooth"), Domnach mor Muighe Luadhat 
(Donaghmore), Cluain Conaire (Clon- 
curry): and Piodh Chuillinn (Feighcullen), 
were in it. Sec the Feilire Aetighuis, and 
the Irish Calendar of the O'Clerighs, at 
18th May, 8th June, 8th August, 2nd and 
L 6th of September, and 27th of October. 
After the establishment of surnames the 
chiefs of this territory took that of Mac 
Faelain, and soon after that of O'Braui 
(Anglice O'Byrne), but they were driven 

from this level and fertile territory, about 
the year 1202, by Meylcr Fitz-IIenrv ami 
his followers, when they retired into the 
mountains of WIcklow, where they acquired 
new settlements for themselves, and in the 
reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth they 
were possessed of more than the southern 
half of the present county of Wicklow. See 
the Editor's translation of the second part 
of the Annals of the Four Masters, p. 137, 
note e , and page 246, note f , where autho- 
rities are quoted which prove the Ui Faelain, 
Anglici " Offelan," the original country of 
the Ui Brain (O'Byrnes), comprised the 
live northern baronies of the present county 
of Kildare. and that it was hounded on the 
north by Deise Teamhrach, on the west by 
Ui Failghe, on the north-east by Ui Dun- 
chada, and on the south by l'i Muireadh- 

na 5-Ceapc. 


Six swift steeds with I heir caparisons; 

Though it is promised, it is not for brotherhood. 

A hundred steeds from him to the Prince Tomar b , 
A hundred cows as additional wages, 
Thirty women of size and with offspring, 
A hundred swords, it is a severe tribute. 

Eight ships from the hero to the lord of Cualann , 
With sails [and] with satin flags (banners), 
Eight drinking-horns, eight keen-edged swords, 
Eight tunics, eight gold [embroidered] matals. 

Seven shields, seven steeds to the king of the Forthuatha' 1 
After drinking certain wine, 

Seven drinking-horns with their mead to the mariner, 
Seven swords in their scabbards. 

Six tunics to the king of the Inbhear e , 
Six oxen, swift, bounding, 

aigh, Anglice " Omurethi," O'Tuathail's 

(OToole's) original territory. 

b Prince Tomar, i. e. king of Dublin. 
See the Introduction ; and p. 40, n. ". 

c Cualann See p. 13, note h , supra. 

d Forthuatha, i. e. the stranger tribe. It 
appears from an old life of St. Caemhghin 
(Kevin), quoted by Ussher in his Primor- 
dia, p. 956, and by the Bollandists, that 
the church of Gleann Da Loch, i. e. Vallis 
duorum stagnorum (Glendalough), was in 
this territory. This shows that it was an 
alias name for Ui Mail, as, according to a 
note in the Feilire Aenyhuis and the Irish 
Calendar of the O'Clerighs, at 7th Octo- 
ber, Ui Mail is the name of the territory in 
which Gleann Da Loch is situated. Ui 
Mail (Imaile) is a well-known territory 
in the barony of Upper Talbotstown, in the 

county of W'kklow, in which the family of 
OTuathail (O'Toole) settled after their ex 
pulsion from their original territory of Ui 
Muireadhaigh in the now county of Kil- 
dare, by the Baron Walter de Riddles- 
ford. See the Editor's translation of the 
Annals of the Four Masters, page 51, n. '", 
and page 664, note z ; also the published 
Inquisitions, "Lagenia," Wicklow, 6 Jac. 
I., 8 Car. I. Domhnall Mac Faelainn, king 
of Forthuatha Laighean, was slain in the 
battle of CluainTarbh (Clontarf) according 
to the Annals of Ulster. 

e Inbhear, i. e. of Inbhear Mor (Arklow). 
The territory of the Inbhear (originally 
the estuary merely) was the country of the 
Ui Eineach-ghlais, which comprised the 
present barony of Arklow, in the county of 
Wicklow. See page 196, note h . supra. 



pe. liiipeacha acup pe lonju, 
pe h-eich oonna, oeinmeca. 

Seaclic n-eich d'UiB PeiVmea6a Pmou, 
pip Diana co nearhnaiji, 
coic cuipn cama la coic bpacaib, 
coic macail, cia mebpaioi. 

Ceo m-bo t>'[U]ib Cen&pealaij calma 
ceao n-each ap ruaich cpomaijcheap, 
oeich lonjija, beich ppen, oeich paible, 
oeich (b)-pail£i nach ft - polai^cheap. 

f Ui Feilmeadha, i. e. the descendants of 
Feilimidh, son of Eanna Ceinnsealach, king 
of Laigfain (Leinster) in the fourth century. 
There were two tribes of this name in 
Leinster, the one called Ui Feilmeadha 
Tuaidh, i. e. North Ui Feilmeadha, who 
were seated in the present barony of " Kath- 
villy," in the county of Carlow, and from 
whom the present town of "Tullow,"in 
that barony, was anciently called Tulaigh 

O'Feilmeadha, Anglice Tullow-Offelimy 

See Heating's History of Ireland, in the 
reign of Niall Naei-ghiallach. After the 
establishment of surnames, the chief family 
of this tribe took the surnames of 0' h -On- 
con, a name now unknown, and O'Gair- 
bheth (Garvey). The other tribe was 
called Ui Feilmeadha Teas or Deas, i. e. 
South Ui Feilmeadha, and was seated in 
the present barony of " Ballaghkeen" in 
the east of the county of Wexford. After 
the establishment of surnames the chief fa- 
mily of this tribe took that of O'Murchadha, 
Anglice, formerly, " O'Murroughoe," now 
"Murphy," and the family multiplied so 
much that this is now the most nume- 
rous of all the ancient Irish tribes, not 
only in their own territory, still called the 

" Murrooghs" or " Murroes," but all over 
Leinster and Minister. See O h-Uidhrin's 
topographical poem, and the Book of Lein- 
ster, in the Library of Trinity College, 
Dublin, Hen. II. 18, fol. 247. In the 
year 1634, the head of the South Ui Feil- 
meadha was Conall O'Murchadha (son of 
Art, son of Domhnall Mor, son of Art, son 
of Tadhg). He died in this year, and was 
buried at Castle Ellis. He had five sons, 
of whom Tadhg was the eldest. There was 
another respectable branch of this family 
seated at Cfball-^opc bar (Oulart- 
leigh) in the same district, who retained 
their property till very recently. 

B Ui Ceinnsealaigh. — The people so call- 
ed were the descendants of Eanna Ceinn- 
sealach, who was the fourth in descent 
from Cathaeir, monarch of Ireland, and 
king of Laighin or Leinster, about the 
year 358. Their country originally com- 
prised more than the present diocese of 
" Femes," for we learn from the oldest 
Lives of St. Patrick, that Domhnach Mor, 
near Sleibhte (Sletty, Sleaty, &c), in the 
present county of Carlow, was in it. In 
the Tripartite Life of St Patrick, quoted 
by Ussher (Primordia, page 863) it i> 

net 5-Ceapr. 


Six coats of mail and six ships, 
Six beautiful, bay steeds. 

Seven steeds to the fair Ui Feilmeadha F , 
Vehement men of venom, 
Five curved drinking-horns with five cloaks, 
Five matals, as it is remembered. 

A hundred cows to the brave Ui Ceinnsealaigh g , 

A hundred steeds by which power is added to the territory, 
Ten ships, ten bridles, ten saddles' 1 , 
Ten rings which are not to be concealed. 

called the larger and more powerful part 
of Leinster : " Ordinavit S. Patricius de 
gente Laginensium alium episcopum no- 
mine Fyacha, viriun religio.sissimum : qui 
jussione beatissimi Patricii gentem Cean- 
selach ad fidem convertit et baptizavit." 

The two clans of Ui Feilmeadha above 
referred to were of this race. After the 
establishnier" of surnames the principal 
family of this tribe took the surname of 
Mac Murchadha, Anglice "Mac Mur- 
rough," which is now obsolete. The prin- 
cipal family of the race took the name 
of Mac Murchadha Caemhanaigh, Anglic^ 
" Mac Murrough Kavanagh," now always 
shortened to " Kavanagh," without any pre- 
fix. They descend from Domhnall Caemh- 
anach, who, according to Giraldus, and 
the historical poem in Norman French on 
the invasion of Ireland, tempore Henry II., 
and a pedigree of the Kavanaghs in a 
MS. at Lambeth Palace, was an illegitimate 
son of Diarmaid, Dermitius Murchardides, 
(Dermod), king of Leinster, the first that 
brought the English into Ireland. From 
Eanna, another illegitimate son of this 
king, the family of " Kinsellaghs," now so 
numerous in Leinster, are descended. The 

other families of the race were Mac Daibh- 
idh Mor, Anglic^ Mac Davy More, or Mac 
Damore, seated in the barony of " Gorey," 
in the north-east of the county of Wex- 
ford, who were descended from Murchadli 
na n-Gaedhall, the brother of Diarmaid na 
n Gall, and Mac Uadog, Anglice "Mac 
Vaddock," and now "Maddock," who de- 
scends from Uadog, the fourth in descent 
from the smne Murchadh. The pedigrees 
of these septs are given by Dubh. Mac 
Firbisigh in his genealogical work (Lord 
Roden's copy), p. 473, and by Cucoicrigh 
O'Clerigh (Peregrine O'Clery) in his gene- 
alogical compilation, now preserved in the 
Library of the Royal Irish Academy, p. 82, 
and also in a MS. in the Carew Collection 
in the Library at Lambeth Palace, No. 635, 
fol. 40, 41, et sequen. 

h Saddles, paoail. — We have no means 
of determining what kind of saddles these 
were. The present Irish word for saddle is 
Oiallaio, which seems cognate with the 
Welsh word dilhad, apparel. Spenser as- 
serts, in his " View of the State of Ireland," 
that the Irish rode without a stirrup. It 
is said in the Histoire du Bog d'Angle- 
terre Richard, recently printed in the 



t)eich (b)-puilji appino do pi Raileantj 83 
i[p] pe pij-eich pfmijJTl, 

pe macail apcae oo'n cupcuo, 
pe mojaio bo'n rhilij pin w . 

Ochc (5)-clai6iTin, ochc (£)-cuipn ppi corinol 
6 pi£ Capman copoa^aij 85 , 
ochc n-eich cean each bib ap opoc-polc, 
bo pi Porapr* Opn[ao]aij. 

twentieth volume of the Archaeologia, with 
translation and notes, by the Rev. J. Webb, 
that Mac Murrough of Leinsterwas mount- 
ed upon a. horse which cost four hundred 
tows, but without a saddle. 

1 Raeilinn This was the name of a re- 
markable fort on the hill of Mullach Raci- 
leann, Anglice " Mullaghreelion," in the 
county of Kildare, about five miles to the 
south-east of Athy. This fort is called 
Raeirend in the Leabbar Dinnseanchuis, 
which places it in the country of Ui Muir- 
eadhaigh, called by Cambrensis " Omu- 
rethi," which is still the name of a deaneiy 
in the county of Kildare. By " Righ Rai- 
leann," in the text, is certainly meant Righ 
Ua Muireadhaigh, i. e. king of " Omu- 
rethi," a territoiy comprising about the 
southern half of the present county of Kil- 
dare, namely, the baronies of " Kilkea and 
Moone," " Naragli and Rheban," and a 
part of the barony of " Connell." It was 
bounded on the north by the celebrated hill 
of Aillin (Allen), see page 202, notel, supra; 
on the north-west by Ui Failghe, An (/lice 
'• Offaly," which it adjoined at the Cuir- 
reach (Curragh) of Kildare, see page 216, 
note r , infra ; and on the west by Laeighis, 
Anglice " Leix," from which it was divided 
by the River Bearbha, Anglice Barrow. 
The deanery of "Omurethi," which preserves 

the name of this territory, comprises the 
following parishes, according to the Liber 
Regalis Visitationis of 1615, viz. : " Athy, 
Castlereban, Kilberry, Dollardstown, Ni- 
cholastown,Tankardstown, Kilkea, Grange- 
Rosnolvan, Belin [Beithlinn], Castleder- 
mott, Grange, jNIoone, Timoling, Narragh- 
more, Kilcullen, Usk." And the same 
record adds : " Adjacent to the deanery of 
Omurethie is the parish church of Dame- 
noge [Dunamanogue] and the parish church 
of Fontstown." From this the glaring error 
of Ledwich (Antiquities, 2nd ed. p. 294), 
appears, -who states that, the Omurethi of 
Giraldus was the country of the O'Moores. 
Soon after the death of the celebrated 
Saint Lorcan O'Tuathail, Anglice Laurence 
O'Toole, the family of the Ui Tuathail 
(O'Tooles) were driven from this level and 
fertile district by the great Baron Walter 
de Riddlesford, or Gualterus de Ridenesfor - 
dia, who, according to Giraldus (Hibernia 
Expvgnata, lib. ii. c. 21), had his castle 
at " Tristerdermott," (now " Castleder- 
mot"), in the territory of " Omurethi.'' 
Dr. Lanigan, in his Ecclesiastical History 
of Ireland, vol. iv. p. 174, and Mr. Moore, 
in his History of Ireland, vol. ii. p. 308, 
and all subsequent writers, state that Muir- 
cheartach O'Tuathail, the father of St. Lor- 
can O'Tuathail (Laurence O'Toole), was 

na 5-Ceajit;. 


Ten carved rings to the king of Raeilinn' 
And six royal steeds, I reckon, 
Six matals in the same way to the champion, 
Six bondmen to that hero. 

Eight swords, eight horns for drinking 
From the king of defensive Carman, 
Eight steeds of which not one has a bad mane. 
To the king of Fothart OsnadhaighJ. 

prince of " Imaile," but this is a great 
mistake; for Ui Mail (Imaile), into which 
the tribe of OTuathail migrated, had been 
before the English invasion the patrimo- 
nial inheritance of the family of O'Tadhg, 
Anglice, formerly, O'Teige, now Tighe. 
Equally erroneous is the statement in the 
Life of " St. Laurence," published by Mes- 
singham in his Florilegium, that St. Lau- 
rence's father was king of all Leinster ; for 
we know from the best authorities, that, 
though he was of the royal family of Lein- 
ster, and next in superiority of that pro- 
vince, he never became king of it. 

J Fothart Osnadhaigh, now the barony 
of Fotharta, Anglice "Forth," in the county 
of Carlow. The people called Fotharta 
were, according to the Irish genealogists, 
the descendants of Eochadh Finn Fuathart 
(the brother of the monarch Conn of the 
Hundred Battles) who, being banished from 
Midhe (Meath) by his nephew Art, mo- 
narch of Ireland, settled in Laighin (Lein- 
ster) where his descendants acquired con- 
siderable territories, of which the barony 
of " Forth," in the county of Carlow, and 
the better known barony of the same name 
in the county of Wexford, still preserve the 
name. The former is called Fotharta Osna- 
dhaigh in the text, from Cill Osnadha, now 
corruptly " Kellistown," one of its principal 

churches, but more frequently " Fotharta 
Fea,"from the plain of Magh Fea, in which 
this church is situate. See Book of Baile an 
Mhuta, fol. 77, b., and Keating's History 
of Ireland, reign of Oilioll Molt, where it is 
stated that Cill Osnadha is situate in the 
plain of Magh Fea, four (Irish) miles to 
the east of Leith-ghlinn (Leighlin), in the 
county of Carlow. After the establishment 
of surnames the chief family of Fotharta 
Fea, or Fotharta Osnadhaigh, took the sur- 
name of O'Nuallain, Anglice, formerly, 
O'Nolan, now Nowlan, and from him this 
barony has been not unusually called " Forth 
O'Nolan." See the published Inquisitions, 
Lagenia, 14, 16 Car. I. Grace's Annals of 
Ireland, edited by the Rev. Richard Butler, 
p. 99, et passim. O'Flaherty states in his 
Ogygia, part iii. c. 64, that the posterity 
ofEochaidh Finn Fothart were chiefs of 
this territory till the death of O'Nuallan, 
the last proprietor, who died a short time 
before he was writing. The chief family 
of the Fotharta, in the county of Wexford, 
commonly called Fothart an Chain) (Cam- 
sore point), took the name of O'Lorcain, 
Anglice " Larkin," but they were dispos- 
sessed shortly after the English invasion. 
The family is, however, still numerous in 
Leinster. See further as to these districts, 
page 221, note ?, infra. 


212 Leabhcqi 

Ocht n-eich o^UJib Opona a Cino ^abpa 87 
a jlaic pi j co pa polao, 
ochc (5)-com pe cop uip ap rhoijib S9 , 
ochc (5)-claioirh pe cachujuo". 

Ochc n-eich b'[U]ib &aippchi ap a m-beooachc, 
ba beag o'pip a [nj-eanj-narha, 
ochc (5)-cuipn, ochc mna, nipop mu jaij, 
lp ochc mojaio mean, mapa 90 . 

Ochc n-eich o*Llib 6ui6i na m-bpiachap, 
bopba, bluichi, bip-cheanoa, 

k Ui Drona, i. e. nepotes Dronai 

These descend from Drona, the fourth in 
descent from Cathaeir Mor. They posses- 
sed the entire of the present barony of 
" Idrone," in the county of Carlow, and 
that part of the diocese of " Kildare and 
Leighlin," lying on the west side of the 
River Barrow, near the town of " Graigue- 
namanagh." The church of Erard or Urard, 
now called " Ullard," on the west side of 
the Barrow, was in it. See the Irish Ca- 
lendar of the O'Clerighs, at 2nd May, 18th 
August, 1 1th October, and 8th November ; 
and the Feilire Aenghuis, at 8th February, 
29th May, 18th August, 5th September, 
11th and 12 th October, and 8th November. 
After the establishment of surnames the 
chief family of this tribe took the surname 
of O'Riain, Anglice "Ryan," and retained 
considerable property hi this barony, till 
the Revolution in 1688, as appears from 
the published inquisitions, Lagenia, 9, 40 
Car. I. They are still very numerous in 
this territory, and throughout Leinster, but 
they are to be distinguished from the family 
of O'Maeilriain (O'Mulrians or Ryans), of 
Tipperary, who are of a different race, 
though of Leinster too. See a curious ac- 

count of this family in Ryan's History of 
the County of Carlow, Appendix. 

1 Ceann Gabhra, i. e. head of the horse. 
This name, which was evidently that of 
some remarkable hill in " Idrone," is un- 
known to the Editor. 

m Ui Bairrche This tribe descended 

from Daire Barrach, the second son of the 
monarch Cathaeir Mor, and possessed the 
barony of " Slievemargy," in the Queen's 
County, and other tracts in that neigh- 
bourhood. They were seated between the 
Ui Drona and Ui Muireadhaigh ; and the 
churches of Mughna h-Ealchainn (Bal- 
laghmoon), and Gleann Uissen (Killu- 
shin), near the town of Carlow, were in it. 
See Colgan's Acta Sanctorum, pp. 417, 
418 ; and Feilire Aenghuis, at 27th Fe- 
bruary, 4th April, 8th July, 20th October ; 
and the Irish Calendar of the O'Clerighs, 
at 8th July. O h-Uidhrin places them on 
the west side of the River Barrow. D. Mac 
Firbisigh, in his pedigree of the Ui Bairrche 
(Marquis of Drogheda's copy), p. 397, 
states that the district extending from Ath 
Truistean, a ford on the river "Greece," 
near the hill of MullachMaistean (Mullagh- 
mast) six miles to the east of Athy, in the 

na 5-Cenjit;. 


Eiyht steeds to the Ui Drona k of Ceann Gablira 1 
From the hand of the king with good profit. 
Eight hounds for making slaughter on the plains, 
Eight swords for battling. 

Eight steeds to the Ui Bairrche m for their vigor, 

'Tvvas but small for a man of his (their chieftain's) prowess, 
Eight drinking-horns, eight women, not slaves, 
And eight bondmen, brave [and] large. 

Eight steeds to the Ui Buidhe 11 of words, 
Fierce, beautiful, fine-headed, 

county ot'Kiklare, to the ford at Cill Corb- 
natan, belonged to this sept, and that there 
were families of the race seated at Cluain 
Gonaire (Cloncurry), Ceall Ausaille (Kil- 
lossy), in the county of Kildare ; and three 
families at Cill (" Kill," near Naas), namely, 
O'Laidhghein, O'Caise, and O'Duibhchil- 
line; and one family, namely O'Mathaidh, 
in the territory of Ui Eineach-ghlais Muighe. 
After the establishment of surnames the 
chief family took the name of" O'Gormau," 
or " Mac Gorman ;" but they were driven 
out of their original territory, shortly after 
the English invasion, by the Baron Walter 
de Riddlesford, who became master of all 
the territory about Carlow. After this pe- 
riod they disappear from the Irish Annals 
for some centuries; but a curious account of 
their dispersion and settlement in Munster 
is given by Maeilin Og Mac Bruaideadha 
(Mac Brody), who became chief poet of 
Ui Breacain and Ui Fearmaic in 1563, in a 
poem on their genealogy, in which he states 
that they possessed the territories of Crioch 
O m-Bairrche and Crioch O m-Buidhe in 
Leinster, but, being driven from thence by 
the English, a party of them proceeded Into 
Ulster and another into Qaithne (Owney, 

in Tipperary), where they settled at a place 
called Doire Seinliath, where they became 
very numerous. In process of time, how- 
ever, they removed from this territory and 
settled under O'Briain (O'Brien) in Ui 
Breacain (Ibrickan), in the west of Tuath 
Mhumha(Thomond), where the poet states 
they had been supporting poets and feeding 
the poor for the last four hundred years. 
See O'Reilly's Irish Writers, p. 164. The 
name of this family is always written Mac 
Gormain in the Irish annals, and on all 
the old tombstones of the family in tin 
county of Clare; but the late Chevalier 
Thomas O'Gorman, the compiler of the 
pedigree of Count O'Reilly, changed the 
prerix, because he found it O'Gormain in 
some poems, and all the higher branches of 
the family have adopted the same change. 
This family is to be distinguished from 
the "O'Gormans" of " Clonmacnoise," 
who took the surname of Mac Cuinn na 

11 Ui Bu'uUie. — The territory of this tribe 
is called Crioch O'Muighe [which is intend- 
ed forCriochUa m-Buidhe] by Oh-Uidhrin 
in his topographical poem, in which it is 
described as on the west side of the River 

214 Leahaji 

blijio a paino 6 pig ^yiibli 
cpi Foi^j', cpi pichchilla. 

Ochc n-eich olijeap laech pf ^ai[j]pi 
ochc (5)-coin polrha, puileacha, 

Bearbha (Barrow), which divides it from 
Ui Muireadhaigh. This helps us to fix its 
position ; for we learn from the Life of St. 
" Abban" published by Colgan {Acta Sanc- 
torum, xiii. p. 617, c. 25), that "Ceall 
Abbain" is in the territory of " Huamidhe," 
who, Colgan says in note 30, page 623, is 
" 1 1 nam udhe" -in Codice Salmanticensi : 

" Post haec Sanctus Abbanus cum suis 
clericis lines Laginensium intravit, et venit 
in plebem Huathmarchy [Hua barchi in 
Cod. Sal.] et ipsa plebs honorifice recepit 
eum, et valde gavisa est in ejus adventu. 
Et vir sanctus benedixit earn diligenter, 
et multis diversis languoribis ibi sanatis, 
et miraculis perpetratis, inde recessit in 
plebein Huamidhi [Huamudi in Cod. Sal.], 
ibique magnum monasterimn construxit ; 
et propter honorem ejus in eodem loco civi- 
tas sedificata est; et monasterium et ci vitas 
mio nomine Scotice vocantur Ceall Abbain, 
quod interpretatur Latine Cella Abbani." 

The annotator of the Feilire Aenghuis, 
at 27th October, and the O'Clerighs, in 
their Irish Calendar, at 16th March, place 
Cill Abbain in Ui Muireadhaigh ; but this 
is evidently a mistake for Ui Muighe, for 
we learn from O h-Uidhrin that the ter- 
ritories of Crioch O'Muighe and Crioch 
m-Barrtha were on the west side of the 
Bearbha, and Ui Muireadhaigh on the east 
sick' of the same river, which formed the 
boundary between them; and the old church 
and parish of " Killabban," are on the west 
side of the river, in the barony of " Bally - 
adams" and Queen's County. From the 

situation of Killabban and of Tullamoy 
[Gulac Llam-6ui6e], and the old 
church near " Timahoe," in the same 
county, it is quite evident that the territory 
of Crioch O'm-Buidhe, or O'Muighe, is 
included in the present barony of Bally - 
adams. After the establishment of sur- 
names the chief family of this territory 
took the surname of O'Caellnidhe (now 
" Kealy" and " Kelly"), but this name is 
to be distinguished from O'Ceallaigh, of 
which name there were two respectable 
families seated in the adjoining territories 
of Gailine and Magh Druchtain. 

° The king of Gab/ial, i. e. the king 
of the province of Laighin or Leinster — 
This is still the name of a river which 
flowed through a wood called Fidli Gaibhle 
(Feegile or Figila), in the parish of Cloon- 
sast, barony of "Coolestown," King's Co. 
See the Ordnance map of the King's County, 
sheets 19, 27, 28. In the Book of Leinster, 
T. C. D., H. 2, 18, fol. 112, a., is quoted a 
poem of St. Bearchan, the patron saint of 
" Cloonsast," who states that the wood de- 
rived its name from the River Gabhal, and 
tli at the river is called Gabhal from the 
gabhal, fork, which it forms at the junction 
of Cluain Sasta and Cluain Mor. The river 
is now called Fidh Gaibhle, though the 
wood has disappeared. 

P Laeighis A tribe giving name to a 

territory in the Queen's county, descended 
from Laeighseach Ceann-mhor, the son of 
Conall Cearnach, chief of the heroes of the 
Craebh Ruadh, or Red Branch, in Ulster in 

na ^-Cectjir. 


Entitled are they to a dividend from the king of Gabhal , 
To three rings, three chess-boards:. 

Eight steeds are due to the heroic kii 
Eight fleet, quick-eyed hounds, 

of Laeiah 

the tirst century. Lughaidh Laeighseach, 

the son of Laeighseaeh Ceann-mhor, ob- 
tained this territory from the king of 
Laighin (Leinster), in the reign of the mo- 
nareli Feidlimidh Reachtmhar, for the as- 
sistance which he afforded in expelling the 
men of Munster, who had seized upon Os- 
raidhe and all the province as far as the 
ford of Ath Truistean, near the hill of Mul- 
lach Maistean (Mullaghmast). See Trans- 
lation of the Annals of " Clonmacnoise," 
by Connell Mageoghegan, and Keating's 
History of Ireland, reign of Feidhlimidh 
Reachtmhar. This territory originally 
comprised the present baronies of "East 
and West Maryborough," " Stradbally," 
and " Culleuagh," in the Queen's County. 
The churches of Disert mic Guillinn, Cluaiti 
Eidhneach, Cill Faelain, Menedroichet Ea- 
nach Truim (now Annatrim, in Upper 
' >ssory), CluainFota, and Bochluain, were 
in it. See the Irish Calendar of the 
i ►'Clerighs at 2nd January, 17th February, 
16th September, 3rd and 29th November; 
,iiid the Feilire Aenghuis, at 2nd and 
20th January, 21st February, 3rd March, 
4th April, 11th, 12th, and 20th June, 23rd 
August, 16th Sept., 6th and 13th October, 
3rd, 13th, and 20th November. And on 
the increasing power of the tribe thej at- 
tached the territories of Crioch O m-Buidhe 
and Crioch m- Bairn-lie, or the baronies 
of " Ballyadams," and " Slievemargy," so 
that modem Irish antiquaries have consi- 
dered Laeighis("Leix"or "Lesia") as co- 
extensive with the Queen's County. See 

Ussher's Primordia, pp. 818, 943. This, 
however, is a great error, for the baronies 
of " Portnahinch," and " Tinnahinch," in 
that county, were a part of Ui Failghe 
(Offaly), before the reign of Philip and 
Mary. The barony of " Upper Ossory," 
except a small portion at Annatrim, near 
Mountrath, belonged to the ancient king- 
dom of Osraidhe (Ossory), and the baronies 
of " Ballyadams" and " Slievemargy" were 
uot originally a part ofLaeighis, but be- 
longed to families of the race of the Lein- 
ster Irish monarch Cathaeir Mor. Dr. 
O'Conor mistakes the situation of this ter- 
ritory altogether. See Anna!™ Tighernaehi, 
p. 96, where he writes: " Lagisia sita erat 
ad occidentalem Lirfiei marginem, eratque 
posterioribus saeculis regio famitiae nobilis 
O'More." After the establishment of sur- 
names the chief family of Laeighis took 
the surname of O'Mordha (now called 
O'More, Moore, &c.) from Mordha ( Ma 
jestictts), the twenty-fifth in descent from 
Conall Cearnach, and this name is now- 
very numerous in Leinster. Garrett Moore, 
Esq., of Cloghan Castle, in the King's 
Comity, is supposed to be of this race, hut 
no evidence has been yet discovered to 
prove his pedigree beyond the year 10 11, 
or to show that he is of the Irish race. 
.lames O'More, of Ballina, in the county of 
Kildare, who was the contemporary and 
correspondent of Charles O'Conor of Bela- 
nagare, was the last head of this family. 
He was the lineal descendant of Rudhraidhe 
O'Mordha (Rorj or Roger O'More) oi 

216 Leabhaji 

ochc pceich im-a pcailib penna, 
ochc leanoa, occ luipeaca. 

Se h-eich o'[U]ib Cpimchanoan cmbio, 
pe Doirh j n-a n-oeaj pomal 91 , 
pe cuipn, lp beici 'n-a n-jlacaib 92 , 
pe macail, cean meapujao. 

t)eich n-eich, beich (5)-cuipn ip oeich (5)-clai6irh, 
oeich (b)-pailji, cean meapujao 
do pi h-Ua pail^i mac Carafp 
cean caehaip, — ip t>eaj polao. 

lac pin cuapipcla pt£ Caijean 
a luirin jloin map jlan copao 93 
6 aipo-pij ^aibli acup ^abpan, 
ip comlan in ceapcujao CGGTCU. 

t)0 ChlSGlS ocup do biacuib 6aijean ano po : 

1641, and died without male issue towards the establishment of surnames the chief fa- 

the close of the last century. The present mily of this territory took the surname of 

Richard More O'Ferrall, M. P., is his re- O'Duibh, which is probably that now an- 

presentative in the female line. See Me- glicized to " Deevy" and " Devoy," which 

moirs of the Life and Writings of Charles are still common in the district. 
(T Conor of Belanagare, pp. 165-168. r The king of the race of Failghe, son of 

1 Ui Criomhthannan This territory, Cathaeir, i. e. the king of the Ui Failghe, 

which was a part of Laeighis, is included or descendants of Ros Failghe, the eldest 
in the present barony of "East Marybo- son of Cathaeir Mor. See page 193, note b , 
rough," for we learn from O'h-Uidhrin's mpra. The country of their tribe was very 
topographical poem, and from the pedigrees extensive before the English invasion, for 
of the seven septs of Laeighis, given in the we have the clearest evidence to prove that 
Rooks of Leacan and Baile an Mhuta, and it comprised the present baronies of " East 
in the genealogical compilation by Dubh- and West Ophaly," in the county of Kil- 
altach Mac Firbisigh (Marquis of Droghe- dare; those of " Portnahinch" and "Tin- 
da's copy, p. 221), that it extended around nahinch," in the Queen's County ; and that 
the fortress of Dunmasc (Dunamasc). Ac- portion of the King's County, comprised 
cording to the Fetfire Aenghuis, and the in the diocese of " Kildare and Leighlin." 
Irish Calendar of the O'Clerighs, at 12th Sec Battle of Magh Rath, p. 243. The 
February, the church of Teach Daimhain churches of Cill Achaidh Droma Foda, or 
(Tidowan), was in this territory. After ('ill Achaidh Sinchill, Cluain Mor, Cluain 

ncc 5-Ceapu. 


Eight shields against which spears are shivered. 
Eight tunics, eight coats of mail. 

Six steeds to the Ui Criomhthannan q are ordained, 
Six oxen in good condition, 
Six drinking-horns to hold in their hands, 
Six matals, without mistake. 

Ten steeds, ten drinking-horns and ten swords, 
Ten rings, without mistake, 

To the king of the race of Failghe, son of Cathaeir r , 
Without reproach, — it is good profit. 

These are the stipends of the king of Laighin (Leinster), 
From a pure hand as pure profit, 
From the supreme king of Gabhal and Gabhran s , 
Very perfect is the adjustment THE EIGHT. 

OF THE TRIBUTES and refections of Laighin here: 

Fearta Mughaine, Ciiil Beamichair (Cool- 
banagher), Chain Sosta (Cloonsost), and 
Cluain-imorrois, were in this territory. See 
the Irish Calendar of the O'Clerighs, at 16th 
January, 3rd September, and 6th and 20th 
October; and the Feilire Aenghuis,a.t 29th 
and 31st March, 25th April, 25th June, 
3rd September, 6th and 20th October, and 
4th December. 

After the establishment of surnames the 
chief family of this great tribe took the sur- 
name of O'Conchobhair, Anglicd O'Conor, 
from Conchobhar, the nineteenth in descent 
from Cathaeir Mor, and remained in great 
power in the territory till the reign of Phi- 
lip and Mary, when they were dispossessed, 
after which period O'Diomasaigh, Anglice 
( ('Dempsey, became the great family of the 
race, and remained in possession of a con- 
siderable part i if Ui Failghe till the Revolu- 
tion in 1688. Shortly after the English 

invasion the Fitzgeralds of Kildare wrested 
from O'Conchobhair Failghe (O'Conor 
Faly), and his correlatives, that portion of 
his original territory of Ui Failghe which 
is comprised in the present county of Kil- 
dare. There were then two "Offalys," 
formed out of the ancient Ui Failghe, 
namely, the " English Ophaley," in the 
county of Kildare, giving the title of Baron 
to a branch of the Fitzgeralds, and the Irish 
Ui Failghe, extending into the present 
King's and Queen's counties, and giving the 
Irish title of Righ Ua bh-Failghe, or king 
of Ui Failghe (Offaly), to O'Conchobhair 
Failghe (O'Conor Faly), the senior repre- 
sentative of Ros Failghe, the eldest son of 
Cathaeir Mor, monarch of Ireland in the 
second century. 

8 King of Gabhal and Gabhran, i. e. 
king of Leinster. Gabhal and Gabhran 
being two remarkable places in Leinster, 

218 Ceccbhap 

Seache (g)-ceac bpac 6 ^(h)allaib ann po cheubup, oo chup nu 
cana pin, acup 94 peachc (5)-ceae cinbi acup peachc [(5)-ceae] cope 
acup peachc (jrj-ceae mole acup peuchc (j)-ceac oarh, [peace 
(5)-ceao bo], 6 ^(h)alluib unb pin. 

Od cheb luljach acup ceac cope acup ceao bpac 6 Popehua- 
chuib Caijean. 

Ni icaio pil Piachach, no pil TCopa Pdilji, ache biachao aiochi 
oo pij Caijean, ma eheip a n-odil ppi ^allaib paip, no ppi (h)-Llib 
Weill po ehuaio, no ppi lTlurhain po oeap. Ceo mapc, imoppo, 
acup ceao bo acup ceao cope acup ceao cinbi 6 6aep pinib a 

Od cheb bo acup pechc (£)-ceo mole acup peachc (5)-ceab 9s mapc 
acup bd ceb bpac acup od cheo bam 6 na peace (b)-PoehapcaiB. 

Seache (5)-ceae bo, [peace (£)-ceao eopc] acup peace (£)-ceao 
mole acup peachc (5)-ceab mapc 6 na peace Caijpib 6aigin mo 

Od cheo mapc acup bd chec bo acup bd ceac bpac oo Oppaibib 
[6 Oppaibib, 6 peapaib £ui jeun, B.] inb pin. 

Heimio acup upao acup unach acup polcao, imoppo, 6 chocap- 
eaib na jpdo peini 96 acd h-ipleam leo. Copcaip [imoppo] acup puu 
acup pndch oeapj acup ;$lap acup olanb pinb acup blaan acup bino- 
edn 6'n luche acd peapp oo chocapcaib. lTId ppepaie; no md 
cheachcuib mo pin od chuibeip popehu" 7 . Cach cpeap bliuoun bin 
iceap na cfpa pin anuap, ceanmocha mop-chip pi£ Gpeann ue puppa 
bipamup. Conio ooib-pin po can in pui [buuba] i. 6enen: 

COJSCl!J5, a 6aijmu na laech, 
pip in" peanchap nach pip' 19 baeeh, 
a n-blijeanb 100 do chip chalma 
pi Cualann ip comlabpa 101 . 

Seache (g)-ceae cinoi, pechc (5)-ceao cope, 

pechc (5)-ceao oum, peuchc (5)-ceuo n-oedj ririole, 

are here by bardic license put for the whole 17, note :1 , supra. 

province. See page 214, note °, and page ' King of Cualann, i. c. of Leinstei 

net 5-Ceapc. 210 

Seven hundred cloaks from the Galls here imprimis, as a beginning 
of that tribute, and seven hundred tinnes and seven hundred hogs and 
seven hundred wethers and seven hundred oxen, seven hundred cows 
from the Galls too. 

Two hundred milch cows and a hundred hogs and a hundred cloaks 
from Forthuatha Laighean. 

The race of Fiacha, or the race of Ros Failghe, do not pay aught 
except a night's refection to the king of Laighin (Leinster), if he 
should go to a meeting eastwards to the Galls, or northwards to 
the Ui Neill, or to Munster southwards. But a hundred beeves and a 
hundred cows and a hundred hogs and a hundred tinnes are rendered 
by the unfree tribes of their lands. 

Two hundred cows and seven hundred wethers and seven hundred 
beeves and two hundred cloaks and two hundred oxen from the seven 

Seven hundred cows, seven hundred hogs and seven hundred 
wethers and seven hundred beeves from the seven Laeighse of Laighin. 

Two hundred beeves and two hundred cows and two hundred cloaks 
from the Osraidhe. 

Wood and renewing (uradh) and washing and cleansing, moreover, 
are due of the cocarts of the inferior grades among them. [To supply] 
purple and ruu and red and grey thread and white wool and blaan and 
bindean is due of the best of the cocarts. If they render this [it is 
well] ; or if they neglect to do so a double proportion [is to be levied] 
upon them. Every third year the above tributes are paid, except the 
great tribute of the king of Eire as we have said above. And it was 
of these the gifted sage Benean sang : 

HEARKEN, Laighne of heroes, 
To the history that is not ever foolish, 
What noble tribute is due 
To the king of Cualann 1 is to be mentioned. 

Seven hundred tinnes, seven hundred hogs, 

Seven hundred oxen, seven hundred good wethers, 

Cualann being a part put for the whole tification of the Feara Cualann, page 13, 
province by poetic license. See the iden- note ''. supra. 

220 Leablicqi 

peachc (j)-ceac bpac ip pecc ceao bo 102 
6 chuachaib ^all a n-aen 16. 

t)a cent) do bpacaib, ni bpej, 

ceao do chopcaib, cpom in cpeao 103 , 
acup oa dear luljach luach 
6 poipb pinib na (b)-popchuach. 

Ni oleajap cip — comoll n-gloin 104 , 
6 Uib cp66a 10i Cenopealai^; 
pop a (b)-poipb' 06 pinib, nach pano, 
chaichio in 107 peap p-a' pepano. 

Cumal acup cip lp cam 
ni icaiD h-Ui pailji in aij 
oo pi Caigean, met h-uap peachc, 
ache cuid aiochi ap aioijeachc 108 . 

Ceo mapc 6 each chuaich nach olb, 
la ceao m-bo, beapap oo'n pi j, 
ceac cope acup ceac cinDi 
6 109 oamaib na oaep-pine. 

O na pocha|icaib uili 
oleajap oa cheo bo buioi 
acup oa cheo bpac cana 110 , 
oa cheo n-japg 111 6am n-gabala. 

t)d ceao mapc, lp mop in plichc, 
oa ceac bpac lp oa ceac bo blicc" 2 , 

" The territories of the Galls These tory of " Fingall," extending about fifteen 

were the possessions of the Norse or Danish miles north of Dublin. 

tribes, in the vicinity of Dublin. The ex- v Forthuatha — See page 207, note •', 

tent of their possessions is very uncertain, supra. 

and may have varied from time to time, w UiCeinnsealaigh. — See page 208, n. ", 

but it is generally believed that the Lein- supra. 

ster Danes possessed Dublin and the terri- x Ui Failghe — See page 216, note r , 

rici 5-Cecqir. 221 

Seven hundred cloaks and seven hundred cows 
From the territories of the Galls" in one day. 

Two hundred cloaks, no falsehood, 
A hundred hogs, heavy the herd, 
And two hundred lively milch-cows 
From the land of the tribes of the Forthuatha'. 

No tribute is due — a fair compact, 
From the brave Ui Ceinnsealaigh w ; 
Upon their own tribe-lands, which are not poor, 
They spend the grass and the land. 

Cumhal or rent or tribute 

The valiant Ui Failghe* do not pay 

To the king of Laighin, but, if in time of expedition, 

A night's refection on visiting. 

A hundred beeves from each district [which is] not of them, 
With a hundred cows, are given to the king, 
A hundred hogs and a hundred tinnes (salted pigs) 
From the hosts of the unfree tribes. 

From all the Fotharta y 

Are due two hundred goodly cows 
And two hundred cloaks of tribute, 
Two hundred rough oxen of the yoke. 

Two hundred beeves, great the progeny, 

Two hundred cloaks and two hundred milch-cows, 

supra. Bri Eile (Croghan), in the north-east of 

y All the Fotharta See page 211, n. J, the King's County; and Fothart Oirthir 

supra. Besides the baronies of " Forth," Life, in the now county of Wicklow ; but 

one in the county Carlow, and the other in these sank under other tribes at an early 

the county Wexford, there were other ter- period, and the probability is, that the Fo- 

ritories of the name in Leinster, as Fothart tharta of Carlow and Wexford are the 

Airbreach, around the hill of Cruachan people referred to in the text. 

222 Leabliaji 

ou cheo mole, maieh in chabaip, 
6 na 6aijnib t)eap-jabuip. 

Seache (£)-ceae bo al-Caijpib luacha, 

. peachc (5)-ceae cope cap na cuuehu 
peace (j)-ceac mapc a" 3 ITIaj £,aijean 
peachc (j)-ceac mole cap mop jaineam. 

Qc pin cip m a euaeh ^n-a ep6ib, 
oo pij Caijean 6 ^aijnib. 
ni ba pat nach 115 ploinopea in ceapc; 
lp coip oo each a cloipeeachc 116 C. 

Na 1 " saerc-chisa, piichc ao cuap, 

ie£ po paio-peam anuap, 
6 paep-clanoaib olijic 113 pin, 
bio pop peapano a n-echcaip. 

Ma oaep-clar.oa, — ofch nach ceap" 9 , 
bfo pop 120 a peapannn oileap; 
oaep-chip uaioib, ipe a pip, 
oo bpeich co ouinib 121 aipo-pij. 

lp h-e cfp oleajap oib pin 
oo chonoao lp oo nemeao m : 
upao a bpac, buan an moo, 
cip o'unao acup o'polcao 123 . 

tDleajap oo'n luce lp peapp oib 
puu 124 lp copcaip co cain 125 bpij 

z Laighne Deas-ghabhair See page the O'Clerighs, at 18th May, where it is 

194, note e, supra. stated that the church of Claenadh (Clane) 

a Laeighse See page 214, n. P, supra. in the county of Kildare, is situate "z 

See Annals of Ulster, A. D. 792. n- Uibh Faelain a Muigh Laighen," in Ui 

b Magh Laighean, i. e. campus Lagenia, Faelain in Magh Laighean. See also the 

the plain of Leinster. This is another name former at 3rd May, note on Conlaedh, Bi- 

for the territory of the Ui Faelain. See the shop of Kildare, at 3rd May ; and Annals 

Feilire Aenghuis, and the Irish Calendar of of the Four Masters at the years 998, 1091, 

na 5-Ceapn. 223 

Two hundred wethers, good the assistance, 
From the Laighne* Deas-ghabhair. 

Seven hundred cows from the quick Laeighse a , 
Seven hundred hogs over the districts, 
Seven hundred beeves from Magh Laighean 1 ', 
Seven hundred wethers over the great sand. 

Such is the tribute [paid] from the country of his tribes, 
To the king of Laighin by the Laighne (Leinstermen), 
He is not truly learned who -will not name the right; 
It is right for all to hear it HEARKEN. 

THE FREE TRIBUTES, as I have heard, 
Are they which we have above mentioned, 
Of the noble tribes these are due, 
Who are upon lands external [to the mensal lands]. 

The unfree tribes c , — a condition not oppressive, 
That are on his [the king's] own lands; 
Servile rent by them, it is the truth, 
Is to be supplied to the palaces of the chief king. 

The tribute which is due of these 
[Is] of fire-bote and wood; 

[Also] the renewing of his cloaks, constant the practice, 
A tribute in washing and in cleansing. 

There is due of the best party of them 
Ruu and purple of fine strength, 

and 1171. For the extent of the country given at full length in the Books of Leacan 

of the UiFaelain, for which Magh Laighean and Baile an Mhuta. D.Mac Firbisigh 

is here substituted as an alias name, see traces the pedigree of their king, Domhnall 

page 205, note a , supra. Ua or Mac Fearghail, to Mesincorb, son of 

c Unfree tribes The unfree tribes or Cucorb, king of Leinster, in twenty-seven 

daer-ehlanna of Leinster are not mentioned generations. This is the Domhnall Mac 

by their surnames ; but the people called Fearghail, Righ Forthuatha Laighean, who 

Forthuatha Laighean, who were not all was slain in the battle of Cluain Tarbh 

slaves, bore various surnames, which are (Clontarf). 

224 Leabhctji 

pnach oeapj, olano pinb, ni chel, 
blaan buioi acup binoean. 

Na oaep-clanoa cean oeilb'- 6 n-oll 
ceichio pe cip 6 peccant) 1 * 7 
a 6a chuibeip oleajap Gib 
na cucpao 6 n-achap chip. 

Nocho oliijeano cuaipo co cean& m 
6 pij choicio na h-Gipino 
pili nach piapapa pin 
a chfpa 'p-a chuapipcuil 1 ' 29 . 

t)lea£aio caeca lp cuaipe lp cpoo 
6 gach pij ap a piachc pon 130 
pilij nop 131 pinbpa co peib 
cuapipeol.pdp;— coipnj 132 . . COISCI^ a CCIlg. 

66N6N [ono] do 133 cacain ann po do peancup ^all Qcha 

aca sunt) secmchas, puaipe, pean 5) 

lp maich le peapaib Gipino 
p c hap Qca Cliach, ni chel, 
arhail po pacaib &enen. 

t)ia (o)-cainic chuaio a Cearhpaib 
h-ua Deocham in oeij cheajlaij 
o'Qppcal 6peacan acup 6peaj 
nip chpeic Caejaipi lanriieap. 

6ui6 oeipil 6anba buioi 

h-ua Deochain, in oedj oume, 

d The descendant of the Deacon, i. e. St. e Breagh — A part of East Meath corn- 
Patrick, recfe son of the deacon. In the prising five cantreds or baronies. Seep. 11, 
Confessio it is said : " Patrem habui Calpor- note z , stiprct. 

nium diaconum, filium quondam Potiti f Laeghaire.— According to Tireachan's 

presbvteri." Annotations on the Life of St. Patrick, the 

na 5-Ceapc. 225 

Red thread, white wool, I will not conceal it, 
Yellow blaan and binnean. 

From the nnfree tribes of ignoble countenance, 
Who fly with the rent from the land, 
Twice as much is due 
As they had carried off from their fatherland. 

Not entitled to formal visitation 
From a provincial king of Eire 
Is the poet who knows not these 
His tributes and his stipends. 

Entitled to esteem, to visitation and wealth, 
From every king to whom he goeth, 
Is the poet who knows well 
The stipend and tribute ; hear ye HEARKEN. 

Benean sang this concerning the history of the Galls (foreigners) 
of Ath Cliath (Dublin): 

THERE IS HERE A HISTORY pleasant [and] smooth, 
Which is agreeable to the men of Eire; 
The profits of Ath Cliath (Dublin) I will not conceal, 
As Benean has fixed them. 

When northwards to Teamhair (Tara) came 

The descendant (son) of the Deacon d of the goodly household, 
In the apostle of Britain and of Breagh e 
The vigorous Laeghaire f did not believe. 

Passed, right-hand- wise, by fertile Banbha (Ireland) 
The descendant (son) of the Deacon, the good man, 

monarch Laeghaire never believed in Chris- foedus pepigit ut non occideretur in regno 
tianity, but he permitted Patrick to preach illius ; sed non potuit credere, dicens, 
the Gospel. The passage is as follows : ' Nam Neel pater meus non sinivit mihi 
" Perrexit ad civitatern Temro, ad Loiga- credere, sed ut sepeliar in cacuminibus 
rium, filium Neill, iterum quia apud ilium Temro quasi viris consistentibus in bello : 


22 6 


co (o)-copach m Dim na n-^jall n-jlcm 
do chobaip clano mac TTIileao. 

lp h-e pa" 6 pij a n-Gch Cliach cpuaio, 
oia (o)-camic pdopaic a euaio, 
Qilpin mac Goilachaij' 37 
oo cloinb t)omnaill T3ub-6amai£. 

Qn la cainic co h-Gch Cliach 

Paopaic ITIacha na mop [p]iacli" 8 , 
lp ano pop puc bdp ba^ach 
aen mac Gilpin imnapach. 

Gonabap co h-ua n-Deochain 119 
aen mac pi£ ^jall, gaipg Gochaio, 

quia utuntur gentiles in sepulehris armati 
prumptis arm is facie ad faciam usque ad 
diem Erdathe apud Magos, i. e.judicii diem 
Domini." — Book of Armagh, fol. 10, a. 2. 

S Fort of the foreigners This is in- 
tended to denote Dun Duibh-linne, the fort 
of the black pool (Dublin). 

h Ailpin, the son of Eolathach, of the 
race of Domhnatt Dubh-dhamhach No- 
thing has been discovered in the authentic 
Irish Annals to show that there was ever 
such a king at Dublin. The names here 
mentioned are not Norse ones, and it seems 
quite certain that the Northmen never at- 
tempted to make any settlement in Ireland 
before the reign of Donnchadh, son of 
Domhnall, A. D. 794 (795), when, ac- 
cording to the Annals of Ulster, they made 
the first descent on the island of Reach- 
rainn, off the north-east coast of Ireland 
We learn from Irish history that Tuathal 
Teachtmhar, monarch of Ireland in the se- 
cond century, married the daughter of Seal 
Balbh, king of Finland, and that Una, 
Danish princess, was the mother of Conn 

of the Hundred Battles. See O'Flaherty's 
Ogygia, part iii. cc. 56, 60, but no refer- 
ence is made to a Norwegian colony being 
settled in Ireland in any other authority 
except this and Jocelin's Life of St. Pa- 
trick. No authority has been found in either 
the Scandinavian or Irish histories, annals, 
or sagas to suggest that they had any set- 
tlement on this part of the coast in or near 
Dublin before the year 836, when they en- 
tered the Boinn (Boyne) with a fleet of 
sixty sail, and the Life (Liffey) with ano- 
ther fleet of sixty sail, and plundered the 
plains of Magh Breagh and Magh Life, 
and in the same year established a colony 
at Ath Cliath or Dublin. Nor were they 
converted to Christianity till about the 
year 948. See Ware's works, vol. v. cap. 
69, p. 60. Jocelin, in his Life of St. Pa- 
trick, states that the Irish apostle depart- 
ing from the borders of Midhe (Meath), 
directed his steps towards Laighin (Lein- 
ster), and having passed the River Finglas, 
came to a certain hill almost a mile distant 
from Ath Cliath, and, casting his eyes 

na 5-Ceajic. 


Until he reached the fort of the fine Galls (foreigners 5 ) 
To relieve the race of the sons of Mileadh (Milesius). 

He who was king of hardy Ath Cliath, 

When Patrick came from the north [from Teamhair], 

Was Ailpin, son of Eolathach, 

Of the race of Domhnall Dubh-dhamhach' 1 . 

The day on which at Ath Cliath arrived 
Patrick of Macha 1 of great revenues, 
On the same [day] cruel death had taken off 
The only son of valorous Ailpin. 

They brought to the descendant (son) of the Deacon 

The only son of the king of the Galls (foreigners), the fierce 

round the place and the circumjacent 
country, he is said to have pronounced this 
prophecy : " Pagus iste nunc exiguus, exi- 
mius erit ; divitiis et dignitate dilatabitur : 
nee crescere cessabit, donee in regni solium 
sublimetur." But this gatherer and beau- 
tifier of the popular legends respecting 
St. Patrick soon forgets himself (or his 
work has been unfairly interpolated by 
some modern scribes to serve a purpose), 
for in the next chapter but one he, in 
fabling language, introduces St. Patrick 
into the noble city of Dublin, which had 
been built by the Norwegians, (Norwagia 
ct insularum populis), and which was then 
governed by a king, Alpinus, the son 
of Eochadh, from whose daughter Dub- 
linia, forsooth, the city took its name. 
See Ussher's Primordia, pp. 861, 862; and 
Harris's History of the City of Dublin, 
p. 6. This is evidently the story which is 
said in the prose text to be taken from the 
Psalter of Caiseal, and for which the autho- 

rity of St. Benean is there alleged, but which 
cannot be as old as the year 836, when the 
Northmen first settled in Dublin. The old 
lives of St. Patrick state that he proceeded 
from Meath to Naas, which was then the 
residence of the kings of Leinster, and this 
is evidently the truth, as appears from the 
whole stream of Irish history. Dr. Lanigan 
thinks that this fable of the conversion of 
Ailpin, king of the Norwegians of Dublin, 
by St. Patrick, " was undoubtedly fabri- 
cated at Armagh," and that "either Joce- 
lin was induced, in compliment to his pa- 
tron, the Archbishop Thomas, to insert it in 
his book, or that it was foisted by some 
other hand into his MS." — Eccl. Hist. 
Ireland, vol. i. pp. 275, 276. 

' Of Macha, i. e. of Ard Macha (Armagh). 

J Eochaidh. — This name is Irish, and 
denotes, eques, horseman. The Scandina- 
vian nations had no such name. See Col- 
gan, Trias Thaum., page 563, note 4; and 
Acta Sanctorum, page 114, note 3. 


228 Uabliap 

Diu chpdb aeup oia cheljao, — 
bo'n Gppoal pob lmbeap^ao. 

" t)d 140 (o)-cuccd anmain anb pm, 
a cleipij chdio, churhaccaij, 
plechcpab duid 'c-on (5)-Coill Cheanaino, 
plechcpaio ^aill in jlaip peapainb." 

<Lvn6 i n-a oeipil po cp? 
in c-Gppoal lp a' c-dipo-pi j, 
co pa epij 'n-a beachaiD 141 
peinoij dlainb, dipo Gchaio. 

Qp pin aonaoap 142 do in ploj 

pcpepall each pip, unja o'op, — 
unja cacha ppona ap pin 143 , — 
lp pcpeball dip each en pip. 

"Upt h-uingi pop pdebao 144 call 

bo'n chain a n-jappbaib na n-^all, 
aipccheap po cpl ino Gch Cliach 
6 ^(h)aemelaib na n-gall pciach. 

"TDia nam copa in each bliabain 
in chdin-pea lib 6 domain 
nocho n-pecpab' 45 pip chalrhan 
bdp n-oun-pi oo bichpojlab. 

" C(n oun acdic co bpeaiinain, — 
no pceapa pe ouib-Deamain 146 , — 
bib h-e in cpeap cine, nach cim, 
biap pd oeipeao l n-Gpinb. 

k Colli Cheanainn, i. e. Ceanann's wood. Petrie's Inquiry into the Origin and Uses 

This has not been identified. of the Round Towers of Ireland, pp. 214, 

1 Screapall, a coin used by the ancient 215. 

Irish, which weighed twenty-four grains, ni Liamhain — This, which was other- 

and was of the value of three pence. See wise called Dun Liamhna, wa.s the name 

na 5-Cecqic. 229 

To annoy and entrap him [i. e. the Apostle], — 
To the Apostle it was a reproach. 

" If thou shouldst bring a soul into him, 

cleric pure [and] powerful, 

1 will submit to thee at Coill Cheanainn k , 

[And] the Galls of the green land shall submit to thee." 

They went round him thrice, right-hand-wise, 
The Apostle and the high king, 
So that he rose up in his life (into life) 
The comely hero, the noble Eochaidh. 

Hereupon the host brought to him 

A screapall 1 for each man, an ounce of gold, — 
An ounce for each nose besides, — 
And a screapall of gold for each man. 

" The three ounces which were imposed yonder 

As tribute in the courts of the Galls, [for it 

[If these be not paid] thrice shall Ath Cliath be plundered 
By the Gaeidhil of the foreign shields. 

" If in every year be rendered 

This tribute by you out of Liamhain m , 
The men of earth shall not be able 
To plunder (or destroy) your fortress. 

" The fortress in which they fiercely dwell, — 
Which was separated from the black demons, — 
Shall be the third fire n , without debility, 
Which shall be at the last in Eire. 

of one of the palaces of the kings of Lein- foreigners had possession of this place at 

ster. It is the present " Dunlavan," in the time of the writing of this poem. Sep 

the west of the county of Wicklow. See page 203, note x , supra. 

Circuit ofMuircheartach Mac Neill, p. 36, " The thud Jin-, i. e. the last inhabited 

note 59. From this it would appear that the place but two. 

230 Leablmp 

11 pdcbaim popa na chuili 147 
buaio m-ban ap a m-ban-cuipi, 
buaib ap a n-'gallaib jlana, 
buaio n-ailli ap a n-injeana. 

" 6uai6 pnama ap macaib a m-ban, 
buaio cocaib lp buaio corhporh, 
buaio oia n-alraiB conna 148 
lm luao chopn lp chomola. 

" 6uai6 pij chaibchi i n-Qch Cliath cpuaio, 
buaio n-arhaip, buaib n-6claio uaio, 
buaio caoupa ^n-a chellaib, 
buaio n-apaip lp naimchenoaij. 

" Qn oun ap tainic a ruaio, 
na poib ap a pij po buaio 149 ; 
lp mop jallachc a jaili 140 
mo mallacc ap Caejaipi." 

lp oe nach bia pith na n-^all 
pe pij TTliDi na mop luno 141 , 
icip Uheamaip lp 6iamam 
cean bebaio each en bliaoain. 

Its chinches. — This shows that the making St. Patrick pronounce a blessing 

poem was composed after the conversion on their fortress, at the same time that lie 

of the Galls to Christianity. Ware says pronounced a malediction against the for- 

that the Danes were converted to the tress of the Irish monarchs. But there is 

Christian faith in the reign of their king no authority in the ancient Lives of St. Pa- 

Godfrid, the son of Sitric, about the year trick, preserved in the Book of Armagh, 

948; see his Antiquities, Ed. 1705, pp. 61, or those published by Colgan, to show 

62. The chinches whose erection is usually that he ever cursed Teamhair or Tara ; 

ascribed to them are Mary's Abbey, St. that was reserved for Saint Ruadhan of 

Audoen's, and Christ's Church. Lothra (Rodanus of Lorha), the son of 

p The fort, fyc, i. e. Teamhair. Fearghus Birn, son of Eochaidh, son of 

'i My curse upon Leaghaire Here it Deardubh, son of Daire Cearba, son of 

is evident that this particular poem was Oilioll Flann-beag, son of Fiacha Muillea- 

tomposed to natter the Galls of Dublin by than, son ofEoghan Mor, son of Oiliol 

na 5-Ceapr. 231 

"I leave, upon them, all [tiiese privileges, graces, or gifts], 
Gift of [being good] wives upon their female hands. 
Gii't [of being good husbands] upon their fine Galls, 
Gift of beauty upon their damsels. 

" Gift of swimming upon the sons of their wives, 
Gift of war and success of trophies, 
Gift to their abundant houses 
Of the quick circulation of drinking-horns and drinking. 

" Gift of [good] kings for ever in hardy Ath Cliath, 
Gift of hired soldiers, gift of native soldiers, 
Gift of veneration in its churches , 
Gift of habitation and commerce. 

" The fort p whence I came from the north, 
May great success not be on its kings ; 
[Though] great is the fame of his valor 
My curse upon LaeghaireV 

It is from this [curse] that the peace of the Galls 

Shall not be with the king of Midhe of the great swords, 
Between Teamhair and Liamhain 
There shall be a battle every year r . 

Olum, king of Minister ; and itis strongly nain, when the enmity between the races 
to be suspected that this poem, or, at all of Oilioll Olum and of Niall of the Nine 
events, the present form of the poem, was Hostages was at its height : ami the holy 
fabricated in Minister, with a view to les- Cormac lost his life in a battle which he 
sen the dignity of the Nepotes Neill, by hazarded at Bealach Mughna, in Magh 
making St. Patrick curse their king and Ailbhe, with Flann Sionna, monarch of Ire- 
palace, while he blessed the king of the land, and head of the southern Ui Neill. 
foreigners of Dublin and their city. No Sit the Introduction. 
opportunity is lost sight of to give this r There sliull be a battle — This is a 

gnat race of Niall a stain. It is probable quasi prophecy introduced after tl vent 

that this poem and others, and possibly had occurred. It looks a strange result of 

the whole work, were produced at Caiseal, the (supposed) curse of Teamhair and the 

during the roign of Cormac Mac Cuilean- ble sing of Ath Cliath by the Irish apostle. 

232 teabhap 

li-e pin peanchap Gcha Cliach 
inoipim oaib cap ceanb pjach ; 
biaio ll-lebpaib co bpach m-bpap 
map aza puno 'p-a peanchap QCQ SUNt). 

s The history of Ath Cliath — See the and the tradition which it purports to 
question as to the authority of this poem, record as to St. Patrick's visit to Dub- 

na 5-Ceajir. 233 

That is the history of Ath Cliath 5 , 

I relate [it] to you in discharge of a debt ; 

In books till the day of judgment it shall be 

As it is here, in the history THERE IS HERE. 

1 in, and the Galls or foreigners supposed to the Editor in the Introduction to this 
be then resident there, fully discussed by work. 

234 Lecibhap 

vi. 6eaNNacnu phaORUi^ a^us cearcu ret'o^b 
ei^eaNH a O-ueamhrcaifth. 

pauRicius [haNC] 6ewet)icciONem preo ha&i- 

CaUOR16U8 hl66RNia INSOCa DeiDlC; con.o ao beapc 
Paopaic anb p o : 

« 6eaNt>achc oe FO paib uiii 

peapaib Gpeann, macaib, mnaib, 
pceo mjeanaib, — plaich beanoacc, 
bal 1 beanoacc, buan beanoacc. 
plan beanoacc, pap beanoacc, 
pip beannacc, beannacc niriie, 
nel benoacc, beanoacc mapa, 
mepc beanoacc, beanoacc chip), 
copao beanoacc, beanoacc opuchca, 
beannacc aici 4 , beanoacc jaili, 
beanoacc jaipcio, beanoacc gochu, 
beanoacc gnima, beanoacc opoan, 
bennacc aine popatb uili 
laechaib, cleipchib, cein 3 popcongpaio 

beannacc peap nirhe, 
lp mo ebepc op bich beannacc." . . . 6GNOQCU. 

Mi olij cuaipo a (5)-cuiceao 1 n-Gpinn [in] pill nuc piapapa cip 
acup cuapipcail 4 in cuiceao pin, ariiail ac 5 beapc t)ubcac mac h-Lli 
Cujaip 6 po. 

•' Dubhtkach Mac Ui Lughair. — He or Tara. lie was the instructor of Fiech, 
was chief poet of Ireland, and the first who afterwards became Bishop of Sleibhte 
convert made by St Patrick at Teamhair (Sletty or Sleaty), near Carlow. Colgan 

net 5-Ceapc. 235 


R1BUS HIBERNI^E INSULA DEDIT ; and Patrick said this : 

" THE BLESSING OF GOD upon you all, 
Men of Eire, sons, women, 
And daughters; prince-blessing, 
Good blessing, perpetual blessing, 
Full blessing, superlative blessing, 
Eternal blessing, the blessing of heaven, 
Cloud-blessing, sea- blessing, 
Fruit-blessing, land-blessing, 
Produce- blessing, dew-blessing, 
Blessing of the elements, blessing of prowess, 
Blessing of chivalry, blessing of voice, 
Blessing of deeds, blessing of magnificence. 
Blessing of happiness, be upon you all, 
Laics, clerics, while I command 
The blessing of the men of heaven, 
It is my bequest, as it is a perpetual blessing." THE BLESSING. 

No poet is entitled to visitation of a province in Eire, who does not 
know the tribute and stipend of that province, as Dubhthach Mac Ui 
Lughair a said here. 

says that lie had in his possession some of tant penes me diversa hujus inter suos 
the poems composed by this Dubhthach. Celebris viri opuscula, alibi saepius ci- 
— See Trias Thaum., p. 8, n. 5. "Ex- tanda." St. Patrick called at the house of 

236 teabhap 

NI Df,l£> cuaipc no ceunbai^euchc, 

dp ni pili^ pip-eolach 
1 (b)-peibm eolaip llchpochaij, 
menib co peij peapapa 
cipa ceanba lp cuapipcla 

copbao uili eipneioe 
lap n-upb 7 eolaip llclanoaij 

6 chopach co oeij. 
Ni olij cuaipc a (5)-cain choiceao 
do choiceaoaib cloch 5anba, 
map 8 lmchuaipc en cuaichi, — 
iriao oia (b)-pea£chap 9 pipinbi, — . 
pilij nach opon oeachpaijpeap 
pochap, oochap oilmaine 
bpechc each chipi chic: 
ip ano lp pat 10 peanchaoa 
in can leajap lepjnirha 

mopi Grhip" uaip. 

lp ano ip ail ollavhan, 

arhail oil cean inopcuchao, 
in can cuiceap cuapipcla 
la cipa cean chunncobaipe, 

conup uili inoippea 

in each aipeachc apb: 
napab poicheach pean apuipe, 
up chpob na ap chcupo-pine 1 -, 
uip ni plumopea pean bpecha 
peap co (g)-copup, coinbipcle : 
nipab napach noipeaoach 
ap rhiab na ap rhop aicme, 
menip 13 pariilaib paimjeup 14 — 

a pocap ni blij. HI [0£l£}.] 

this poet, who resided in Ui Ceinseallaigh, pal dignity. See Ir. Gram, by J. O'Dono- 

near the present town of Carlow, when the van, App. II., p. 437, where the account 

latter recommended his disciple Fiech as a of the meeting of Patrick and Fiaeh is 

person iitted to lie promoted to the episco- given from the Annotations of Tireachon, 

ncc 5-Ceapc. 237 

NO ONE IS ENTITLED to visitation or sale [of his poems], 

For he is not a truly learned poet 

In the vise of various kinds of knowledge, 

Unless he knows distinctly 

The ample tributes and stipends 

That may all be rendered 

According to their various modes of distribution 

From beginning to end. 

Not entitled to visitation in any fair province 

Of the provinces of famous Banbha, 

Nor to the circuit of any chieftainry, — 

If justice be observed, — 

Is any poet who will not directly distinguish 

The advantages, the disadvantages of the dignity 

Of his poems in each territory he enters : 

When he is a learned historian, 

It is when he has read all the actions 

Of the isle of noble Eibhear b . 

It is then he is a rock of an ollamh, 

Like a rock immoveable, 

When he comprehends the stipends 

And the tributes without doubt, 

So that he can recite them all 

In each noble meeting : 

Let him not be an old rusty vessel 

Influenced by Avealth or friendship, 

For, exploded judgments should not be pronounced 

By a man of justice and mercy: 

He shall not be able to bind usages 

On the great or noble tribe, 

Unless thus he variously distinguishes — 

To his emoluments he is not entitled. NO ONE IS ENTITLED. 

and compared with the Tripartite Life as b Isle of noble Eibhear, i. e. Eire of 

published by Colgan. As to this rithlearg Ireland. Eibhear was the eldest son or 

see Battle of Magh Rath, p. 154, and p. 192, Mileadh or Milesius, and the ancestor of the 

n. a , supra. dominant families of Munster. 

238 Leabhcqi 

[Conio ap na cuapapclaib pin anuap ajup ap na cipaib po cacain 
6enean hoc capmen ur Ppalcepium Caipil oycic] : 

ceaniaiR, ceach a m -bi m ac, 

popao 15 na laech a £iach-opuim, 
acd lim-pa oo rhebaip 
a n-oipi bo oeij-peapaib 16 . 

Cach pi jebup Uearhaip rheano' 7 , 
acup ceachcbup lach n-6peano ,s! , 
ipe apa'pe oib uile 
oo pluaj 6anba bapp-buioi' 9 . 

ffldo pij oileap oo Uheurhaip 
bup oeach 20 oo na oeij-peapaib 
jiallao cach co puici 21 a cheach 
oo'n pij pip-en, pip-bpeacac. 

t)leajap oe-porii 22 peip na plo£ 
ace co (o)-clpao 'n-a chinol, 
oleajap oib-peom jeill" cach pip 
ace co (o)-cipao co Ceaii.aip 24 C 

UeamCllTC nocho oip oo-pon 
minba peanchaio pdp popaio 25 , 
co n-inoipeao o'd puipi 20 
cuapipcal cuch aen ouine. 

Hd capoao cap ceapc co neach, 
co nach puca 27 pein gu bpearh ; 
nd oeancap oebaio 'n-a chij, 
odij ip jfeip mop o'd jeapaib- s . 

Co nach oedpna cocao coin, 
pe ploj'- 9 choicio Choncobaip, 

'Liath-druim, one of the names of the hill d The province of Conchobhar, i. e. of 

of Teamhair (Tara). See p. 144, n. l , supra. Uladh or Ulster, so called from Conchobhar 

net 5-Ceanc. 239 

And it was concerning these stipends and tributes following Be- 
nean sang this song, as the Psalter of Caiseal has said: 

TEAMHAIR, THE HOUSE in which resided the son of Conn, 
The seat of the heroes on Liath-druim c , 
I have in memory 
Their stipends to the chieftains. 

Every king who occupies strong Teamhair, 
And possesses the land of Eire, 
He is the noblest among all 
The hosts of Banbha the fertile. 

If he be a rightful king of Teamhair 
It is right for the chiefs 

To make each of them submission even at his house 
To the just and justly-judging king. 

It is due of him to acknowledge the hosts 
When they come into his assembly, 
It is due of them to give hostages each man 
When they come to Teamhair TEAMHAIR. 

TEAMHAIR is not due to him 

Unless he be a very intelligent historian, 
So that he may tell his chieftains 
The stipend of every person. 

That he may not give beyond right to any one, 
That he himself may not pass a false sentence; 
That no quarrel take place in his house, 
For that is the great restriction of his restrictions. 

That he may not wage fierce war 

With the host of the province of Conchobhar d , 

Mae Neassa, king of that province, under rished about the period of the birth of 
whom the heroes of the Red Branch flou- Christ. 

240 Ceabhap 

na palrhaijcheap Uearhaip 6e 
do chocao clanb TCuopaibi. 

tDlijio beich 1 (o)-Ueavhpaio 30 chpem 
acup each ic a oijpeip, 
mene epji pein pe 301I 31 
ao piapaio Go a chuiceaoaij. 

t)cigit) rcig utao eamwa 

pleab 06 each peachcrhao Sarhna 

lp a cup 06 cean gainoi 

co bpui £,inbi 6uaichpinbi 32 . 

TTleo na pleibi a oeapap ano 33 

00 pi Cearhpa na (b)-cpean lano 34 
ba oabaio oec each leanoa, 
co n-a puipeac 35 pip-jpeama. 

t)ul co Cearhpaio 'n-a oeajaib 
'n-a chinol 36 bo beij-peapaib; 
inomop 061b ap a n-aipceap 37 
co (b)-pinbcaip 38 a (o)-cuapipcal. 

t)lijib pi Gathna THacha, 
boij nocho mac miblaca 39 , 
gach plaich jebup jopc n-jaine 
noch pa h-olc bo a 40 porhaine. 

OI1516 41 leach in ciji [ce] 
in ploj* 2 pin ©arhna lTlaichi, 
acup gabaio, — nf claen linb, 
ceipc-leach 43 ap aen pe 44 h-6ipino. 

Pin bo oail poppo 45 a (b)-Uearhpaio 
co 46 meaoaijeab a meanmain; 

' Sows of Rudhraidhe These were the Eudhraidhe was monarch of Ireland, A. M. 

ancient inhabitants of Uladh or Ulster. 3 84 5, according to O'Flaherty's Chronology. 

net 5-Ceccjic. 241 

That Teamhair be never wasted 

By war with the sons of Rudhraidhe e . 

It is his right to be at mighty Teamhair 
And all to him obedient ; 
If he himself break not his faith 
His provincialists to him are obedient. 


To make him a feast every seventh Samhain [Allhallows] 
And that to be sent by him without scantiness 
To the margin of Linn Luaithrinne 8 . 

The extent of the feast here mentioned 

To the king of Teamhair of the mighty swords [is] . 
Twelve vats of each [kind of] ale, 
With a suitable quantity of best viands. 

[He is] to go to Teamhair after it 
With his assemblage of chieftains ; 
Wealth [is to be given] to them for their journey 
In coming to know their stipends. 

Entitled is the king of Eamhain Mhacha [to gifts], 
For he is not one who will fail of his succession, 
[And] every king who succeeds to a rightful inheritance 
Shall receive no despicable gifts. 

Entitled to half the warm house 
Is that host of Eamhain Mhacha, 
And they take, — it is no partiality of our's, 
The exact half fff [of the house] along with [the rest of] Eire. 

Wine is to be dealt out to them at Teamhair 
Until their spirits are increased ; 

1 Eamhain See p. 22, 11. ', supra, plied to a part of the Boinn (Boyne). 

"Linn Lnuit/ninne, i.e. " pool of the fff Exact half, i.e. as large a share oi 

whirling ;" not identified, but probably ap- the house as all the rest of the men of Eire. 

242 Ceabhaji 

cuipn bpeca co n-a m-beanbaib, 
poipni co n-a (b)-pichchillaib 47 . 

Coim leichio a h-aiochi 49 6'op 
oo'n pi bipeagpa, oirhop, 
bd ceac bo acup oa cheat) ech, 
bd ceao capbab, — ni claen bpech. 

t)d luing bee ap coblach com 49 
6 pi Ueampa co (o)-rpeapaib 
a (5)-cup oo rhacaib placha 
0615 lp conjaib inb lacha 50 . 

Oa pleij bee ap a m-bia nerii, 
ba claioeam beg map ealrain 51 , 
oa ebach bee each oacha 
pa chomaip mac n-dpb-placha. 

Roja cochmaipe a (b)-Ceampaio 
00 pijnaib co po 52 menmain 
a cobaipe bo, ace co (o)-coja M 
ma bd poib a n-aencuma 54 . 

Comaipci jaei oeipg bdmaib 
bo pij Lilac llbdjaij; 
od poib a (D)-Ceampaio na (o)-cop 
nd 1dm neach a pdpugao. 

S Clothes of every color According to " Hoc item rege, vestes rubeo camileoque 

Keating's History of Ireland one color was colore infici eceperunt, et ad amictus varia 

used in the dress of a slave, two colors in ornamentorum genera artiticum manibus 

that of a plebeian, three in that of a soldier addi. Idem insuper instituit, ut plebeio- 

or young lord, four in that of a brughaidh nun et infimi ordinis hominum indumentis 

or public victualler, five in that of a lord unicus duntaxat inesset color, gregariorum 

of a tuath or cantred, and six in that of autem militum vestimenta duobus colori- 

an ollamh or chief professor of any of the bus ; nobilium Ephaborum tribus ; locu- 

liberal arts, and in that of the king and pletum villicorum quatuor ; tetrarchorum 

queen See Keating's History of Ireland, quinque ; eruditorum denique, Regurn et 

Haliday's edition, p. 322. The passage Reginarum, sex colorum varietate distin- 

is translated by Dr. Lynch as follows: guerentur." 

ncc 5-Ceajiu. 243 

Variegated drinking-horns with their peaks, 
Sets [of chessmen] Avith their chess-boards. 

The full breadth of his face, of gold, 
To the great, matchless king, 
Two hundred cows and two hundred steeds, 
Two hundred chariots, — no partial decision. 

Twelve ships of the fleet of war 

From the king of Teamhair of battles 
[Are] to be sent for the sons of the chieftains 
Because they are acceptable presents. 

Twelve lances on which there is poison, 
Twelve swords with razor edges, 
Twelve suits of clothes of every color 8 
For the use of the sons of the great chieftains. 

A choice of courtship at Teamhair 
Of princesses of highest minds 
[Is] to be given to himii, but so as he selects her 
If she (the princess) be unmarried. 

The protection of the red-hot javelin is given 
To the king of many-battled Uladh; [i. e.] 
If he be at Teamhair of lords 
That no one dare dishonor him'. 

h To be given to him, i. e. in marriage. it must be considered that marriage, ac- 

Aecording to the traditions at Taillte (Tell- cording to the rites and ceremonies of the 

town in Meath) all the marriages which ancient Irish Church, is intended by the 

took place in the kingdom were celebrated words in the text. 

there in Pagan times, but the contract ' That no one dare dishonor him, i. e. that 

lasted for twelve months only, at the expi- n o one violate his privileges. The word 

ration of which the parties might separate pdpujao is translated " dishonorare" by 

if they pleased. The Editor, however, has the original compiler of the Annals of Ulster, 

never been able to test the truth of this See Pinkerton's extracts from those Annals 

tradition by any written evidence. At the in his Inquiry into the History of Scotland, 

period to which this poem refers, the Chris- where he remarks that this word is pecu- 

tian religion prevailed in the country, and liarly Irish. For the various authorities 


244 (.eabhaji 

^aileanja po chip a each"; 

F'P 6peaj pa [p]6ipnib a ech i6 ; 

oa poib a 57 (b)-UeariipaiD chuachaib 

po peap lp b'a pip chuachaib. 

Q chuibpinb a (b)-eij Uhearhpa, 
copaioi bo mop 59 rhenma 
cpi pichic mape, pichi muc, 
pichi cinbi co cpean luce. 

Pichi glac lopa, bap lim, 
pichi uj pailinb poipinb 59 , 
pichi cliab 1 n-a m-biao beich Go , 
lp a (b)-cobaipc bo ap en leir. 

Ni olijeano ace mab pine 
6 pij Ceariipa conn-jlaine 61 
acup a beipim po 6t 
nt h-inanb pin ip nerhchni 62 . 

Qp pin ceib poirhe o'a chij 03 
pig Cuailjni cup na cacaib 64 ; 
lap n-aipipim a aipcep 
bo pogail 65 a ruapapcail. 

Oo pi "Racha TTloip TTluiji 
0I1516 po chpub, pijpaibi; 
ocnj 66 ipe ip uaiple aipceap 
ip ap cupca cuapipcol 67 . 

DI1516 — ce [pjiappaibib 69 pin? 
tninba h-e bup pi ap Uleaib 69 , 

which prove the exact meaning of the as if he were a naming sword or javelin ; 

word, see the Editor's translation of the and, therefore, any who sought his protec- 

second part of the Annals of the Four Mas- tion were absolutely safe, 
ters, note e under the year 1537, p. 1446. i Gaileanga — See p. 188, n. v , supra. 

The protection of the red-hot javelin means k Breagh See page 11, note z , and 

that the king of Uladh was as untouchable page 178, note a , supra. 

ncc 5-Ceapr. 245 

The GaileangaJ [shall be] under rent [for the support] of his 
steeds ; 
The men of Breagh k under the troops of his horsemen ; 
If he be at Teamhair of tribes 
It is known that these are of his true territories. 

His portion in the house of Teamhair, 

Wherefor he should be of great cheerfulness, 

[Is] three score beeves, twenty pigs, 

Twenty tinnes (salted pigs) for his mighty people (the Ullta). 

Twenty handfuls of leeks, methinks, 
Twenty eggs of gulls along with them, 
Twenty baskets (hives) in which are bees, 
And all to be given to him together. 

He is entitled only to that 

From the king of fair- surfaced Teamhair ; 
And I say it twice (i. e. emphatically), 
That is not the same as nothing. 

Then forward to his mansion goeth 

The king of Cuailghne 1 with the battalions ; 
[And] after resting from his journey 
To distribute his stipends. 

To the king of Eath Mor Muighe m 
Is due great [and] kingly wealth ; 
For he is of the noblest on the journey 
And the first who receives his stipend. 

Entitled is he — shall any ask it? 

Unless he be king over the men of Uladh, 

1 King of Cuuilgline, i. e. of Uladh or Louth. See p. 21, note r , sitpm. 

Ulster, from Cuailghne, the remarkable m RathMuighe, i.e. (lie king of Magli 

chain of mountains of that name in the Line, in which the chief residence was 

ancient Uladh, though now a part of mo- called Rath Mor Muighe Line. See page 

iern Leinster, in the north of the county of 170, note \ suprci. 

246 Cectbhap 

ochc m-bpuic oacha acup oa lumg 
co poach n-jel ap gach n-jualaino, 

Pichchill acup bpanoub ban 

ochc (5)-cuipn acup ochc (5)-copam, 
occ milchom acup ochc n-eich 
acup ochc pleaja ap ein-leich 70 . 

Dlijio pi lTluiji Coba 71 

na n-apm n-eaopom, n-imcana 
ochc 72 milchoin acup ochc 72 n-eich 
acup ochc n-jabpa a\\ glan peich 73 . 

OI1516 Gojan pluaijeao leip, 
acup Conall cean eipleip, 
paip nocho n-pellaio a n-oail 74 , 
ipeo bleajaio Beich o'aen laim. 

t)bjiD pi Qipjjall 75 a each 

cap ceano a ^lall, — ni ju bpeac, 
acup oli 516 Conall cam 
puioi each ou ap a belaib 76 . 

DI1516 pi h-Ua m-6pium miabach 
a each Ppanjcach pip rhiaoach: 
0I1516 pi Conmaicne coin 
each acup poja n-eoaij 77 . 

" Magh Cobha As to this plain see possessed the greater part of what now 

the note on Cobha, page 165, n. h , supra, forms the county of Donegal. See p. 34, 

and see the Editor's translation of the An- n. ■', supra. 

nals of the Four Masters, note 1, under the lOirghialla — See pp. 134, 140, note P, 

year 1188, and note ", under the year 1252, supra. 

p. 344. r Ui Briuin — There was a tribe and 

Eoghan, i. e. the Cineal Eoghain or territory of this name in Ulster in St. Pa- 
race of Eoghan, son of Niall of the Nine trick's time, as we learn from the Tripartite 
Hostages, who possessed a great part of Life of St. Patrick, published by Colgan, 
Ulster at this period. See p. 34, n. B , supra. part iii. c. i Trias Thaum., p. 149 ; and 

p Conall, i. e. of the Cineal Chonaill, or Colgan thinks that the region so called in 

race of Conall Gulban, who at this period St. Patrick's time, was styled Muintir- 

na 5-Ceapc. 247 

To eight colored cloaks and two ships, 
With a bright shield on each shoulder. 

To a chess-board and white chess-men, 
Eight drinking-horns and eight cups, 
Eight greyhounds and eight steeds 
And eight lances, together. 

Entitled is the king of Magh Cobha" 
Of the light and thin-edged weapons 
To eight greyhounds and eight steeds 
And eight mares in fine running order. 

Eoghan is bound to go on a hosting with him, 
And ConallP without neglect, 

Against him they shall not act treacherously at the meeting, 
They are bound to be of one hand (i. e. of one mind). 

Entitled is the king of Oirghialla^ to his steed 
On account of his hostages, — it is no false award, 
And the mild Conall is entitled 
To sit at every place before his face (i. e. in front of him). 

Entitled is the king of the noble Ui Briuin r 
To his truly noble French steed: 
Entitled is the king of the fair Conmaicne s 
To a steed and choice raiment. 

Birn in his own time. His note is as fol- sarum regionum Connacia?, quae Hi-Bruinise 

lows: priscis temporibus nominabantur, et aliquse 

•til regionem, qua Aquilonaris Hi- ex eis respect u hujus sunt Australes, alias 

Briuin appellator, e. i. Videtur esse regio Occidentales." — Trias Thaum., page 184. 

Dioecesis Ardmachanae in Tir-eoguin, quo Muintir-Birn, the territory bore referred to 

vulgd Minuter Bim appellator: et noinen by Colgan, is shown on an old map of 

illud sortita a Bruino rilio Muredachi Meitk, Ulster preserved in the State Papers < Mi ice, 

tilii Imchadii, tilii Colke Dachrioch. Pos- as situate in the barony of " Dungan- 

teri enim hujus Collae, postea Orgiellii dicti non" in Tyrone, and separated from the 

late in isto tractu tempore Patrick domina- territory of " Trough," by the Riyer Black- 

bantur. Diciturautemhsec regio Hi-Bruinia water. 

Aquilonaris a comparatione aliarum diver- s Conmaicne This was evidently the 

248 Leabhcqi 

Ip aipi do bepc pin ooib 

pi Ulao an cnpm cpen, rhoip 78 
co m-beio a (b)-cpepi 'n-a chi£ 
co (o)-ceajaio leip co Ueavhaip 79 

SeaSd pij Ulao 80 eamna 
acup a lano Ian chalma 81 
bula 06 a (j)-ceano ooipi chuipc 82 , 
aen-peachc o'aicpin o'a puabaipc 81 . 

Girpeachc pe h-enlaich glinbi 
Cacha Saileach, paep binoi 94 , 
pochpucao 6ellcaine chaip 
ap pmo Coch 95 dlaino pebail. 

Qc pin a Reaper cpuaioi 

aipo-pij coicio Chpaeb Ruaioi; 

ma od n-oedpna co gnach pin 

ni jeba co bpdeh Uearhaip 

do 6ua6ai6 sfi pijuia6 uiii, 

coinrheab a Chdpc 87 a (5)-Caen-bpuim, 
a riiaip 1 (b)-Caillnn cpe jail 88 , 
©amain ac a mgenaib". 

Coblach aici pop 90 6och Cuan, 
clearhnap pe pij ^ a ^ 5^ an ua P 9 S 

Conmaicne who were seated in Magh Rein, referred to is Gleann Suilighe (Glenswilly), 

in the south of the county of Leitrim, and near Litear Ceannaighe (Letterkenny), 

in the county of Longford; but these, through which the River Suileach (Swillv) 

though of the ancient Ullta or Clanna flows. See p. 23, and n. f, ib. ; the same 

Rudhraidhe, were not considered as in the geis occurs there, and thus Linn Saileach is 

province of Ulster for many centuries. Identified. 

1 Doire tuirc, i.e. the oakwood, or re- v Loch Feabhail, " Lough Foyle" (the 

treat, of the hog or wild boar. arm of the sea running between Donegal and 

" Loch Saileach This is evidently in- Deny), i. e. the lake of Feabhal, son of 

tended for Loch Suileach, Anglice " Lough Lodan, one of the Tuatha De Dauann co- 

Swilly," the arm of the sea running into lony. See poem on Aileach, published in 

the county of Donegal. The valley here the Ordnance Memoir of Templemore. 

net 5-Cecqic. 249 

The reason that these are given them 

By the king of Uladh of the mighty [and] great arms, 

[Is] that their strength might be in his house, 

That they may go with him to Teamhair. . . TEAMHAIR. 

THE RESTRICTIONS of the king of the Ultonian Eamhain 
And of his very brave sword [are] 
To go into a wild boar's haunt : , 
[Or] to be seen to attack it alone. 

To listen to the birds of the valley 

Of Loch Saileach u , the nobly melodious, 

To bathe on May- day eastwards 

In the bright and beautiful Loch Feabhail v . 

Such are the hard restrictions 

Of the supreme king of the province of the Red Branch w ; 

If he usually practise those [forbidden things], 

He shall never obtain Teamhair TEAMHAIR. 

OF THE PREROGATIVES of the great king of Uladh, [viz.] 
To keep his Easter at Caen-druim x , 
His stewards [to be] at Taillte y through valor, 
Eamhain [to be] in the possession of his daughters. 

That he have a fleet on Loch Cuan z , [Galls, 

To form a marriage alliance with the king of the fine cold 

n The province of the Red Branch, i. e. of Meath, nearly midway between the towns 

the province of Ulacm or Ulster, from the of Navan and Kells. See O'Flaherty's 

house of the Craebh Kuadh, or Red Branch, Ogygia, c. 13, and the Editor's letter on the 

near Ard Macha (Armagh), so celebrated parish of " Donaghpatrick," in the county 

in Irish stories. of Meath (now preserved at the Ordnance 

x Caen-druim. — This was the old name Survey Office, Phcenix Park), in which 

of the hill of Uisneach, near Baile Mor Lo- the present remains at Taillte are described. 

cha Seimhdidhe (Ballymore Loughsewdy), See page 204, n. >', supra. 

in the county of Westmeath. See Annals of * Loch Cuan. See page 16' 4, note d , 

the Four Masters, Anno Mundi, 3370. See supra, and Colgan's Trias Thaum., page 

page 6, note s, supra. 19, note 45. The name has sometimes been 

> Taillte, Anglicc Teltown, in the county Anglicized into "Lough Cone." 

250 Ceabliap 

Ganach 92 Cain bo beich pa Blaio, 

acup a rnafp a (o)-Ueamaip 93 . C[eamdlR, CGQC]- 

TXlglt) ft'l NQIS, anopu, 
pleao 94 aobal, nach upubpa, 
pichi bubach do each lino 
co n-a (b)-puipeac 95 op a cino. 

Cuapipcal pig 6aijean £uipc 

6 pij Ueampach in cpean puipe 9 " 
a 6peam-pa, map acd ipcij, 
jp leam-pa ica oo meabaip 97 . 

Ceb mac uippij lp buan blab 98 
leip co eua na 99 Ceampac, 
mjean aencurina each pip, 
eoach caebrana 1 (b)-Ueamaip U 

SeactlC (5)-CaR6ait) ap 100 a m-bia op, 
neach beipeap leip co comol, 
peachc (b)-pichic eoach oaca 
po chorhaip mac n-dpo-placha. 

Qp 101 pin ceio poime b'a chij 
pig 6aijm cup na laechaib 102 , 
co poich dun Naip iap n-aipceap 101 , 
co (b)-pobail a chuapipcail. 

Dido ac Ceinopealaib 104 cpooa 
biap in plaichip pip rhopa 105 , 
lp leo plaieheap 106 a cpuib chain 
do mac-pij lp ba 107 pijaib. 

OI1516 pi h-Ua Paelan pino 

peachc los m-bpuic oaca 1m each beij lino 

1 Eanach Cat in, i. c. tlK j beautiful marsh. b King of Nas, i. e. of Laighin or Lein- 

There are various places of this name in ster, from Nas (Naas), one of the seats of 

Ulster, and it is not easy to determine the kings of that province ; see pp. 9, 202. 

which of them is here referred to. ' Laighin of Lore The province of 

na 5-Ceapc. 251 

Eanaeh Caein a to be under his control, 

And his stewards to be at Teamhair TEAMIIAIR. 

To a great banquet, not easy [to be procured], 
Twenty vats of each kind of drink 
With the accompaniment of viands besides. 

The stipend of the king of Laighin of Lorc c 

From the king of Teamhair of the mighty fort ; 
O ye people, who are in the house, 
By me it is borne in memory. 

A hundred sons of petty-kings of lasting fame 
With him [go] to the district of Teamhair, 
A maiden, of age to be married, for each man, 
[And] fine textured clothes at Teamhair. . . TEAMHAIR. 

SEVEN CHARIOTS on which is gold [ornament], — 

Which he brings with him to the banquet, 
Seven score suits of clothes of [good] color 
For the use of the sons of the great chieftains. 

Then forward to his house goeth 

The king of Laighin with the heroes, 

Till he reaches the fortress of Nas after a journey, 

Till he distributes his stipends. 

If with the brave Ui Ceinnsealaigh d 

The truly majestic sovereignty shall be, 

Theirs is the dominion of [distributing] its fair wealth 

To the princes and to the kings. 

Entitled is the king of fair Ui Faelain e 

To seven colored cloaks with as many good mantles 

Leinster is here so called from Laeghaire ?, supra. 

Lore, one ui' its ancient kings. e Ui Faelain. — See page 205, n. :; , and 

*Ui Ceinnsealaiffh — Sec page 208, note p. 222, n. h , on Magh Laighean, supra. 

252 teabhaji 

acup ceichpi lonja ap 109 loch 
co m-beb co"° coppa a coblach. 

Dlijio pi h-Ua pailji [f] uc, P 

ceichpi pceic baca — ip oeaj luaj"', 
ceirpi cuipn caca oacha" 2 , 
ceichpi claioirh cpuao caca' 13 . 

Dlijio pi Oppaioi an 

od rhilchoin bee co n-oeajal, 
od each bee bo, cean aipe" 2 , 
co (5)-capbaoaib oedj rhaice" 3 . 

12 15 h-Ua Cenbpealaij na (^-cpeach 1 
leip cumap ciji Ueavhpach, 
ipe peo m a pip in each chan 
uuip ipe ceach pij Caijean. 

t)lijib pi h-Ua n-^abla n-jeap 
painoi oip im each n-en rhep; 
acup pail oip, o'n £eal jual, 
0I1516 pij pmo na (b)-Popchuach. 

^eaSd" 6 pij Caijean at> chim, 
each bo uagpa paip 'n-a chip 117 , 
acup ^oill o'airhpeip im pmo" 8 , 
acup a jeill co" 9 Ouiblinb. 

TC15 ap aibi cean peajao 120 , 
Caerhjin can a choirhejao 1 ' 2 ', 
cean ceachc co Nap 122 pe lino lain 
oo jeapaib in pij po ndip. 

6Rl^lt) bo peip im a pach 
oo buabaib na pij 123 6aijneach, 

1 Ui Failghe. — Sec page 21 (J, note r , &, suprh. 
supra. h Ui Gabhla — This territory is men- 

e Ui Ceinnsealaigh. — See page 208, note tioned in the Annals of I he Four Masters 

na 5-Ceapc. 253 

And four ships upon the sea 

So that his fleet may be increased [complete]. 

Entitled is the king of cold Ui Failghe f 

To four colored shields — it is a good stipend, 
Four drinking-horns of various color, 
Four hard swords of battle. 

Entitled is the noble king of Osraidhe (Ossory) 
To twelve greyhounds of goodly breed, 
Twelve steeds to him, without abatement, 
With choice good chariots. 

The king of Ui Ceinnsealaigh of the preys g 
Has the power of the house of Teamhair, 
This is the truth at every period 
For it is the house of the king of Laighin. 

Entitled is the king of sharp Ui Gabhla 1 ' 
To a ring of gold upon every finger ; 
And a ring of gold, bright from the fire, 
Is due to the fair king of the Forthuathai. 

THE RESTRICTIONS of the king of Laighin I see, 
A battle to be proclaimed on him in his territory, 
And the Galls (foreigners) to defy him even to the sword, 
And [to take] his hostages to Duibhlinn (Dublin). 

The king not to respect his tutor, 

Not to defer to Caeimghin, (i. e. St. Kevin), 

Not to come to Nas with a full retinue 

Are among the prohibitions of that very noble king. 

BRIGHIDJ to obey for her favor 

Is among the buadha [prerogatives] of the Leinster kings ; 

at the year 1072, but nothing has been ' Forthuatha See page 207, note rt , 

discovered as yet to show where they were supra. 

located. •* Brighid, i. e. Brighid Chille Dara, " St. 

254 Ceabhcqi 

bee 06 po chip in a chij, 

oola each mfp co Ueamaip 1 * 4 U[erfiajR]. 

O6I516 Rl'CaiSlC na ( 5 )-cpeach 
oula co cua 1M Uearhpach 
oa pichic caippeach 126 male, 
00 chaipbeanao a pleoe 127 . 

OI1516 pi Ueampach na (o)-cop 
oula 128 coimlin pin leipm, 
acup cean mac achai 5 ano, 

00 chaiceam pleioi Gpann lW . 

OI1516 a 130 (o)-Ceamaip 6uachpa 
pij TTluman na 131 mop thuacha 
oeich n-oabcha picheao, po peap, 
co n-a (b)-puipec 132 ip pip leap 133 . 

OI1516 pechemain ciap lpcig 134 

1 (o)-Ueamaip Cuachpa Oeajaio 135 , 
'p can oula ap ap aipceap 136 

no co (b)-pojla a 137 chuapipcal. 

Ip h-6 peo in cuapipcol ceano 
oleajap 138 6 dipb-pij ©peanb, 
ochc n-ech, ochc (5)-capbaio po chuinj 139 , 
ochc (b)-pailji acup ochc (5)-caem cuipn. 

Ochc (b)-pichio bpac 00 bpacaib, 
ochc pceich gela op jlan jlacaib 140 
peachc 141 peppecha na ppeich plum 142 
ipeachc (b)-pichic bo beannain 143 . 

Coipi uao 00 P15 Caipil 144 

6 pij Ueampa, in cpean caipic 145 , 

Bridget of Kildare," the patroness of Laighin Earann, son of Fiacha, son of Aenghus 

or ancient Leinster. Tuirmheach, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 

k Earna This was the name of a peo- 3787. See O'Fla. Ogygia, part iii. c. 40. 

pie in South Munster, descended from Oilioll ' Teamhair Luachra, or Teamhair of 

ncc 5-Ceajic. 255 

To be tributary to her in his house, 

To repair every month to Teamhair TEAMHAIR. 

To go to the district of Teamhair 
Accompanied by two score chariots, 
To display there his banquet. 

Bound is the king of Teamhair of lords 

To go [taking] the same number with him, 
And no son of a plebeian there, 
To eat the feast of the Earna k . 

Bound at Teamhair Luachra 1 

Is the king of Mumha (Munster) of great lordships 
[To give] thirty vats, it is known, 
With suph viands as are suitable. 

He is bound to stay a week in the west, within, 
At Teamhair Luachra Deaghaidh 1 , 
And not to go from thence on a journey, 
Until he distributes his stipends. 

This is the great stipend 

Which is due from the supreme king of Eire, 
Eight steeds, eight chariots fully yoked, 
Eight rings and eight fair drinking-horns. 

Eight score of cloaks, 

Eight bright shields over fine hands, 
Seven plough-yokes in full series, 
And seven score short-horned cows. 

A cauldron is given to the king of Caiseal 
By the king of Teamhair, the mighty chief, 

Luachair Deaghaidh. It was also called was the royal residence. See last note, 
Teamhair Earann, i. e. Temoria Earanno- also page 90, note x , supra, on Teamhair 
rum, from the people of whose country it Shubha. 

256 Leabhaji 

acabeapc map oleajap chpa 

'p-a bpeich 140 1 (o-)Cearhaip £uachpa. 

Qp pm poolaib pi^ TTlurhan 

na (j)-cach ip na (5)-ceac cupao 
bo luchc a n-jnirh ceanbaio jail' 47 
lop pij acup pf£ain U8 . 

Ochc n-eich maichi ap a m-bia jpao 
blijio pi na n-Oepi nap 149 
ip ochc m-bpuic uaine male, 
co n-ochc n-oeilgib pmbpoine. 

OI1516 pij h-Ua Ciachan lip 

ochc (5)-cuipn acup ochc (5)-claioim 
acup ochc n-eich maichi 06 
6 pij Caipil, can chlaechlo 150 . 

OI1516 pij h-Ua n-Gachach n-oll 
luipeach acup 5a 151 1 (5)-comlonn 
acup ba pdlaij o'op oeapj 152 
acup oa each nach bpoch Beaoc. 

OI1516 pi t)aipine buinb 
6 pi Caipil in chomlainb 
ochc (5)-claioim coppa chacha, 
ochc longa ip ochc luipeacha. 

t)o pi 6acha 6em lebaip 

blijib cumain chaipbeamail 1 ", 

1,1 Deise — See page 18i, note", supra. meaky," in the county of Cork, and they 

" Ui Liathain. — See page 72, note s , afterwards encroached on Corca Luighe, 

supra. and became masters of the district called 

UiEathach, i.e. of Ui Eathach Mumh- Fonn Iartharach, which is called " Iva- 

an, the descendants of Eochaidh, son of hagh," on several old maps made in the 

Cas, son of Core, king of Minister, son of reign of Elizabeth and James I., and com- 

Lughaidh, the fourth in descent from Oilioll prises the parishes of " Kilmoe, Scool, Kil- 

Olum, king of Munster. Their territory crohane, Durris, Kilmacanoge, and Ca- 

originally comprised the barony of " Kinel- heragh," in the south-west of the county 

na 5-Ceajir. 2,57 

To be presented in due form, 

And to be brought to Teamhair Luachra. 

Then distributes the king of Mnmha 

Of the battles and of the hundreds of champions 

[His stipends] among the people of stout valorous deeds, 

Both kings and queens. 

Eight good steeds of high distinction 
Are due to the king of the noble Deise m 
And eight green cloaks besides, 
With eight pins of findroine (carved silver). 

Entitled is the king of Ui Liathain 11 of the sea 
To eight drinking-horns and eight swords 
And eight good steeds [given] to him 
From the king of Caiseal, without change. 

Entitled is the king of the great Ui Eathach 
To a coat of mail and a spear for combat 
And to two rings of red gold 
And two steeds of no bad temper. 

Entitled is the king of brown Dairine 1 ' (Dairfhine) 
From the king of Caiseal of the conflicts 
To eight polished swords of battle, 
Eight ships and eight coats of mail. 

To the king of extensive Loch Lein a 
Is due a friendly return, 

of Cork. See Liber Regalis Visitationis of correlatives. See page 64, note ", and page 

1615. After the establishment of surnames 46, note a , supra ; and Keating's History 

the chief family of this tribe took the sur- of Ireland, Haliday's edition, p. 136. 

name of O'Mathghamhna, Anglice O'Ma- 1 King of Loch Lein, i. e. of Eoghanacht 

hony, and the name is still common and Locha Lein. After the establishment of 

respectable in Monster. See note k , on surnames the chief family of this tribe took 

Raithlinn, p. 59, supra. the surname of O'Donnchadha, Anglice 

PDairinc, otherwise Dairfhine, the tribe of O'Donohoe, O'Donoughoe, &c. Seepage 

O'h-Eidirsceoil (the O'Driscolls), and their 59, note ', supra. 


258 Ceabhap 

pici bo acup 154 pichi eac, 

pichi long do — nf opoch bpeneh. 

t)li£ib pi Ciappaibi in chnuic 
pichi each — ni pach apo uilc, 
acup rpt pichio bo Ban 
acup cpi pichic' 55 copan. 

t)lijio pi h-Ua Conaill chain 
eppio Cape 6 pij Caipil, 
a Uann lijba co li n-^loin 156 
acup a jat 'n-a oeajaib 157 . 

OI1516 pi Cile, map ca, 

a chip paep co Sliab ftlaoma, 

ache, mina cheachca each com, 

eachepa paip [jan eachepa B.] peach each pijpaij 159 . 

lp aipe pm 00 beip 061b 

pi TTIuman an ai^nij moip ,i9 

lp oe bup buibeach na pip 

can a (b)-puipeach 1 (o)-Ueamaip "C. 

CR1 6Uat>a pij Caipil cam 
pijan aici a Conoacheaib, 
lomjeap aici ap S(h)inaino plain 
acup Caipil bo congbail. 

Q cpi oimbuaba ap 160 pin 

each b'puajpa uao ap 6aijnib 

a choinmeab a (jJ-Caipil chain 

acup gan oul co Ueamaip [COTIQIT? C] 

r Ciarraidhe of the hill, i. e. Ciarraidhe 8 Ui Chonaill, i. e. Ui Chonaill Gabhra. 

Luachra. See page 48, note f , supra. The See page 76, note c . supra. 

mountains of Sliabh Luachra are in this l Eile. — See page 78, note ', supra. 

territory. u Sliabh Bladhma, Anglice Slieve Bloom, 

ncc g-Ceajir. 259 

Twenty cows and twenty steeds, 
Twenty ships to him — no bad award. 

Entitled is the king of Ciarraidhe of the hill r 
To twenty steeds — no cause of great evil, 
And three score white cows 
And three score cups. 

Entitled is the king of fair Ui ChonailP 

To an Easter dress from the king of Caiseal, 
His beautiful sword of shining lustre, 
And his spear along with it. 

Entitled is the king of Eile 1 , so it happens, 

To [have] his country free as far as Sliabh Bladhma", 
And, unless when he makes battles for himself, 
He is exempt from furnishing forces beyond each other 

It is for that reason that to them 

The king of Murnha of the great mind cedes it ; 

It is therefore the men are thankful, 

Not to send their feast to Teamhair TEAMHAIR. 

THE THREE PREROGATIVES of the king of fair Caiseal 
To have a queen out of Connacht, 
To have a fleet on the ample Sionainn (Shannon), 
And to maintain Caiseal. 

His three dimbuadha (misfortunes) then [are] 
To proclaim battle upon the men of Laighin, 
To feast his visitors at fair Caiseal, 
And not to go to Teamhair [Luachra] TEAMHAIR. 

a mountain which divides Eile Ui Chear- County from " Upper Ossory," in the present 
bhaill ( Elv O'Carroll), in the present King's Queen's County. 


260 teabhap 

t)£,l^Jlt) 6 plairh 6uimnij lip 
pleao aipeajoa, popbailij, 
oeich n-oabcha picheao, po peap, 
co n-a (o)-puipeac pe pip leap. 

\i\ Uuao fflurrian in ropaio 
0I1516 cumain chaipoeamail, 
cpi oeich m-bo 161 acup oa ceac each, 
cpf pailji o'op 162 , ni epoch bpearh. 

Ceirhpi lon^a pe laiomj, — 
je eao ni h-6po anaibmn, — 
Oct pciach im each luinj olb-pin, 
oa laino acup od luipij. 

Ni olijeano ace mao pine 165 
plaich £uimni£ a £iachrhuine, 
lp eajopc a pij [ipe peo a pip B.] amach 104 , — 
acup injean pij Cearhpach U. 

t)£,l£)lO pi?5 Chopco 6aipcino 
6 pij Cuaj TTluriian caiprill 
copn acup oa pichic each, 
eoach in pij 165 , ni ju bpeach. 

t)lijio uippi^ 166 Chopcampuao 
6 pij Cuao lTlurhan na (o)-cuach 

v Liiimneach This has been for many w Tuath Mhumha, i. e. North Munster, 

centuries exclusively the name of the now Anglice Thomond. According to Keat- 

city of Limerick ; but it appears from the ing this territory extended from Leim Chon- 

Life of St. Carthach of Lismore, that it was chulainn (Loop Head; see p. 75, n. a ) to 

originally applied to the estuary of the Bealach Mor (" Ballaghmore in Upper 

River Sionainn below the present city, now Ossory"), and from Sliabh Echtghe (Slieve 

sometimes called " The Lower Shannon." Aughty, on the frontiers of the counties 

The king of Luimneach is here put for of Clare and Galway, see Ui Maine, 

king of Tuath Mhumha (Thomond). See page 91, note k ) to Sliabh Eibhlinne (now 

the next note. Sleibhte Fheidhlimidh, in the countv of 

net 5-Cectnc. 261 

HE IS ENTITLED from the chief of Luimneach" of the sea, 
To a splendid, cheering banquet, 
Thirty vats, it is known, 
With the necessary viands. 

The king of productive Tuath Mhumha" 
Is entitled to friendly fidelity, 
To thrice ten cows and two hundred steeds, 
Three rings of gold, no bad award. 

Four ships with a boat, 

Even this is not an unpleasant order, 
Two shields with each ship of these, 
Two swords and two coats of mail. 

There is due but only this much 

To the chief of Luimneach from Liathmhuine x , 

This is the truth in full, — 

And the daughter of the king of Teamhair [Luachra]. . T. 

ENTITLED is the king of Corca Bhaiscinn y 

From the king of Tuath Mhumha of the marchings 
To a drinking-horn and two score steeds, 
The king's apparel, no false award. 

Entitled is the petty-king of Corcamruadh* 

From the king of Tuath Mhumha (Thomond) of the lordships 

Tipperary). The southern boundary of ed the Engenian or Desmond line. It would 

this great territory is still preserved in that apply very well when the king was of the 

of the diocese of Killaloe. line of the Ui Caeimh (O'Keeffes), of whom 

x Liathmhuine. — This is the name of a ce- there was a king of Minister in 902, namely, 

lebrated place in the parish of "Kilgullane," Fionguine, son of Gorman, who died in that 

in the territory of Feara Muighe, (Fer- year. 

moy, in the county of Cork) ; hut it seems 1 Corca- Bhaiscinn — See page 48, note (•', 

irregularly introduced here as a distinguish- supra. 

ing appellative of the king of Munster, * Corcamruadh See page 65, note z , 

when of the line of Eoghan, commonly call supra. 

262 Ceabhap 

a po£a lu 11151 ap 16 ap 1(i7 peachc, 
oa ceac bo acup a beanoachc. 

lnjean pij Cuao fflurhan ceno 
do pij Chopcompuao beipim, 
coma h-i a bean ap each learh 
ap (o)-cochc a (o)-ci5 pij Ceampach 168 . C[emCI112]. 

^GQSQ pi£ ^uimnij leachain 

ainimaip 1 ® [a vhaip, B.] op aipb-eacuib, 
beich epiup 1 n-a chocap chain, 
acup a pun pe pijain. 

Qpiao a buaoa in pij paich 
nonbap 'n-a chocap co maic, 
paja oealba aip lapcain, 
acup a riieanma 170 a (o)-Uearhaip. . . . C[6)71C[1RJ. 

oci^ib ptcuuh crcuachan na ce.i"', 

oa pichic oabach ac 17 ' 2 pleio 
acup can oul uaichib 173 ann 
6 pij uapal na h-Gpino. 

t>ljji6 pi ^aela in £opa 
a chomain uaoa 174 anopa, 
cpl 175 pichib bo, oa ceao each, 
ceichpi pailji — ni opoch bpeach. 

Ceichpi cuipn itn a m-bia op, 
neach beipeap leip co comol, 
lp a (b)-pa5bail riap 'n-a 176 chi£ 
00 plaich Cpuachan in cuipij 177 . 

Ceichpi pceich oeapja oacha, 
ceichpi cachbaipp corhoaca, 
ceichpi luipeacha 'n-a n-biai6, 
ceichpi pleaja co 178 pap jliaio. 

» (,'aela, i. e. the king of Connacht, who in Ui Maine. This name is now obsolete, 
is here called of Oaela, the seat of O'Lomain, but it appears from several references to it 

ria 5-Cecqiu. 263 

To his choice ship on a day of voyage, 
Two hundred cows and his blessing. 

The daughter of the king of powerful Tuath Mhumha 
To the king of Corcamruadh I give, 
So that she is his wife in every respect 

On his coming into the house of the king of Teamhair (Lu- 
achra.) TEAMHAIR. 

THE RESTRICTIONS of the king of wide Luimneach [are] 
To have his stewards on his noble steeds, 
To have but three in his kindly confidence, 
And [that he should] communicate his secret to his queen. 

The prerogatives of this gifted king are 
That nine should be in his full confidence, 
That he be of beautiful form. 
And that he aspire to Teamhair TEAMHAIR. 

To give two score vats at the banquet, 
And not to depart from them there 
From the noble king of Eire. 

The king of Gaela a of substance 
Is entitled to his return now, 
Three score cows, two hundred steeds, 
Four rings, — it is no bad award. 

Four drinking-horns on which is gold, 

Which he brings with him to the banquet. 
And to leave them in the west, in his house, 
With the prince of Cruachain of the host. 

Four shields of red color. 
Four helmets of equal color, 
Four coats of mail after them. 
Four lances for valiant combat. 

that it wa> near Loch Riach, or Loughrea. Maine, page 31, note c , and Annals of th? 
in Galway. See Tribes and Customs of Ui Four Masters at the rear 045. 

264 Ceabhap 

^GIS do Chpuacha 179 D'pap po cpi, 
buaib do loin^eap pop' 60 Coch Rf; 
mdo diu n-oedpna peach each pin 
gebaio pe co gndc 181 Uearhaip [C] 

t>tlgl<6 pi h-Ua mdine mop 182 
ceichpi cuipn Dib pe corhol 163 , 
pici bo acup 184 pichi each 
eoach Da ceuc, — ni gu bpeach. 

tDlijiD pi h-Ua Piachpach pinD 
ceichpi lonjca pe laiomj, 
[oeic nind piceao, aiobli, Dinp, 
acup cpi cuipn du copnaib.] 

[DlijiD pi na (o)-Cuac Ueopac, 
jean gu (b)-pecip aneolac], 
pichi mupc ip pichi muc, 
pichi cinDi co cpean luchc ,w . 

t)lijiD pi Cuijni Idjaio 

ceichpi pceich co coriipamaib 186 , 
ceichpi h-maip co n-6p [n]-oeap£, 
ceichpi lonja, ni opoch beaoj. 

Ni olijeano ache mdo pine 
6 pi Cpuachan in cachaioe 187 ; 
oleajaio do each bail map pin 
acup a n-odil co Ueamaip C[erriQ113]. 

b Loch Ri, otherwise called Loch Ribh d Ui Fiachrach Finn, i. e. the descend- 

( Lough Eee), a celebrated lake formed by ants ofFiachra Fionn, the eldest son of 

an expansion of the River Sionainn (Shan- Breasal, son of Maine Mor, ancestor of 

non), between Ath Luain (Athlone) and all the Ui Maine. These were seated in 

Lanesborough — See Tribes and Customs of Maen-mhagh, a fertile territory lying round 

Ui Maine, page 10, note y . the town of Loch Riach (Lough Reagh), in 

c Ui Maine. — See page 106, note p, the south of the county of Galway. See 

supra, and Tribes of Ui Maine, pp. 4, 5, 6, Tribes and Customs of Ui Maine, page 70, 

and the map to the same work. note ', and page 71, note ''. 

na 5-Ceapc. 265 

It is one of his restrictions that Cruaehain should be thrice 
It is his prerogative to have a fleet on Loch Ri b ; 
If he observe each one of these, 
He shall usually obtain Teamhair TEAMHAIR. 

ENTITLED is the king of great Ui Maine c 

To four drinking-horns of them for the banquet, 

To twenty cows and twenty steeds, 

To two hundred suits of clothes, — not a false award. 

Entitled is the king of Ui Fiachrach Fionn d 
To four ships with a boat, 
Thirty women, large [and] hardy, 
And three drinking horns. 

Entitled is the king of the Three Tuatha e , 
Although the ignorant know it not, 
To twenty beeves and twenty pigs, 
Twenty tinnes (salted pigs) for his brave people. 

Entitled is the king of Luighne f to reward, 
To four shields for deeds of valor, 
To four tunics with red gold, 
To four ships, not a bad gift. 

They are not entitled to more than this 
From the king of Cruaehain, the warrior ; 
All are thus mutually bound, 
And to repair to Teamhair TEAMHAIR. 

e Three Tuatha — Generally called Teora his residence at Lissadorn, near Elphin, was 

Tuatha, i. e. the Three Districts. These O'Manchain (Monahan), but this family 

were Tir Briuin na Sionna, Cineal Dobhtha, was dispossessed by the families of O'h- 

and Corca Achlann. This tripartite terri- Ainlighe(0'Hanlys)andO'Birn(0'Beirnes) 

tory, called the Teora Tuatha, formed a in the thirteenth century ; see the Editor's 

deanery in the diocese of Elphin, comprising Ann. IV. Mag. ad A. D. 1189, p. 86, n. ll , 

ten parishes. After the establishment of and Miscell. Tr. Arch. Soc, p. 274. 
surnames the chief of tins territory, who had f Luighne — See page 133, note h , supra. 

266 Ceabliap 

t)£155Jt) P' rni6i in mapcaio 
6 pij h-Gpmo co n-apb Blaio 
peachc peippeacha chpebup cip 
acup peace (b)-pichic culbin. 

Olijio pij 6peuj m rhuipip 
pichi each, — nf h-apo puoaip, 
acup ni coip a peana, — 
co n-eaoaijib n-imchpeana. 

Olijio pij na Saibne po 
each acup oa pichic bo, 
uaip nf luju a n-joipi amacli 
a choipi acup a oabach. 

OI1516 pi na n-t)epi anoche 
pichi mape ip pichi mole, 
lp blijio pi 6uijni ap pin 
pichi each co paoallaib. 

t)liji6 pi ^aileanja jui 

co n-a h-inopma o'op cheapbeu 

acup pici ppian pocal 

oo chpuan ip oo chapmojjal. 

lp amlaib pin oleajap oe 
ruapipcol mairhi TTIioe 
acup gan a (j)-cleich pe jail, 
acup a m-bpeich co Uearhaip. , 

^easa pij eojam 'n-a chij 
pijan aici a ConOachtaib, 
a pic pe h-OpaiDi anall, 
acup cacao pe Conall. 

8 Suithne. — A territory in Fingall, for- page 184, note ", supra. 
merly the patrimonial inheritance of the ' Luighne — See page 186, n. n, supra. 

family of O'Cathasaigh, now Anglice Casey. J Gaileanga — See page 188, n. v , supra. 

See page 187, note s , supra. k Ofcruan, i.e. ornamented with cruan. 

h Deise, i.e. Deise Teamhrach —See The word cpuan is explained " buioe 

na s-Ceajic. 267 

ENTITLED is the king of Midlie (Meath) the horseman 
From the king of Eire of high fame 
To seven plough-yokes, which plough the land, 
And to seven score flocks. 

Entitled is the king of Breagh of the [great] household 
To twenty steeds, — no cause of grief, 
And it is not right to deny it, — 
With fine strong clothing. 

Entitled is the king of Saithne g to this, 
To a steed and to two score cows, 
For his rising out is not less 
Neither is his cauldron or his vat. 

Entitled is the king of Deise 1 ', to-night, 
To twenty beeves and twenty wethers, 
And entitled is the king of Luighne 1 , then, 
To twenty steeds with saddles. 

Entitled is the king of GaileangaJ to a javelin, 
With its mounting of wrought gold, 
And twenty splendid bridles 
Of cruan k and carbuncle. 

It is thus are due of him 

The stipends of the chiefs of Midhe (Meath), 

And not to be withheld by fraud, 

And to be brought to Teamhair TE AMI! A IK. 

THE PROHIBITIONS of the king of Eoghan' in his house 
To have a queen out of Connacht, [are] 

To make peace with the Dal Araidhe" 1 ever, 
And war with Conall n . 

1 Oeupj," i. e. yellow and red, in old supra. 

Glossaries, i. e. orange. m Dal Araidhe — See page 23, note *, 

1 King of Eoghan, i. e. of the Cineal supra. 
Eogliain, or race of Eoghan, son of Niall " Conall, i. e. with the Cineal Chonaill, 

of the Nine Hostages. See page 34, note % or inhabitants of the present county of Do- 

268 Leabhap 

Na aen ap rlieib poip 6 rhij 
pij £aipi cup na laechaib, 
pichi ech t>6 ap a aipceap, 
ipe pin a chuapipcol. 

\i\ Niriie acup Ualriian cpen 
co n-oeapnom uili a oijpeip, 
co pobam co cpean 'n-a chij 
oaij ip aibni na Uerhaip C6QITIQ11?. 

negal See page 23, note P, supra. This neal Chonaill, was founded on experience, 

prohibition against war, or necessity of and it is curious to observe that the " war" 
peace, between the Cineal Eoghain and Ci- made by Seaan (Shane) O'Neill on the 

na 5-Ceapr. 269 

Every one who goes eastward from the house 
Of the king of Laeise" with the heroes, 
Twenty steeds [are given] to him for his journey, 
That is his stipend. 

The mighty King of Heaven and Earth 
May we all obey, 
May we be mighty in his house 
For it is more delightful than Teamhair. . . . TEAMHAIR. 

Cineal Chonaill, in 1557, prepared the way and O'Domhnall (O'Donnell), at " Kin- 
to the ruin of the Cineal Eoghain; and the sale," in 1602, was the cause of the defeat 
jealousy which subsisted between O'Neill and downfall of both races. 




[See remarks in the Introduction, and further at the end of these Various Readings 


5easa a^us &uat>ha Rio^h eirceaNR 


pop opuim, 2 

cupleim, ib. 

eich, ib. 

pan, ib. 

eeabea, ib. 

bpuinoe eich, . . . . ib. 

pe pamain, ib. 

pe m-beleaine, . . . . ib. 

bpi lee, ib. 

uaip, ib. 

an bliaoain boimeala ni 

eeic a n-aipem c-paejail ib. 

pepi, 4 

coipm, ib. 

aipecrg ceopa pleao, . . ib. 

pcn£e un. n-aiDche, ... 4 
ban maije pene ag a pa- 

pajuo, ib. 

poceaoal ceapc a caipel 


.1. copjaip, 4 

1 imbecc coijeap pleibi cua ib. 

' pig connacc, ib. 

coipm, ib. 

a peapca .i ib. 

comlub, ib. 

pop adi caillee. . . . ib. 

annao, ib. 

laicne, ib. 

apo coicpicup aea luain 

pop cpom laije eeampa, ib. 

ace in. cede ap tDapba, . 4 

en, 6 

piancaib leic tap bun- 

aipe, ib. 

oaipe mic piadna, ... 6 

aoall, ib. 

epicao, ib. 

uarbap, ib. 


Various Headings. 

34 6uao a puioe a n-Uipnec 
jaca uu.moo bliaoam i a coma 
olegap do jac u.eo a n-6pinb Don 
pep Ceampa oo benum bo pijaib 
Gpenn o pi j Ceampac -|ap anopin 
aenaijceap ap eaccpa pij Ceam- 
pa po Gpinn uile -| up ann no 
cpenoaip a paioe a n-Uipnec -| a 
nubpamj pij na cuiceo. 6a pi 
an luaibijecc buinoe mao no bib 
a laim jaca placa oe op paj- 
Bao ma puioe ol an can no 
jleeao an Pep Ceampa -] ni lm- 
luaibip piaca na cainjne gup in 
peace n-aile a cino pecc m-blia- 
t)an beop. Qp oemen cpa bo 
pijaib Gpenn bia comiloip na 
jeappa pin -| na buaoa ni biab 
cuipel pop a plaicemnap -| ni 
ricpao ceibm na gopra na pluga 
na h-ecepano -\ n\ biab epepa pop 
a paejal. Cuan cc. a 

To pay for his seat at Uisneaeh 
every seventh year, and the same 
is due of every province [provin- 
cial king] in Eire, in return for the 
Feis of Teamhair being made for 
the kings of Eire by the king of 
Teamhair; and it is there the chief 
sovereignty of the king of Tea- 
mhair over all Eire is reacknow- 
ledged [or renewed], and it was 
there they purchased their seats 
at Uisneaeh, and their recognition 
as kings of their provinces. 

The price was a champion's 
ring, which used to be on the hand 
of each king, of gold. He used to 
leave it in his drinking seat when 
the Feis of Teamhair was con- 
sumed. And they adjudicated nei- 
ther debts nor questions until ano- 
ther meeting at the end of seven 

It is certain to the kings of Eire 
that, if they fulfil these restrictions 
and prerogatives, that there shall 
be no interruption to their reigns, 
and that neither pestilence nor fa- 
mine, nor plague, nor strangers, 
shall overcome them ; and that 
their lives shall not be short. Cuan 

8 This reading should have been inserted in the text, as was done in a like case at 
pp. 136, 137. The reference 34, in page 6, is misplaced. From the word luagi L. 
[luao, B.] in page 6, to the word " cecinit," in page 8, supra, is all represented by the 
above extract from B. 

I r arious Readings. 


if me llu £ocain, ... 8 

uutpe, ib. 

ce, 10 

piulbuo, ib. 


alluo, 18 

comeacac na cip, ... 20 

ullco, ib. 

do pain opeimeip boppa, . ib. 

apoplara, ib. 53 niio:6, 

cebca, ib. s6 coicib, 

niai^e Cuillenn, 


ua loccam coilli, 
celpa .... 
do mu6, . . . 

pepe . . . . 
laijin, . 

coicigep lap rhip, 
bia ciu^placaib, 
bia bunab pia, 



60 line, . . . 

61 email, . . . 
63 ullco, . . . 

62 (bis) co ceano, 

63 na puijibcheap, 

64 leo ppi, . . 

65 jabuc, . . . 



Note — The prose in B. only mentions teora (three) geasa of the king of Laighin, 
and as many of his buadha, omitting the first and second of the former and the fourth 
and fifth of the latter according to the order of enumeration in the poem. It omits the 
fourth of the buadha of the king of Connacht, which, indeed, seem to be six, both in the 
poem, and in the prose in L. So, the fourth of the buadha of the king of Uladh is not 
found in the prose in B. It calls the buadha of the monarch ceithora (four), though it 
mentions seven, and begins by saying that his urghartha are se (six), though it shows 
them also to be seven. 

The order of enumeration in the prose varies much in both copies from that used in 
the poem ; and the prose in B. differs in its order in many respects from the prose in L. 


1 r arious Readings, 



tea&hdR hq 5-cearcc. 

I — Dligheaoh 


1 caipil oibu .1. capail [N. B. 

a paper copy of 1713 
reads, an can nc leip 
apopij 6ipeann. Caipil 
oona i. Caipeal] ... 28 

2 piobaioe in can pin, . . ib. 

3 ba £ili£cip, ib. 

4 pull na pap, 30 

5 in apopara, L. an Opt) 

Qxhap, B. [which is 

right], ib. 

• epipoil [This is manifestly 
a mistake in B. for eap- 
pcal, which is the word 
in the paper copy of 
1713], ib. 

7 cm puil ann oon pin lp 

cellpopc, ib. 

8 [do pij TTlurhan an bade 

pin-) oleajaip ciop-] poj- 
narii B-peap TDurhan oo 
pij Caipil oo £peap, 
Paper copy of 1 71 3], . ib. 

9 a recc, ib. 

lu a roijecr, 32 

11 pc. lonja, ib. 

Pigh Chairil. 


12 ou mip 32 

13 oo, ib. 

14 conao oa puibejub ... 28 

15 oun pi ounap oelbap ou 

paino, 34 

10 oluio, ib. 

IG (bis) [biarao mip o apo 
plaic Oilij, do rhaicib 
TDurhan. Paper copy of 
1713], 36 

17 Dan maich, ib. 

18 o ib. 

19 ni pcicooo peic pem [ni 

pgiacac a par peiom, 
paper copy of 1713], . . 38 

20 Du ci^eapna, ib. 

21 ceagaic, ib. 

22 o muirib Uomap [a maicib 

Danap. Paper copy of 
1713], 40 

23 am capnan, ib. 

24 glinoi oach [glainne ga, 

paper copy of 1713], . ib. 

25 uapoileao [nocan paileac, 

paper copy of 1713], . . ib. 
20 Ctc, ib. 

I r arious Readings. 



S on 0I15 


nocon ap an buipe cpa 
icaic na cipapa ace ap 

pi h-apm n-a| baip, . . . 

(bis) cpeb na loipcio, (line 
5, last four syllables), 




at bepib, ib. 

canaio, ib- 

ag raiobi 46 

nip pi, ib. 

piam, ib. 

nip map, ib. 

ip, 48 

■ficin anao, ib. 

ap, ib. 

tap lo laijim, .... ib. 

iap, ib. 

n-ar, ib. 

ppinac, ib. 

bleccame, ib. 

cpain, ib. 

pin pime po eaipi£, ... 50 

pailmceclaba, .... ib. 

a Cuipiul, ib. 

nab bu pi pop Gpinn, . . ib. 
ip oec (oec) 51 bo popbpla- 

vhap, ib. 

0I1516 ban, ib. 

ceampaig piabe ba, . . 52 

bo muij 6peaj comb, . ib. 

bo plair, ib. 

(fo'/?)UpopcabRiiaoan mac 

Peap^upa co naemaib, 
(lines 7, 8), 


mic (C)applainn. [N. B. — 
The " C" is added to the 
original MS., and a like 
interpolation is observable 
in the text of the Book 
of Leacan in two places], 




(bis) o ca Qr Cliac ju 

reach nbuinn (line 10), . 







conbac lpbula laipa ppim- 

bu pi£ gall lap pippain ap 
a celgub na chip, 

•5 ae, 5 5 

Ip 1 in cam 0I1510, . . . 


nac ppic paill, .... 

beannuccu mop, 

(bis) 510 mop ino ail oepinn 

ain (line 16), . . • . 
nuluim. [N. B. The next 

quatrain omitted in B.], . 
(bis) ppimcacup (line4, init), 

F u,l > 

an aincech, 

puil epi pi la, .... 







Various Readings. 


t)ail Caip ni pabac alen, 
po jabab ppi Fpaip pfpen, 
oop pab gu hilepoa hep 
ci^eapna acambiu 6enen 

(lines 5, 6, 7, 8), . . . 
oo bobeup 
amail pop pajaib, . . 


ccc. bam. I. luljac a oaip- 


ob. bam oo. bpar, . . . 






peapanna po^niao Caipeal, ib. 

no a Rairliunn, . . . . ib. 
conaipe ac-beapc 6enen 

in pair inib pip, . . . ib. 

bia, ib. 

juc bliaona $u bpar, . . ib. 

(bis) aca buaicib (1. \5,fin.), ib. 

puaicni^, ib. 

ppia, 64 

bi cop, 

cpi caega ceao luljac, . ib. 

cecluaicce, ib. 

pop, ib. 

o opunj, ib. 

cpana, ib. 

jan oiamaipe, .... ib. 

bo o na baipbeacaib, . . ib. 

cpan, ib. 

(bis) capuip (line 3, fin.), . 66 

5 U > ib. 

Mi olij oo, ib. 

pogniab, ib. 


ni oleujap, 66 


mebpaij lac gach mip, 
ni mac plaic ap mecinn 

neacnaccoingni cip. CIS. 68 

[N. B. The following qua- 
train is not in B.] 

[N. B. Also the following- 
prose and poem, from p. 68 
to p. 80, are not in B.] 
' ■] corcupa a pocap, 
5pao i oilmame 
ap met) nipc -| poplamuip 
tip oilmaine pecca -| plo- 
gaio ap poipbe -| ap pop- 
bpij5 i ap pinnpipe ap 
comaipleaiii, .... 80 

mibi^cip, ib. 

peancao, . . 
bio ainmep, . 
ac Oail Caip, 
apb maip, . . 

le 516 11116a o'aigebaib, . ib. 

mulle, ib. 

bu pi t)ail Caip cuilbutoe, ib. 

ip po pfp, ...... ib. 

ni buili, ib. 

a cuaio, . . . . . . ib. 

bap apb muipib, . . . ib. 

coip, 82 

pa ploij, ib. 

lap coip, ib. 

ni clepi, ib. 

Various Be idings 

( i 


'" eac cum blub, .... 82 

118 nac cuip, ib. 

" !> calma, ib. 

120 cam, ib. 

120 (bis) muip, ib. 

'-'' co pip jail (line \6,Jin.), ib. 

'■' (bis) Raiclmo (line 21), . ib. 

122 lunnj, ....... 84 

123 oonna a nbueu, ib. 

,M bu jpoij, ib. 

,M lpcocall pfnjppoillebuij. 

[N. B. — The next quatrain 
is placed later by two in B.] 

126 eomblaouc, ib. 

'-' 7 ^abpa, ib. 

128 mebuij, ib. 

129 cfn pop paeli, ib. 

130 in pi leac-jualainn, . . ib. 

''' eppeuo, ib. 

132 bo eaee, ib. 

lw eppeo, ib. 

131 bpoja i pij, ib. 

135 / x. pinojuill gan^uioeulja, 86 

136 ap, ib. 

137 be, ib. 

138 nanuuice o pi Gpenn, . ib. 

139 euuicle, ib. 

140 pecc pceie pece cloioim cam 

lp pecc n-eic ana puonuib, ib. 

141 peace cloiorhi pecc pa riioleu 
lp peace, ib. 

142 pi Gle rhoip, ib. 

'" peace pc.i peace cloioim cum 

peace mojaio peucc mban- 
moouij ib. 


144 Cuileanoan, .... 8b 

145 bio peup leijino e ppiu la, ib. 
liti niulciac, ib. 

146 (bis) Reca (same line), . ib. 
Uli (ter) ap bile (line 28, ink.) ib. 

147 Conainj, ib. 

147 (bis) IDupbolj (line 1), . 88 

148 n-Geapbame, . . . . ib. 

149 ucmaj caecum, . . . . ib. 

150 Cuaim n-Goen TTluj Ctpuil, ib. 

131 loiccfnb, ib. 

152 Cpeouu, ib. 

133 Raiefpc, ib. 

131 Rtiie ap.b, ib. 

133 Delje, ib. 

156 h-ui empb, ib. 

137 at) bap aepa, .... ib. 

I5S t)omun ib. 

139 a peobu, ib. 

100 DO, ib. 

iui muiiaac, ib 

162 Rfca, ib. 

163 le lep 516, ib. 

164 c. cuaiji, ib. 

163 c. gleno, <J0 

16fi ap bill, ib. 

Ili7 m-beappam, .... ib. 

168 ba comup cuan, ib. 

169 conumj, ib. 

170 cuip, ib. 

171 pape, ili. 

172 ap muip, ib. 

173 cue, ib. 

"' JYKilbolg gan, .... ib. 

' cuip, ib. 


Variolic Readings. 

,7ti jnoui, 92 

177 Llccmaj, ib. 

178 cecum boipne buan bun pi, ib. 
I7! ' neom, ib. 

180 elca /Rupuno ip pip, . . ib. 

181 apeaba, ib. 

182 510 cpega (last line), . . 92 

183 belje-eep (line 2, Jin,), . 94 

184 becmncpaije gpegpaioe 

opbpaioe 1 li ui cuipib 
upa pfp, ib. 

II — Oli^heaoh 


unnpo.i.mop cipa Connacc 

eoip biucub, 96 

! cope, ib. 

A, • • ^. 

1 ni hap oaipe inn pin ace 

ap peup peupuno, . . ib. 

un. 1. caepuc, . ib. 

a op, ib. 

apl°5> ib - 

na bia, ib. 

do pin, 98 

na cip call, ib. 

gun bin peam 01a noeaj- 

cuaeaib, ib. 

guch aen 01a nolig oipli, ib. 

ni eel, ib. 

aipo pi, ib. 

ab %Cn, ib. 

1 u. pp. lulgach, .... ib. 

o cmeao jpfgpaibe glain 

bu eopacea co cpuacham, 100 

unipirh, ib. 

epi fie. cope efno mail, • ib. 

00 beapap, ib. 

gan oub, 102 

R15I1 Cpuachann. 

: buan 1 bpar, 


pipin pig pope, . . . . 
a cabaipe la beallcaine, . 

jan anpip, 

lap lo alle, ..... 

ppi ppicoum, 

cia bo beapub, . . . . 

a cip, 

noco niub luigne, . . . 

' F ea P> 

a cubaipe jrach naen nuaip 
ou pi riunje bai, 
ip mop jliaio, . . . 

cabeap bo pi olnegmeacc, 

jan anpopup, 

ip 00 oelbn. bleguip pin, 
ou pi connacc gu cpua- 


ip bo bealbnaib noco bpej 
blejaip in cam oa coiriifo, 
munbao in peapuno paen- 

S eal , 

minbuo cap ceuno a cipe, 












, ib. 






Various Readings. 


43 ciu do beupup in cam caeiii 

o huib muine na maj 
puen, 106 

44 jan comlano, . . . . ib. 
" na clann, ib. 

46 comlann, ib. 

47 hua bpium noco bpeg ani- 

blao, ib. 

48 na cacc, 108 

" cam, ib. 

™ ploinnpfc, ib. 

" lmjlec, ib. 

52 0I1516, ib. 

s3 olejaip, ib. 

54 no l compaicrib, . . . ib. 

55 munab, ib. 

se & a? j n can na £ i eo p, p acuaj^j 

la pilaeba lpguaipe jluaip 
lpann leo jan cpao cam 
leac-gualu Ian pj cpua- 

chain 110 

niaic po puaip 6enen gu 
an eolupa na neceapc, 
plombpeacpa baib cpe baio 

in oil, 
a oaine ana eipoij. . . ib. 
[N. B. The intervening 
rami is not in B.] 
Mi oo cuopapcluib, . . . ib. 
49 on peapamo, 110 | 

w ana, 

61 ip puioiu po bic, conuo, 
82 bu £ubail, . . . 

63 naemu, 

64 pair, 

65 pojniac, 

C6 uii., 

67 Cuapapcla coigib, . . 

M oia, 

69 FP>, 






nu., ib. 

1 mi. mna 

mi. luipeca ppi a la, . ib. 

2 pop a linj, 1 14 

3 nimjell, ib. 

4 epbeapga, ib. 

5 luaijni (corrected to lui 

5 m )> ib - 

15 cairirh, ib. 

7 5 ap 5 a 5 la.p geala, . . . ib. 

8 na cop on caill. [N. B. — 

This figure ?s should be at 
the end of the first line 
of the next runn which 
precedes this in B.], . . ib. 

5 nac clae, ib. 

* mblubaij, ib. 

1 (bis) p. neic -| t>a palaij p. 

cl., ib. 

1 ppi, 116 

; muixe hai, . . • . . ib. 


Various Readings. 

III. L— OligheaDh T^igh Qili^li. 


1 -| a cuapapcla i. a cip ooib, 118 

1 (bis) c. mapc c. cope I. bo, ib. 

- oo., ib- 

3 in puici pe la 6enfn, . • ib. 

4 cpica, 120 

5 o cuaic paca, . . . . ib. 

-???■> 1U - 

blaca, ib. 

in cuipo, ib. 

na, • ib. 

baio, ib. 

ni baib nimnio, .... 122 

co mbain imlib, . . . ib. 

ppip caillcip cuaib, . . ib. 

o cianacc in cpuao cojaib, ib. 

cibnagaip ib. 

cope, 124 

jan luije, ib. 

Ni olejaip, ib. 

1 jabaip, ib. 

'no, ib. 


pa be pin in can nac, 
pmn bno, .... 

r le 5 a ' 



. 126 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

■ cpom, 

- nocho pai nucha puipij, . 126 

23 T"5 e > ib - 

24 cuinjeaba ceapc, . . . ib. 

25 Op lac po pojla, . . . ib. 

26 ono, ib. 

31 pi., 128 

32 compaino, ib. 

33 CI pip oiu noechup pa cuaio 

co, ib. 

34 ep., ib. 

35 jualainb, ib. 

36 cpeach, ib. 

37 cpuaoapcaip, ib. 

38 in muipn, ib. 

39 ui. eoco, 130 

40 pe, 132 

41 un. nee, ib. 

42 pc, ib. 

43 ailli ppi haijib, . . . . ib. 

44 pfn, ib. 

45 cpi, ib. 

46 biaoij pfip, ib. 

47 P., ib. 

48 comola, . . 

49 a cuaio, . . 

50 a libap cu lep, 

51 lpi pcpibup, . 



Various Readings. 


III. 2 — Oli^heanh R15I1 Oipglnall. 



re^aio. [N. B The refe- 
rence 3 has been dropped 
from the text. The reader 
will supply it to the last 
line of the page but one, 
where for nu ceip in L. 
we have mcti cejaio in B. 
The sentence following 
has been inserted at page 
136, in full, from both 

uc peagam, 






ipeab po cula, 
nacap cino pojmaip 
ppi bpuinne buana, . 

Se c. a bocomlub. . 

pe c. 001b aheappac, . 

JTlab liu liceappum, 
a njnimaib geimlij 
ni ble^ap bib pium, . 

aicepe ana Oip^iall, 

5 e - 

01a nela, 

ip pip inp ponoa, . . 
la Colla lTleann buca, 
O ceaclaio epamnaij, 
co popuni nan cecim, . 
ni liummep, .... 









16 (bis) buo eippin (end of 

second line of the prose, 

for pooepin), . . . .142 

17 -| a neibiub b^ib -| a mbec 

po puimb pij, .... 144 

ls muppopluipeb, .... ib. 

19 bu pi h. m-6pam Qpcaill, ib. 

20 du pi leicpinn, . . . . ib. 

21 ui., ib. 

" poip, ib. 

23 conio ba coirii fc na pocup 

pin po pij, ib. 

28 ploindpio oe, 146 

29 pfncupcloinnecaeimCaip- 

ppe, ib. 

30 abpao, ib. 

31 allaim, ib. 

32 jan cuibpig, ib. 

33 cojup, ib. 

34 geiban <$lap, ib. 

35 in, ib. 

36 du, ib. 

37 naeb, 148 

38 ui., ib. 

39 copprap caerii, . . . . ib. 
4(1 0I1516 uippi ua noprain. . 150 

41 apcaill, ib. 

42 pe hec blip cpiuin ppi coj- 

pe mo^aio naccael imcain 
pe mna baepu bia noi£- 

Bail ib. 

13 rpi cuar apcip, .... ib. 


Various Readings 

M pua cpiriich., 152 

,s blijib, ib. 

* 6 a, ib. 

47 oip pc, ib. 

48 lop, ib. 



" am, . . . . 
h0 caca, . . . 
51 u. lonja u. lui 

|-ui. cl. camu-| 

'V- i U1 - 


pino mna > 
pio. J 



r o, r> 

cu mop bucuip, . . . 




ill. 3.— Oligheat)}! TC15I1 Ulao. 

1 nuc pi e p. ep. a leaclam 
1 jupub e bup copac co- 
ftaip-j coimioeacca ineab 
bfp a puil pi ep. -| in can 

mupjepac, 154 

: u., 156 

1 bu pi aenoupc oi cem, . ib. 

1 bail buinne, ib. 

' conall. aipjic, . . . . ib. 

; bu pi ouibcpuin, . . . . ib. 

: oo j^rii, ib. 

na hupjaile, ib. 

' a ceumpai^, 158 

nu mbuampleub, . . . ib. 

Caeja'cl. I. eac noono 

I. bp. I. cocoll 

I. pcinft noumeac nouca, 

I. luip. Ian caca. . . . ib. 

< x. lonja ppi Ian cpeapa, . ib. 

na piao bpec, .... ib. 

nuabuaip, ib. 

* pici bp. m beaj ml, . . 158 

; cpi mog. cpi mna baepu, 160 

' Ian caema, ib. 

' Ian rinfpa, ib. 

' pi o neapcou cein, . . . ib. 

' r e > ib. 

pe cuipn pe claioim cojaio 

pe mogaio pi mop obaip, 162 

oail buinoi bain, . . . ib. 

mepa, ib. 

caicmec, ib. 

ni plaib, ib. 

cona ppianaib pfn aipgic, ib. 

ppfm, 164 

na pcaiceann pluai£, . . ib. 

ce mbennaib, ib. 

tan cennaij, ib. 

gan riiop puch ib. 

occ mna occ neic bonna, . ib. 

baipce mbile, . . . . ib. 

cpi, ib. 

Various Reading* 



' ceanu, 164 

' aen jeala, ib. 

coba caim, ib. 

ocaip, ib. 

oia, 166 

am, ib. 

baipce, 168 

piala, ib. 

I. lppair, ib. 

alme, ib. 

qn, ib. 

a lacapnaib, ib. 

a cpoepije, ib. 

ay in bpfouij, . . . . ib. 

o moncaib, ib. 

ge mocao, ib. 

leopioe, ...... ib. 

cupjnam, ib. 

' i uamnui juc oaca, . . 168 
1 Olijeao aipopi emnu lp 

ul., ib. 

' < muij, 170 

1 $an bine, ib. 

ploino ou cac, . . . . ib. 

' po, ib. 

' cope aca ula, ib. 

1 oil. o cpocpije, .... ib. 

oojpaio, 172 

ana, ib. 

1 cia, ib. 

moncaib, ib. 

ab, ib. 

ccc, ib. 

na coipcaip, ib. 

co nui bpij gop an pi j, . ib. 

ana, 174 

IV — Dliglieaoh TC15I1 UeamTijiack 

011 pi£ cuac mioi, 
■ ou pi laijpi, . . 

3 ou pi peap ceull, 

4 ou pi peap eeabca, 

6 caill pollamam, . 
* ou pi oelbna, . . 

7 conuo oe pin, . . 
' a ceampai£, . . 
9 pop Ian rhebpui^, 

10 ceumpac, . . . 
" lann 











12 a 178 

13 B. has bere both the readings 

inserted iu the text, and 
also ec repeated, between 
them. It is plain that the 
last three Avords in B. are 
alone the true text, . . ib. 

14 laejaipe, ib. 

15 ^p(n pi, ib. 

16 Caille eacoach, . . . ib. 
17 5aiU, 180 


Various Readings. 


cecibra, 180 

bebra, ib. 

dig [N. B. the two quatrains 

following not in B.], . . ib. 
caille an ollairh, . . .182 
Qc pom cuap ib. 

1, ib. 

ac bi]i pil., ib. 

lp an &I15., ib. 

Cuapupclu pij cuac mioi 

po paioj earn, .... ib. 

ona, 184 

roj^aib, ib. 

pine, ib. 

' nuna, ib. 

cobai j na ccmapa, . . . ib. 

' lap mbuain, ib. 

' po paio, ib. 

1 mice, ib. 

' map pognuc t»o ceampaig 

cuip, ib. 

' po peulbra, ib. 

: o bum beipi, ib. 

1 bli^io pi eeuriipuc nu cuur, 


pcpcpc. cpain ni cip Bpaeap, 
.F?£. mole mair a naipim, 

00 pi mioi mop pailio. . 184 

a moip pine, ib. 

cemaip, 186 

papjba, ib. 

o bpuicpib nu bopb luigne, ib. 
C. papbpac o na paibnib, 

c. cpana lp cpoo pip raicio 

1 c. mapc ap mui^ib, 

lac. mole 01a moppaigib, 188 

C. a cuipcnib, .... ib. 
loma oupi luioip liar opo- 

ma, ib. 

1 pailleunb, ib. 

ou claen pair po cuala- 

baip, ib. 

o, ib. 

1 nocop oub ouepuib, . . . ib. 

p^rx. beaj 6am lp baipe, 
pepp- luljuc Ian buioe. . ib. 

Ipc. mapc nun mop eului£, 190 
: 1 eeamaip (last line but one), ib. 
; a haipb cip (last line), . ib. 

V.— OlislieaohPi^hLaighean, a^up UiorTU)aCharhaei]i 

•5 U > 

in painpepce, .... 


cam in minb mop aicnio 


. 192 
. ib. 

. ib. 


muipec mo mac mmjop . 192 
' ppi eeamup (las>t line but 

one) ib. 

'' la mbuan macnib. . . . 104 

Various /?< 


7 gopbao bmoni beanacca, 194 

s oubaipc ib. 

9 if iap, ib. 

"' oaipe m-bappac, . . . ib. 

" co n bunanup, . . . . ib. 

12 pui6 aipenuc, .... ib. 

13 na guib epic al. peoou ao 

comuipce, ib. I 

14 bpeiqii, ib. I 

u a, ib. | 

10 co mbao ma copobop cong 

jailianaib gap, . . . ib. 

17 oo ib. 

" bno for bin, ib. 

19 pip paipe cen puraipe, . 196 

20 epijpio, ib. 

21 caerpac, ib. 

22 larha, ib. 

23 oubapc oo a peoam pobe- 

pin co lin a pualaip, . ib. 

24 i apbeapc ppi ceran, . . ib. 

25 oum ceoac epibe acaip, . ib. 

20 oun, ib. 

"-'■ je beir peal, .... ib. 

28 uamgaine, ib. 

29 gfn imglinne, . . . . ib. 

30 aip ni moineac, .... 198 

31 cluicecuip, ib. 

32 lim a Ian vhaipi, . . . ' ib. 

33 a cualaip, ib. 

34 epi mepci ppia, . ib. 

35 pip ap, ib. 

36 pealb peapb, ib. 

37 ap meao ipimnaip, . . . ib. 

38 curip, ib. 

'actings. 285 


Rio eoco, 200 

ceclannpap, ib. 

cpeoip, ib. 

cuipjeboac nipobap map, ib. 

ni po, ib. 

a bparaip, ib. 

ap, ib. 

a, ib. 

huaip bo pair, ib. 

ba, ib. 

a haehap, ib. 

pai mip gaca bparaip, 
ouio -| paioi .uii. mbliaona 

lam pop, ib. 

po gnipino, ib. 

milceouib, ib. 

Cap man, 202 

aipo miom, ib. 

co luce maipe, . . . . ib. 

up mo piaco apomijnio, . ib. 

bno, ib. 

na m-bpacap, . . . . ib. 

piaco ba haicio, . . . ib. 

olejap jan each, . . . 204 

unapm, ib. 

conopocaip, ib. 

luaijne, ib. 

ono., ib. 

nal, ib. 

Cucaip mop in popap uc, ib. 

ba, ib. 

Comb ooib pin po cacam, ib. 
epia cuaicle na cuapipcail, ib. 

uip bub acuibb, ib. 

pa, ib. 


I r arious Readings. 


75 pe lennaap in lateippe, . 204 
7,i biu, 20G 

77 lap cuill., ib. 

78 on laec pin, ib. 

79 This figure is misplaced. 

80 in atpioen, ib. 

80 (bis) nacaipijfo, end of line 

14, ib. 

" pe oairh luara leomeaca, ib. 

82 na 208 

83 pe pail£e apamo ou pi Rai- 

peno 210 

84 oun miliope, ..... ib. 

85 cop numai5, ib. 

s,i pocopr, . . . . . ib. 

87 ag Dinb jabpa, . . . .212 

88 ap cop aip ap aijib, . . ib. 

89 ppi coro^ao, ib. 

90 menn mopa, ib. 

91 ina noeajpomal, . . . 216 

92 pecuipn bea in a njlac- 

caib, ib. 

w lp lac cuap. laec laij. 

alaim glainmap^elcopao, ib. 

94 pop£alluib ceaeamupcup 

na cana pa .i., .... 218 

95 cc, ib. 

96 o cogaiprib na njpao pene, ib. 

97 ma ppepair caeja ma ce- 

cio inb pin oa coibeppoppo, ib. 
99 i, ib. 

99 pap, ib. 

100 ap a n-oli j, ib. 

101 ip conjabla, ib. 

102 ip cc. bo, 220 

oli. c. bpac noco bpe£, 

ip c. rope ip cpom i cpeb, 220 

nail, ib. 

caema, ib. 

ace o poipb, ib. 

a, ib. 

ni lcaio u. pailji naip, 
cip no canaio no curhail 
ou pi laijean ma lai ap 


ace cuio aibci ap aibacc, ib. 

na, ib. 

bana, ib. 

n 5 a PP> ib. 

cc. mbpac cc. mbo mbir 

blicc, ib. 

ft", 222 

ip lac pin cipa, .... ib. 

na, ib. 

a coipeecc, ib. 

pa, ib. 

blejap, ib. 

gen ceap, ib. 

a P, ib. 

be ouinib, ib. 

cip ou cunnu ip nerhio, . ib. 

cip ounaij ip bpolcao, , ib. 

P u , ib. 

caen, ib. 

belm, 224 

a peapono, ib. 

Noco oli^fnb jeo cino, . ib. 
pill na piapcap pip pin, 

acip ip a cuap ib. 

piccon, ib. 

Various Readings 



m no, 224 

,M ruapiprla cipa coipc. . . ib. 

133 po ib. 

134 amnil pop pagaib 6enen 

(line 20), ib. 

135 511 coipacc, 226 

,M ba, ib. 

137 mac aeoil pucaij, . . . ib. 

138 na moip piac, .... ib. 

139 Goajap ju hua oeocai£, ib. 

140 01a 228 

1,1 ^up epi£ ina beraio, . . ib. 

: aonujuo, 228 

1 ppona pain, ib. 

1 pop paccao. ib. 

' neopao, ib. 

; nopceppa ppi 0111b 6eamon, ib 

Pacbaim popanar uilef, 230 

1 b. oiu oulcaib jonnaf, . ib. 

in Dun ap a ranag cuaio, 

ni paba a pi po buaio, . ib. 

a jsjaille, ib. 

clann, ib. 

t See note at the end. 

VI beannaclic phdopuij, 

a o-Uea 


1 bnil, 234 

- oaice, ib. 

3 ce, . ..*.... ib. 

4 piapapa cipa -j cuapapcla, ib. 

5 ap, ib. 

c ulugaip, ib. 

7 [N. B. — The figure : is 

misplaced in line 7]. • • 236 
s a caen cuigfo a cuije- 

oaib ol banba nac, . . ib. 
9 peaccap, ib. 

10 jac cipe a C15 ip ano a pai, ib. 

11 eb ib. 

12 anap cnipoine, . . . . ib. 

13 no ap map aicme minab, ib. 

14 r a! 5's f r ib. 

13 peapuno 238 

a^iif Ceapc R105T1 Giyieann 


5 oanof£ peapaib, . . . 238 

T ceampaij cinn, . . . ib. 

1 ceaccpai^fp Gp., . . . ib. 

» bpaenuije, ib. 

5 ceac, ib. 

1 conuije, ib. 

'■ oepiun, ib. 

; oibpiun giall, .... ib. 
1 00 bpeich 00 pun co cfm- 

r«'5 ib - 

1 paep popuo, .... ib. 

' no 50 pipa oa cuipe, . . ib. 
na capoa ceupc peap ceupc 

nee co nac beapa, . . ib. 

; 00 eijpib, ib. 

1 ceapna cogao cam, ap 

pluaj, ib. 


Various Readings. 


i eeamaip, 240 

mina pfpjna pfti pe jail, ib. 

op bpua linni luacgainni, ib. 
meo na pleoi olegap ann, ib. 

bcmo, ib. 

F^P'S* ib - 

a einol, ib. 

ap a napoap, . . . . ib. 

ipe pin, ib. 

mac mm placet, . . . ib. 

na ba6 ole do, .... ib. 

oeajap, ib. 

oun cploj, ib. 

a leae, ib. 

ppi, ib. 

oppo, ib. 

do, ib. 

poiprn pinna, a piocel- 

laib, 242 

Comleeuo a aijchi, . . ib. 

cam, ib. 

inn plaea, ib. 

conaleaib ib. 

oun pij pin 511 mop, . . ib. 

00 pa coja, ib. 

mao oa pab in aen coma, ib. 

pa caem cip ec, ... 244 

maipec, ib. 

cupuib 1, ib. 

001b moip, ib. 

poppinn, ib. 

a mbioip beie (end of 

line 11), ib. 

eaeb jlaine, ib. 

ni binunn -| nfrheni, . . ib. 


64 co na caeaib, . 

65 oa popcuo ju pooail, 


6i Ian rin ceo pfrhi oa raij, 244 

65 0015, ib. 

67 apcap ipe ap cupju a 

cuap ib. 

68 %e lappaijcbeap, . . . ib. 

69 ullcaib, ib. 

70 pop leie, 246 

71 caba, ib. 

72 on., ib. 

73 1 peace ple^a pop lee, . ib. 

74 oligio conall co coimofip, 

lap noco gabann a mbaio, ib. 

75 oipjiall, ib. 

76 puioi in jac 6u ap a be- 

luib, ib. 

77 a ec 1 coja eoai^, . . . ib. 
73 ca nimao a ploij, . . 248 

79 na caij, 

conoecao leip co ceam- 

! iai S> ib - 

80 aluinn, ib. 

81 1 a lann Ian mebpa, . . ib. 

82 oopun 1 cenn cuipe, . . ib. 

83 oecpain oa pobaipe, . . ib. 

94 paip linne, ib. 

85 ap loc pinn • ib. 

85 a buuoa, ib. 

87 a coinmeao cape, . . . ib. 

98 cpe 6015, ib. 

89 ima m^fnpaij, . . . . ib. 

90 0151 ap, ib. 

91 nglap puup, ib. 

92 Kipeap, 250 

Various Readings. 



. 250 

. ib. 

, ib. 
. ib. 

1 a paip a cea mpaij, 

l F le fc 

'puipjj, .... 

1 ruipc, 

acaib inbap caij, 

aca lempa bo mebaip, . ib. 

1 po pij co par par, . . ib. 

' lepiun co cuachaio, . . ib. 

'in, ib. 

lap, ib. 

: leapjaio, ib. 

1 lap naipe pean oa papcuo, ib. 

1 mao a Cennpelacaib, . ib. 

' bep a placup Ian rhopa, . ib. 

'' pooail, ib. 

' oo macaib pij poa, . . ib. 

' occ, ib. 

'a, ib. 

'a, • .252 

bfjnuall, ib. 

■ cama gan cleir, . . . ib. 

'■ (bis) oecaib maice, . . ib. 

1 -| mi. cpuao cloibeam, . ib. 

' (bis) comoaice, . . . . ib. 

' na nee, ib. 

; pin, ib. 

5 buaoa, ib. 

1 car o'puajpa aip na cpen 

cip, ib. 

3 oo pep in lino, . . . . ib. 

'in ib. 

aepao, .... 
j-an ceac l naip, 
blejaip ou pi na, 


oul oo ruarhaib na, . . 254 

caippreac, ib. 

oo comaioearh a pleioe, ib. 

cede l, ib. 

6p ib. 

i, ib. 

. . . . ib. 

. . . . ib. 

. . . . ib. 

. . . . ib. 

. . . . ib. 

oul jaca mipco cfmpaij, ib. 

r a > 

F U 'P'S> 

pip oeap, .... 

nu rij, .... 

o' pfgain, .... 

1 ^an oula ap apcap, . . ib. 

no 2JU pajao, . . . . ib. 

olijfp, ib. 

ap cuinn, ib. 

o pi apail, ib. 

occ, ib. 

rpebap cip, ib. 

-) occp:^. ailbm, . . . ib. 

Ctcaipe uao ou caipel, . ib. 

caebcaipean, . . . . ib. 

combeo, 256 

i jnima co njail, . . . ib. 
oa macaib pi j p oa pijaib, ib. 
(These lines are transposed 


in aen lo, ib. 

a luipeac pa £a. . . . ib. 
oa eac maici in opocbeoj, ib. 

comain compamai j, . . ib. 

oo ip, 258 

1 epi cuipn i epi, .... ib. 
1 a lann pijoa co pinn nglan, ib. 

na pappao, ib. 

1 ip muna cecca car cam, 

eccpa aip peac pijaib. ib. 


Various Readings. 

151110 upb moip. 


. 258 

top, ib. 

tpi pp. bo, 260 

[The following rann not 
in B.] 

oip, . ib. 

pume, ....... ib. 

164 , p e y eo a pip , m nc, 

165 oa c 

166 mop an blijio pi, . 

167 pO, 



168 gupub i a bean pe gac 

1 a peap i cempai^, . . ib 

169 amcup, ib 

'"° comoaic 

poja noelba ep pe jail 

-] a pum, ib 

171 cpuacna ni eel, ib 

'" na, ib 

173 uarad, ib, 



. 262 

. ib. 

5 a , 

Cpuacna in cimd, 


cpuacu, 264 

a P, ib. 

ma oa nbeapna 

ju gnac pain 

ni jeba gu bpar, . . ib. 

in mal, ib. 

mi. pceie baca ip begoal, ib. 

bo if, ib. 

^u cpen uc, ib. 

com pajaib, ib. 

o plaic cpuacna cnfpji, . 

[N.B. — The nine ranns fol- 
lowing, to the end, are not 
in B. ; that copy finishes 
at the foot of fol. 154, 
a. b., as follows: 


piNiu. ameN. socam o fcreoma HomiNe s^RiSsit)]. 

The following remarks on the style of writing observed in the two 
MSS. (L. andB.) which have been now the subject of comparison, may 
interest the critical Irish reader. They are offered in addition to what 
has been said at the close of the Introduction. 

1st. As regards aspiration. The dot, as a mark of aspiration, is 
seldom used in those MSS., and even more sparingly in L. than in B., 
though the latter is rather the more ancient MS. The letter h, to 
denote aspiration, is frequently used, but its use is strictly confined 
to three cases, viz., ch, ch, and ph. This last is rather of rare occur- 
rence, for the letter p itself is infrequent in the Irish language, and its 
aspirate of course still more so. The aspirates bh, bh, ph, gh, mh, 
ph, do not occur once in either MS. 

Various Readings. 291 

The cause of this plainly was, that the school of writing in which 
the scribes were trained was a Latin school, in which ch, ph, and ch 
(following the Greek aspirates #, <p, 6), alone were used; the other 
aspirates, bh, dh, &c., were unknown to the Greeks and Romans, and 
were therefore considered inadmissible by the Latin scribes. 

For the same reason, in forming Latin names, Teamhair became 
Temoria ; Laighin, Lagenia ; Uladh, Ulidia ; Mumha, Momonia ; Breagh 
became Bregia; Laeghaire, Loegarius; Kuadhan, Rodanus, &c. &c. 
But Ard Macha preserved its form, the aspirate being already known 
in the Latin tongue; and Muireadhach became Muredachus, in which 
the aspirate dh was commuted to d, while ch was preserved. 

That the habits of the Irish scribes were Latinized will further 
appear from an inspection of some of the contractions in common use : 
for instance, -\ for ucup, p for ace, t for no. These are obviously Latin, 
viz., -| et, p sed, t vel, corresponding in meaning with the three Irish 
particles just mentioned; and in the MSS. these Latin contractions are 
introduced into the body of Irish words, to express, at one time, the let- 
ters of the Irish particles, and at another the letters of the corresponding 
Latin particles. Thus, -pp stands not for acup ip, but ecip, i. e. lOip, 
between; so conp stands for Connace, and catine for canoine. So u 
is used for the Irish imoppo, corresponding with the Latin vero, which 
it represents. 

The omission of the dot in writing, or of h in a Latin name, can 
seldom be taken against other evidence as proof that aspiration was 
not used. The constant use of ch and ch in these MSS., and the 
occasional use of the dot, determine the usage of the language at the 
time ; and it will be found that the habit and rules of the language, as 
regards aspiration in speaking, have varied in little or nothing from the 
fourteenth century to the present time. 

In editing Leabhar na g-Ceart, the omitted dot has been generally 
supplied, but not over initial capital letters, for the use of the dot 
over capitals is inconvenient in printing ; but where, in the case of a 
capital letter, aspiration is connected with the construction of the 
language, as when used between one part of speech and another, to 
mark their mutual dependence, an h has been inserted, but always in 
a parenthesis (h), as it was determined to print the text without the 
addition of a letter; as in 6 m(h)upcpaibiB, ap S(h)arhain, oo-m' 

o 2 

292 Various Readings-. 

t)(h)mpe, u t)(h)mpe. In similar situations, after C and C the 
text already possessed the h, as 6 ChicrppuioiB, icip Uherhaip ip Cia- 
rhcun. But when there was no such government the parenthetical (h) 
has not been inserted, as Dectp ^yjocup for Deas Ghabhair. The dot 
found in the MSS. has in some cases been preserved over the initial 
capital, as 6 peapaib Qpoa, p. 186; do pil Piachach, p. 204; oo pij 
Popthuaeh, p. 206. 

Secondly, as regards eclipsing. We find that the proper eclipsis has, 
with almost perfect regularity, been inserted in three cases, viz., before 
b, t>, and 5, i. e. by mb, no, and nj; or, as we have printed them, m-b, 
n-o, and n-5 ; also in the corresponding prefixing of n before vowels 
in similar situations, as n-a; thus, peace m-bpuic, oce n-ourh, nae 
n-gabpa, oeic n-eic. 

In the cases, however, of words of eclipsing power occurring before 
the consonants c, p, p, e, eclipsis is never used in these MSS. 

Now this occurs, not because the eclipsing sound was not adopted 
in these cases, just as much as in those we had just noticed, but 
from quite a different cause. It will at once be seen that the conso- 
nants c, p, p, e, are those in which, in the succeeding century, the act 
of eclipsing was designated by a simple reduplication of the consonant, 
viz., by ec, pp, pp, ec; and there is no more doubt that the single let- 
ters in our text, in the eclipsed situations, were sounded exactly as 
they are now pronounced, than that those redoubled letters were so ex- 
pressed: and thus, peache claioim, ochc pailji, in the fourteenth 
century; peace cclaibim, occ ppailji, in the sixteenth century; and 
peace g-ctaiDirh, oce b-pail$e, in the eighteenth century, are the same. 

The parenthesis has also been used to exhibit this eclipsis to the 
reader, and the text appears thus: peace (5)-clai6irh, oce (b)-pcnlji. 

Thirdly, as regards the accent, or mark of long quantity. The adop- 
tion of this improvement, which enables the reader at once to enjoy 
his text by being informed how the best scholars of the age consider 
that it ought to be expressed, stood free of all difficulty. Not a single 
accent is discoverable in the entire text, either in B. or L., and therefore 
no disadvantage could here arise from the adoption of the accent. 

Fourthly, as regards the use of the vowels and consonants in these 

The diphthong ao, or triphthong aoi, never once occurs in the 

Various Readings* 293 

entire work ; ae is the form generally used, occasionally oe ; therefore, 
Gaejaipe, and sometimes Coejaipe, never Caojaipe. Theae is used as 
a broad diphthong, though ending in a slender vowel, and no confusion 
results from the use of it. Instead of aoi, uei occurs several times; 
very often ai in which the i is long, and it is accented ai in this edition, 
as in Cachaip, ouipe, paipe. 

The diphthong eu never once occurs. It was subsequently invented 
as a substitute for ea, and very uselessly, as the use of the accent was 
preferable to a change in orthography. 

The modern diphthongs Jo and 10 never once occur. The simple 
vowel i is used, and the reader is supposed to understand that it ends 
broad. Thus we have pil, not piol; Cpipc, not Cpiopc; pip, cip, cipaib, 
epicha, not piop, ciop, ciopaib, cpiocha, &c, in such words there was 
little or no occasion ever to have introduced the " o." In words 
whose terminations take the slender inflexion, it might, indeed, be said 
that the distinction afforded between 10 (broad) and 1 (slender) is an 
advantage, as if the Nom. be made Caipiol, and Gen. Caipil; or Gen. 
Gipionn and Dat. Gipinn. But in such cases a much better rule would 
have been to have adhered steadily to the Gen. Gipeann and Nom. Cai- 
peal, and to have reserved the Gipinn and Ccnpl for the slender ter- 
minations. The form Gipeann (6ipean0, Gpeanb) occurs oftenest, 
but it must be admitted that Gipinn, Gpino, &c, in the Gen. also are 
often found here. 

The simple e for the diphthong ea, terminating broad, occurs very 
often; but on the whole it appears, that at the date of these MSS., the 
use of ea was decidedly prevalent, and a great advantage was gained 
thereby, for whether the ea (unaccented) ea (e accented) or ea (a ac- 
cented) be intended, the a always governs or influences the sound. 

In the same way the simple e is often used where ei is used at other 
times, as Gle for Gile, Gpe for Gipe, ec for eic, oech for oeich, pcech 
for pceich. 

A final i occurs frequently for a final e, as TTIupcpaioi for TTlu| c- 

There are various words in which irregular vowels are found, as 
ruapipcla for euapapclu; so 50 (B.) for 50. 

With respect to consonants there is a very general use of the pri- 
mary (spirate) mute (c) for the medial (vocal) letter (5) of the same 

294 Various Readings. 

organ; as acup (in L.) for ajup (which occurs in B.); co for 50, cear 
for ceao, coic for cuig, each for jach, ic for aj, cuidc for raioj, and 
caipppe for caipbpe. 

There is a good deal of looseness in the use of 5 (i. e. 5) for o 
(i. e. 6), and vice versa, especially in the ends of Avords and between 
vowels, asUean pai6 for Uearhpaij, loi£e for luibe, &c. 

The use of the nn is frequent, but the no in place of it is still more 
so. There is a circumstance observable in these MSS., proving, as is 
generally known, that the b in the no was not pronounced, viz., that 
in a great many instances the b is dotted, thus, no, as may be seen 
above at pp. 279, 280, &c. 

W. E. II . 


The words leabup na c-Ceapc in p. 28, 1. 1, should have been printed na (5)- 
Ceapc. The MS. B. does not contain the second c. 

The whole passage in 13., referred to by Nos. '% l49 , to p. 230 (see Various Readings, 
p. 287), runs as follows : 

Pacbaim pop an Qr uile, — b. m-ban pop a ban-cuipe, — 
b. ap [a] gallnib jlana, — b. n-aille ap a injeana, — 

6. pnarha ap macaib a m-ban, — b. co^aio lp b. corhpam, — 
b. 01a oalcaib jonna, — im luao copn lp corhota. 

It appears by the fourth and seventh lines that the possessive pronoun here intended is 
the masculine singular; although there is a change to the plural in the fifth line, just as 
the plural runs through the text in L. Consequently Ctr, the Ford, is referred to, and 
the division of letters into words in the first line of the text in B. is correct, and the 
translation should run as follows : 

I leave upon the whole Ford, — 

Gift of being good wives upon ITS female bands, 
Gift, &c. 

Some omissions to insert the necessary marks of aspiration, eclipsis, and long quantity, 
in the Irish text, have taken place, particularly in pp. 28, 30, 32, which went to press 
before the rules to be observed were settled so fully as subsequently they were ; and even 
in the succeeding pages an attentive observer will detect, occasionally, omissions of the 
proper marks, which it is hoped the indulgent reader will excuse ; for it is indeed difficult 
altogether to avoid error in such matters, although there can be no doubt that, with aid 
so eminent as has been enlisted in the present publication, — Mr. Curry transcribing the 
MS. for the printer, — and Mr. O'Donovan superintending its progress through the press, 
— the highest perfection of accurate editing of the Irish text is attainable. But the rules 
to be ultimately adopted should be thoroughly understood beforehand. In the present 
case the whole MS. was transcribed in the same manner as that from which the text of 
the ^eapa, &c. (pp. 2-21) was printed ; and many of the typographic niceties after- 
wards adopted, were only gradually developed and systematized in the progress of the work 
through the printer's hands. 



Abi-iain Mhor (Blackwater, in Mun- 
ster), 42, n. 

(Avonmore, in Lein- 

ster, 196, n. 

Achadh Dubhthaigh [Aghadowy], 

church of, 123, n. 

Finiche, church of, . . . 12, n. 

Leithdheirg, battle of, 136, 136, n. 

Chonaire (Achonry), diocese 

of, 19, re. 103, re. 

Achonry, diocese of. See Achadh 

Aedh, son of Eochaidh Tirmcharna, 100, re. 
, king of Connacht, race of. See 

Cineal Aedha. 

Aenach Chairpre, 87, 91, n. 

m-Bearrain, ... 87, 90, «., 91 

Aenghus, ... 61, and Introd., p. viii. 

Chin Nathrach, .... 93, n. 

Fionn, 99, re. 

Nic, 199 

Aghadowey, parish of. See Achadh 

Aidhne (see Ui Fiachrach Aidhne), 

108, re., 117 

Ailbhe (see Magh Ailbhc), . . 16, n., 17, 

203, 203, n. 

Aileach, 31, 35, 119, 121, 125, 127, 129, 
130, »., 131, 133, 135, 137 
Aileach (Ely), palace of (see Grianan 

Ailigh), (Greenan Ely), . . . 120, n. 
Aillinn, Cnoc Aillinne (Knockallen 

or Dunallen), . 202, re., 203, 210, «. 

Aill Mic Cuirr, 89, 91, re. 

Ailpin, son of Eolathach, . 226, n., 227 

Aimherghin (Amergin), 107 

Aine (Eoghanacht Aine Cliach, and 

Cnoc Aine, Knockany), 39, n., 46, »., 

67, 79, 86, m., 87, 89, 93, 93, n. 

Air Bile (Ard Bile), .... 90, w , 91 

Airgead Ros (Rathveagh), . 203, 203, n. 

Airteach, territory of, 102, n. 

AitheachTuatha(Attacots) (see Athach 

Tuatha), 104, ». 

Alba (Scotland), 179 

Allen (Knockallen or Dunallen). See 


hill of. See Almhain. 

Almhain (hill of Allen), 5, 14, n., 15, 203 

Alpinus, 226, »., 227 

Alplann or Alprann (Calforn, or Cal - 

pornius, father of St. Patrick), 31, 55, 

Anghailc (Annaly), 181, n. 

Annalv. See Anghailc. 




Annatruim (in Upper Ossory). See 
Menedroichet Eanach Truim. 

Antrim, baronies of, . . 161, re., 170, re. 

Aodh. See Aedh. 

Aoibh Eachach. See Ui Eachach. 

Aonach. See Aenach. 

Aonghus. See Aenghus. 

Ara or Ara Tire (barony of Ara or 
Duhara), .... 43, 47, 61, 63, 87 

Cliach, 46, re. 

(great Island of Aran), . . . 92, n. 

Aras, the three, 87, 91, n. 

Araidhe (Dal Araidhe), . 23, 23, n., 159, 
159, n. 

Arda (barony of Ards), 157, 164, n., 165 

Ard Achadh (Ardagh), 9, re. 

Arda Cianachta, or Feara Arda (baro- 
ny of Ferrard), 186, n. 

Ardamine, 202, n. 

Arda Sratha (Ardstraw), . . . . 121, re. 

Ard Bile or Air Bile, . ... 87, 90, n. 

Ard Chonaill, 87 

Ardghal in Meath), . 177, 179, 179, re. 

Ard Macha (Armagh), . 142, n., 227, re., 
249, n. 

Ard Mic Conainn or Ard Mic Conaill, 

87, 90, n., 91 

Ardpatrick (in Limerick), ... 42, n. 

Ard Ruidhe, 87, 91 

Ard Sratha (Ardstraw), . 121, «., 129, 
133, re. 

Ards, barony of (see Arda), . .164, n. 

Ardstraw. See Arda Sratha. 

Arklow, 196, re. 

Arklow, barony of, 13, re. 

Armagh, barony of, . . 148, re., 151, n. 

See Ard Macha. 

Asal, Cnoc Droma Asail (Tory Hill, 
near Croom, Limerick), . 92, re., 93 

Askeaton. See Eas Geibhtine. 

Assaroe. See Eas Aedha Ruaidk. 


Ath Cliath (Dublin), 12, «., 33, 41,51, 

55, 225, 226, re., 227, 229, 231, 231, n., 

232, re., 233 

na Borumha (at Killaloe), . 20, ». 

Gallta, 5, 20, w., 21 

Athlone, barony of, 105, re. 

. See Ath Luain. 

Ath Luain (Athlone), . 5, 19, re., 264, re. 

Maighne (a ford in the parish of 

Mayne, in Westmeath), 3, 10, 10, re. 

Athach Tuatha (see A itheach), . . 174, n. 

Ath Truistean, .... 212, n., 215, re. 

Athboy, (see Tlachtgha), ... 10, n. 

Athy, parish of, 210, n. 

Attacots. See Aitheach and Athach 

Augher (in Fir Leamlina), . . . 152, n. 

Avonmore. See Abhain Mhor. 


Badharn, cataract of, . . . 34, re., 
Baile Mor Locha Seimhdidhe ( Bally- 
more Loughsewdy), 249, 

Baiscinn (see Corca Bhaiscinti), 43, 48, 

Baiscneach, (see Baiscinn) . 65, 65, 
Ballaghkeen, barony of, ... 202, 
Ballaghmoon. See Mughna h-Eal- 

chain and Bealach Mughna. 
Ballaghmore. See Bealach Mor. 
Ballovey. See Odhbha Ceara. 
Ballyadams, barony of, . 214, n., 215, 
Ballyboy, barony of, .... 180, 

Ballybritt, barony of, 79, 

Ballycarbery, 47, 

Ballycowen, barony of, .... 180, 
Ballygawley (in Tir Leamhna), . 152, 
Bally -mack- elligott (tee Ard Bile), 90, 
Ballymore Loughsewdy. See Baile 

Mor Locha Seimhdidhe. 
Ballynacourty, parish of, .... 92, 





Ballynahineh, barony of, . . . . 100, n. 

Banagh, barony of, 130, /*. 

Banbha (Ireland), 158, n., 159, 225, 237, 

Bandain (Bandon) river, .... 59, n. 

Bangor (see Beannchor), .... 164, n. 

Barm (the river, upper and lower;, 37, w., 
38, »., 123, n., 124, »., 147, n. 

Bantry. See Beanntraidhe. 

Bard, meaning of the word, . . . 183, n. 

Barnane Ely (Devil's Bit), ... 78, n. 

Barnecullen (see Cualann), ... 13, n. 

Barnismore (see Bearmas), 19, n., 34, n. 

Barrane (Aenach m-Bearrain), . 90, n. 

Barrow, River (see Bearbha), 5, 15, n., 
1(3, »., 17, »., 210, »., 212, «. 

Barry (Philip and William de Barry). 
See Barrymore and Ui Liathain. 

Barrymore, barony of, 73, n. 

Battle of Achadh Leithdheirg, or Cam 
Achaidh Leithdheirg (see Achadh 
Lcithdheirgh), . 136, w., 137, 153, n. 

Battle of Ardeoran, 161, n. 

Bealach Mughna, . . . 230, n. 

— Cluain Tarbli (Cloutarf ), 207, n. 

Crinna, 186, n. 

Magh Tuireadh, . . . .115,??. 

Taillte, 194, n., 205 

Beal Atha naTeamhrach (see Teumhair 

Luachra), 90, n. 

Bealach Duibhlinne, 14, n., 15 

Gabhrain, ... . 32, n. 

■ na Lnchaide, 20, n. 

Mor ( Ballaghmore), . .260,?*. 

Mughna, battle of, ... 58, n. 

Bealltaine (May-day), 3, 11 

Beanna Boirche (see Boirche), 38, » , 
148, n., 165, n. 
Beannchor (Bangor), .... 164, n. 
Beanntraidhe (Bantry), . 89, 95, 95, n 
Bearbha (Barrow) river, 5, 15, n., 16, «., 


17, 7i., 40, «., 203, 210, »., 212, »., 

213, n. 

Bearnas (Barnismore), 19, 19, n., 34, n., 35 

Bearnas Chonaill (Harnismore), . 35, n. 

Beam tri Carbad, 20, n. 

Beithlinn. See Belin. 

Bekan, parish of, 100, n. 

Belin (Beithlinn), parish of, . . . 210, n. 

Belvoir Park, 172, n. 

Benean, 29, 33, 51, 53, 61, 63, 69, 71, 

81, 89, 97, 99, 111, 113, 119, 137, 145, 

155, 157, 169, 177, 185, 205, 219, 225, 
238, and see the Introd., p. ii., &c. 

Bile Tortan, 151, n. 

Blaekwater Kiver (in Minister). See 

Abhain Mhor. 
Blaekwater River (in Ulster), . . 152, n. 
Bo Neimhidh (water of), ... 7, 25 

Bochluain, church of, 215, n. 

Boinn (River Boyne), 3, 9,n., 11, »., 21, ra., 
226, n., 241, n. 
Booley. See Buaile. 
Boirche (see Beanna Boirche), 38, n., 39, 

157, 157, 7i., 165, 165, n., 169, 169, n. 

Boirinn(Burren), . . 43,49, 49, n., do, 

92, n. 

Border tribute, 52, n. 

Boyle, barony of, ... . 20, »., 104, «. 

, river, 20, n. 

Boyne, river (see Boinn), . 3, 9, n , 11, 
21, n., 226, n. 
Brann Dubh, a celebrated king of Lein- 

ster, 36, n. 

Branndubh, province of, 36, n., 37, 40, n. 
Brawney, barony of (see Breagh- 

mhuine), 180, »., 186, n. 

Breadach (Knockbreda), 169, 172,?*., 173 
Breagh, usually called Magh Breagh, 

and Latinized Bregia, 3, 11, 11, «., 

52, ?>., 177, 178, »., 179, 221, »., 225, 
244, n., 245, 267, and Introd., p. iii. 




Bregia (see Breagh), . . 87, re., 188, n. 

Breagh-mhaine ( Brawney), 180, re., 186, re. 

Breasal Breac, (see Osraidhe), 51, 51, n. 

Eineaeh-ghlais, . . 195, re., 197 

(see Ui Breasait), . . . 147, n. 

Breice, the oak of, . . . . 5, 19, 19, n. 

Brian of Archoill, 151, n. 

Brick. See O'Bruic. 

Bridget. See Brighid. 

Brigh Leithe, heath fruit of, . 3, 9, re. 

Brighid Chille Dara (St Bridget of 
Kildare), 253, 253, n. 

Brosna river. See Brosnach. 

Brosnach, the cresses of the, . 3, 9, 9, re. 

Brugh-righ (Bruree), 77, re., 85, 85, »., 
87, 88, 88, w., 89 

Bruree. See Brugh-righ. 

Buaile (Booley) explained, . . . 46, re. 

Buais (Bush) river, 159, n. 

Buinne, race of. See Dal Buinne. 

Butlers, 49, re. 

Bunbrosna, 9, re. 

Burgheis Ua Cathain (Burrisokane), 52, re. 

Burgheis Umhaill ( Burrishoole). See 

Burkes, 67, n. 

Burren. See Boirinn. 

, barony of, ... 49, re., 65, n. 

Burrishoole, (Burgheis Umhaill) ba- 
rony of, 56, re., 98, n, 

Burrisokane (Burgheis Ua Cathain), 52, re. 
Bush, river. See Buais. 

Caechan Boime (in Boirinn), . 92, re , 93 
Caelan (see Gaileanga), . . . . 188, n. 
Caen-dram (an old name of the hill 

of Uisneach), 249,249, n. 

Caeimbghin (St. Kevin), 253 

Caenraidhe (Kenry), 77, n. 


Cael Shaile Ruadh (Killary), . . 100, re. 
Caerthainn (see Tir Chaerthabui), 122, re. 
Cahallan. See O'Cathalain. 
Caherkincon. See Cathair China 

Cahersiveen, 47, re. 

Caille Eachach, 179, 179, re, 

Caille Fhallamhain, or Caille an 01- 

laimh, 177, 182, n., 183 

Cairbre, monarch, i. e Lifeachair, . 185 

Baschaein, 48, re. 

Damh-Airgid, 148, n. 

of Druim Cliabh, Carbury, in 

Sligo, 130, «., 131 

Lifeachair, ancestor of the 

Oirghialla 146, «., 147, 185 

Muse, . 42, re., 48, n., 76, re., 83 

, race of (the Musc- 

raidhe), 83, w. 

Riada, tribe of (the Dal Ria- 

da), 160, re. 

Cairbre. See Sliabh Chairhre. 
Caiseal (Cashel), . . 5, 15, 17, 29 to 89, 
passim, 99, 230, »., 255, 257, 259 

, supposed derivation of the 

word, 29 

(Cashel), king of, his seats, 87 

Caislean Ui Liathain (Castle Lyons), 

72, re. 

Carberry, barony of (in Cork), 46, w., 76, «., 

85, n. 

Carbury, barony of, (in Sligo), . 1 30, re. 

Carey, barony of. See Cathraidhe. 

Carlow, Fotharta of, 221, a. 

Carman (games of), 5, 16, re. 

, ancient name of the site of 

the town of Wexford, 5, 15, re., 40, 41, 
203, 211 
Cam Achaidh Leith-dheirg, battle of, 

153, re. 
Carnsore. See Fothart an Chairn. 




Carra, barony of. . . . 108, re , 115, n. 

Carraig Inbhir Uisee, 159, n. 

Carraig Maehaire Kois (Carrickma- 
cross) 154, re. 

Carriekmacross. See Carraig Ma- 
chaire Rois. 

Gas (clann of), . 67, 93, n., 105, »., 
256, re. 

Casey. See 0' Cathasaigh, 

Cashel. See Caiseal. 

Castleblayney, 148, n. 

Castledermott, parish of, . . . . 210, n. 

Castle Island, 10, re. 

Castle- Lyons (Caislean Ui Liathainn), 

72, re. 

Castlereagh (Upper), barony of, .161, «., 
172, re. 

(Lower), barony of, . 163, n. 

Cathair Chinn Chon (Caherkincon), 87, 
90, n. 

Chnuis, 87, 89 

Chuirc, 87, 91, «. 

Fhinnabhrach, . . 87, 89, 89, n. 

Cathairgheal, 91, re. 

Cathair Ghleanna Amhnach (Glan- 
worth), 87, 90, n. 

na Mart (Westport), . . 98, n. 

Meathais, 87, 90, n. 

Thuaighe, 87, 89 

na Steige (Stague Fort), . 90, re. 

Cathal (see Leath Chat hail), 165, re., 
169, ii., 173 

Cathaeir, king of Leinster and mo- 
narch of Ireland, A. D. 358, . . 208, re. 

Mor, king of Leinster and mo- 
narch of Ireland in the second cen- 
tury 192, 193, n. 

, race of, . . . 45, «., 192 

, will of, 192 

Cathraidhe (Carey), 171, n. 

Ceall Abbain, 214, n. 


Ceall Ausaille (Killossy), .... 212, it. 

Ceann Gabhra, ib. 

Mara (Kenmare), 51 

Nathrach, .... 89, 93, 93, ». 

Sleibhe, 93, re. 

Ceanann's wood. See Coill Chea- 

Ceatach (son of Cathaeir Mor), . . 1 ( J7 

(see UiCeathaigh and Ikeathy), 

197, a. 

Ceneal Aedha, 99, 117 

Chess and chess-boards, 35, 35, «., and 

Introd. p. lxii. 

Cian (son ofOilioll Olum), race of, 51, 

66, n., 78, n., 103, «., 122, n., 186, n., 

187, n., 188, n. 

Cianachta (race of Cian), 51, 119, 122, «., 

123, 132, »., 133, re., 186, n. 

Breagh, 187, re. 

Gleanna Geimhin, . . . 129 

Ciar, race of, 48, re., 100, re. 

Ciarraidhe Luachra, i. e. of Munster 

(Kerry), 42, «., 43, 48, re., 49, 61, 65, 

65, ii., 69, 75, »., 84, re., 97, 100, n., 
101, 103, 166, n., 259 

. Aei, i. e. of Connacht, 97, 100, n., 

101, 103, 104, re. 

Airtich, 103, n. 

Locha na n-Airneadh, . 101, n. 

Cill (Kill, near Naas), . . . . 212, n. 

Abbain, 213, re. 

Achaidh Sinchill, church of, . 216, n. 

Droma Foda, church of, 

216, n. 

Beacain (Kilpeacon), .... 42, re. 

Ceri (Kilkeare), 42, re. 

Cheire (Kilkeary), nearNenagh, 

29, it. 

Da Chealloc (Kilmalloek), . 77, n. 

Corbnatan, 212, re. 

Faelain 214, n. 




Cill Fiacla (Kilfeakle), 42, n. 

Fionnabhraeh (Kilfenora), . 89, n. 

Mhic Duach (Kilmacduach), dio- 
cese of, 108, n. 

Mor, 148, n. 

Osnadha (Kellistown), . . . 211, n, 

Cineal Aedha of Aidhne (the tribe 
name of O'Seachnasaigh ( O'Shaugh- 
nessy)), 109, 109, »., 113 

of Eaa Ruaidh, 97, 99, 117, 

127, 130, «., 131 

m-Bece (Kinelmeky), . . 59, n. 

Boghaine, in the barony of 

Banagh, in Donegal, 127, 130, n., 131 

Cobhthaigh, 203, n. 

Chonaill (see Tir ChonaUl), 31, 

119, 130, n., 267, n. 

Dobhtha, 265, n. 

Eanna, .... 127, 130,n., 131 

Eoghain (see Tir Eoghain), 

267, n. 

Fhaghartaigh (Kinelarty), 

barony of, 164, n. 

Lughdhach, . 127, 131, 131, ». 

Cionaeth (Kenny) O'Morna, . . 161, n. 
Claenadh (Clane) church, 205, »., 222, n. 

Claen Rath (at Tara), 187 

Clane. See Claenadh. 

Clane, barony of, 205, n. 

Clanbrazil. See Clann Breasail. 
Clanconway. See Clarma Conmhuighe. 

Clangibbons (barony), 78, n. 

Clankee, barony of, 188, n. 

Clanmalior. See Clann Maeiliaghra. 
Claninauriee, barony of, . 90, »., 100, n. 
Clanwilliam, barony of, . 12. «., 92, «.. 
Clann Aedha Bnidlie (Clannaboy), 

163, n. 
. Aeilabhva, 173, w. 

Breasail (Clanbrazil), . 148, n. 

Ceithearnaigh 102, n. 


Claim Colla, 37, «., 142, n., 156, n. 
159, »., 161, a 

Maeiliaghra (Claninalior), 193, n. 

Neill, 52, »., 53. 

Clannaboy. See Claim Aedha Buidhe. 
Clanna Conmhuighe (Clanconway), 

180, h. 

Chais, 63 

Rudhraidhe, . 36, »., 148, «., 

153, «., 159, n., 162, »., 166, «., 248, n. 
Claine (a seat of the king of Caiseal), 89, 
92, »., 93 
Clare, barony of, in the county Gal- 
way) 107, ii. 

Cleare Island, parish of, 46, n. 

Cliach (see .line Cliach), 39, 39, »., 71 

Clogher, see of, 121, n. 

, 152, n. 

Head, 186, n. 

Clonard 12, n. 

Cloncurry. See Cluain Conaire, 

Clonderlaw, barony of, 48, »■ 

Clones. See Cluain Eois. 

Clonlisk, barony of, 79, m 

Clontarf. See Cluain Tarbh. 
Clooncraffield. See Cluain Creamh- 

Cloonsost (see Cluain Sosta) and 

Cloonsast, parish of, 214, n. 

Cloyne. See Cluain Uamha. 

Cluain Conaire (Cloncurry), 205, «., 212, n. 

Gonaidh, church of, . . .181, n. 

Creamhchoille (Clooncraffield), 

100, a 

Eois (Clones), 172, it. 

Fearta Mughaire, church of. 2 It!, n. 

Fota, 215, n- 

Imorrois, 216,// 

Mor, church of. . 186, >/ , 211. //. 

Sasta, and 214, n. 

Sosta (Cloonsost), church of, 216, ». 




Cluain Tarbh (Clontarf) 72, n. 

Damha (Cloyne), . 8 7, 89, 89, n 

Cnoc Aillinne (Allen), 202, n. 

Aine (Knockany), . 39, n., 46, n. 

Breadaigh (Knockbreda), . 172, n. 

Droma Asail (Tory Hill), . 92, n. 

Grafann (Knockgraffon), 88, n., 91,w. 

Maeldomhnaigh (Knockmel- 

down), 1G, w. 

Coagh (in Tyrone), . . . 165, n. 

Cobha, (see Ui Eachach), . 157, 165, n. 
Cogart, the term explained, . . . 200, n. 
Coill Cheanainn (Ceanann's wood), 228, n. 
Coirr-shliabh (Curlieu mountains), 20, n. 

Cokiston, 13, n. 

Colaro mac Criomhthainn, . 199, 199, n. 

Coleraine, barony of, 123, n. 

Colman (patron of Ui Fiachrach,), 109, n. 

Colla Uais, . . 106, »., 121, b., 122, »., 

123, »., 141, »., 151, n. 

daChrioch, 106, »., 141, w., 146, b., 

1 17. n . 148, n., 151, »., 152, n., 153, n. 

Meann, . . 106, 137, 141, 141, n. 

Collas, the three, 22, n., 141, 145, 153, «., 
166, n. 
Collins. See O'Coileain. 
C'omar (see Fan Chomar, Tri Co- 
mar), 12, w. 

Comharba, its meaning, . . . . 50, n. 

Conaille Muirtheimhne, 22, n. 

Conaire II., 159, n. 

Conaire Mor, race of, 42, n., 47, «., 48, »., 

59, n., 84, n. 

Conall (see Tir Chonaill), 35, 127, 247, 


Cearnach, . . . 166, n., 214, n. 

Gabhra, 76, n. 

Conall's gap. See Bearnas Chonaill. 
Conall Gulban, race of, . 34, n., 130, n. 

132, n. 


Conchobar, province of (i. e. Ulster), 

237, v.. 238 

Mac Xeassa, .... 237, n. 

Condons, barony of, 78, w. 

Conillo, barony of, ... 76, n.. **. n. 

Conmaicne, 97 

territories named from, in 

Connacht, . 100, n., 101, »., Ill, 115 

Chineal Dubhain, . . 100, n. 

Mara, 100, n. 

Cuile Toladh, . . . 100, n. 

(Leitrim), 247 

Conn of the Hundred Battles, 51, 57, 58, n., 

107, n , 166, «., 184, n., 185, 211, n., 
226, n., 238 
Connaught (see Connacht and Oil- 

neagmacht), 5 

Connacht, 5, 19, 57, 97 to 1 17. passim. 

Connell, barony of, 210, n. 

Connla, the race of, .... 40, «., 41 

Coolavin, barony of, 99, n. 

Coolbanagher. See Cuil Beannchair. 

Coolestown, barony of, 92, n. 

Coonagh. See Ui Cuanach. 

, barony of, 92, n. 

Corbi (Coirbthi), the term explained, 

161, n. 

Core, son of Lughaidh, 29,51 

Corca (of Connacht), . 97, 104, n., 105, 

Achlann, .... 104, n., 265, n. 

Bhaiscinn, . 43, 48, n., 61, 75, n., 

85, n., 261, 261, n. 

Dhuibhne, 43, 47, n. 

Eathrach, 18, n. 

Firtri, 104, n. 

Corcaguinny, barony of, .... 47, w. 

Corca Luighe, . 43, 46, n., 47, 59, «., 

64, n., 256, n. 

Mogha, 104, w. 

Mhuichet, chief of, . . . . 76, n. 




Corcomroe. See Corcumruadh. 

barony of. Do. 

Corcomruadh (see Corcomroe), 49, 11. , 63, 

G5, Go, »., 75, «., 76, »., 77, 91, »., 
1G6, «., 2G1, 261, «., 263 
Cormac, monarch, i. e. Mac Airt, or 

Dlfhada, 184, w., 185 

Cas, race of, . . 66, «., 72, n., 

103, n. 

Mac Airt, 14, n., 18, n., 49, n., 

104, «., 185 

Mac Barone (O'Neill), . 152, n. 

Mac Cuileannain, 58, »., 59, n., 

87, 230, n. 

Gaileanga, . . 103, »., 104, n., 

186, n., 187, »., 188, n 
Corrib. See Loch Oirbseun. 

Coshlea, barony of, 92, n. 

Coshma, barony of, ... 67, n., 77, n. 
Coshmore and Coshbride, baronies of, 72, n. 
Costello, barony of, 19, »., 100, »., 103, n. 
Craebh (ontheBann), 119, 125, 125, »., 
129, 133, 133, n. 

Ruadh (see Red Branch), 214, n. 

Creagh, parish of, 47, n. 

Creamhthann, race of, . 152, n., 153, n. 
Cremorne. See Crioch Mvghdhorn. 

, barony of, 148, n. 

Crioch Cualann, 13, n. 

na g-Ceadach, 200, n. 

Mughdhorna (Cremorne), 141, n. 

148, »., 165, w. 

O m-Bairrche, 212, n. 

O m-Barrtha, 212, n. 

O m-Buidhe, or . . . .212, n. 

. O Muighe, 213, n. 

na h-Oirthear, 161, n. 

Croghan. See Cruachan. 

Cromadh (Croome), 77, n. 

Croome. See Cromadh. 

Crotraidhe, 169, 171, 171, «. 


Cruachain, 5, 20, n., 21, 31, 35, and 97 
to 117, passim, 263, 265 

BriEile( King's County), 221, n. 

Cruach Phadraig (Croagh-Patrick), 19, n. 
115, n. 

Cruan (the word), explained, . . 2G6, n. 

Cua (see Sliabh Cua), . 89, 92, »., 93 

Cuailghne, 7, 21, 21, ?i., 148, n., 158, n., 
159, 169, 169, »., 245, 245, n. 

Cualann, 3, 13, 13, »., 15, 207, 207, ». 
218, n. 

, mistaken by modern Irish 

writers, 13, n. 

Cuan O'Lochain, 8, «., 9, 13, and 

Introduction, p. xlii. 

Modh (Clew Bay), . . . . 19, ». 

Cuchulainn, 168, n. 

Cu Uladh Mac Duinnshleibhe, . . 167, n. 

Cu Uladh O'Moma, 162, n. 

Cuil Beannchair (Coolbanagher), 
church of, . . . 216, n., 89, 92, n, 93 

Cuileantraidhe, . . . 119, 120, »., 121 

Cuirrcne, in Westmeath (now Kil- 
kenny West), . 177, 180, n., 181, «., 
188, n. 

Cuirreach (Curragh) of Kildare, . 210, n. 

Cularan, 29 

Cullenagh, barony of, 214, n. 

Cumhal (explained), 221 

Curlieu Montains, See Coirr-shliahh. 

Curragh of Kildare. See Cuirreach. 

Cutt's Fishery, 125, n. 

Da Chioch Danann (Pap mountains), 75, n. 
Dairbhre (O'Duibhne), ancient name 
of Valentia (see Corca Dhuibhne'), 

47, 47, n., 49, «., 74, n. 
Daire Barrach, son of Cathaeir Mor, 

172, »., 194, n., 195, 212, n. 




Dairfhine (see Corca Luighe\ 61, 64, «., 

65, 69, 74, »., 75, 83, 257 

Dairc-mic-Daire, 7, 25 

Dal, its signification, 159, ». 

Dala, king of, 71 

Dal Araidhe, . 7, 23, »., 155, 159, w., 
161, «., 166, n., 2G7 

Dal m-Buine, 157, 1G3 

Dal Chais, . 21, 21, »., 48, «., 61, 69, 
70, «., 71, 72, «., 81 

Iarthair, 185, 185, n. 

Riada, 155, 159, »., 161, 169, 171 

Danes. See Galls, Tomar, Sfc. 

Dar-mhagh, 5, 20, n., 21 

Dartraidhe Coinninnse, 145 

Dartraidhe, 153 

Dartry, barony of, 153, n. 

Deel. See Daoil. 

Dealblma (Delvins), 97, 105, 107, 111, 
177, 183, 185 

(Delvins), from whom de- 
scended 105, n., 182, n. 

■ Beag, 182, n. 

Mor, 177, 182, «. 

Cuill Fabhair, . . . . 105, n. 

Eathra, 182, n. 

Feadha, 105, n. 

■ Nuadhat, . . 105, n., 106, n. 

Teannmuigh, .... 182, n. 

Tire da Loch, . . . .105, n. 

Deas Ghabhair, 195 

Mhumha (Desmond, South Mini- 
ster (see Mumha), 164, n. 

Decies, baronies of, within Drum and 
without (see Deise of Munster), 16, »., 
93, n. 

Deece, barony of (see Deise Teamrach), 
50, «., 184, n. 

Deevy. See O'Duibh. 

Deise (Decies of Munster), 43, 49, 51, 
63, 67, 73, 83, 185, 257 


Deise Teamhrach (Deece of Meath), 

49, 184, n., 185, 267 
Delvins. See Dealbhna. 
Demi-Fore, barony of (see Fore and 

Fobhair), 183, n. 

Derry. See Doire. 

Devil's Bit Mountain (see Barnane 

Ely), 17, n. 

Diarmaid, son of Cearbhall, .... 53 

Dinn Eiogh, 5, 15 

Disert Conlocha, church of, . . .181, n. 
mic Cuillinn, Cluain Eidb- 

neach, 214, v. 

Meithle Caeile, church of, . 186, v. 

Dodder (see Dothair), . . . . 5 

Doire (Derry), 35 

Dollardstown, parish of, . . . . 210, u. 
Domhnach Maighean (Donaghmoyne), 

church of, 148, ». 

Domhnach Mor Muiglie Cobha (Do- 

naghmore), church of, . . . 166, n. 

Eacbnach, 186, v. 

Mor Muighe Luadhat (Do- 

naghmore), 206, n. 

Domhnall Dubh-dhamhach, .... 227 

Ua Fearghail, .... 223, n. 

Donaghmore, parish of, .... 94, u. 

, church of, .... 124, //. 

. See Domhnach Mor. 

Donaghmoyne. See Domnach Maigh- 

Donaghpatrick, 249, w. 

Donovan. See O' Donnobhainn. 

Donn's houses, 51, 54, n., 55 

Donnagorr, parish of, 124, n. 

Dortan, 151 

Dothair (Dodder) river, . 5, 12, »., 13 
Downkelly (Drummaul), church of, 124, n. 
Dromore. See Druim Mor. 

Druim Caein, 87, 89, 91, 93. 

Drumcliff. See Druim Cliabh. 




Druim Cliabh (Drumcliff), . 130, n., 131 

Deargaidh, battle of, ... 53 

Finghin, 89, 93 

Leith, 113 

Mor, near Mallow, . . 87, 91, n. 

Drummaul. See Downkelly. 
Drung (see Corca Dhnibhne), . 65, 85 
Druimne Breagli, the hills of, . . 11, n. 
Dublin. See Ath Cliath. 

See Duibhlinn. 

Dubhthach Mac Ui Lughair, the poet 

and convert of St. Patrick, ... 235 
Dufferin, barony of (see Dvibhthriati), 

164, n. 
Duibhlinn, . . . . 5, 13, 12, n., 39, 253 
Duibhneach (see Corca Dhuibhne), . 65 

Duibhthir, the race of, 153 

Duibhthrian, 157, 164, «., 165, 169, 173 

Dumha Dreasa, 89 

Dun Duibhlinne, 226, n. 

Fir Aen Cholca, .... 87, 90 

Gair, 87, 90, n. 

Liamhna (Dunlavan), . . . 228 

na h-Uidhre, 124, n. 

Sobhairce, .... 7, 23, 23, n. 

Dunlevy. See Mac Duinnshleibhe. 
Dunseverick. See Dun Sobhairce. 
Durdru, 29 

Falga (Ireland), .... 168, w., 169 
Eamhain Macha (Emania), 7, 22, n., 23, 

33, 36, n., 37, 99, 106, »., 156, n., 169, 
169, »., 241, 241, «., 249 

Eanach Caein, 251 

Conglais (Killany), church of, 

155, n. 
Eanna, race of (Cineal Eanna), . 131, n. 
Ceinnsealach (ancestor of the 

Ui Ceinnsealaigh), 208, n. 

Boghaine, 130, n. 


Earc's fort. See Bath Eire. 

Earna, 254, n., 255 

Eas Aedha Ruaidh mic Badharn, or 
Eas Ruaidh (Assaroe), 34, n., 35, 35, w., 
127, 130, n. 

Eas Geibhtine (Askeaton), ... 91,//. 

Eibhear (Heber), 54, «., 55, 237, 237, n. 

Eibhleo, 89, 92, n., 93 

Eidhneach (Eany), river, .... 130, n. 

Eile(Ely), 28, n., 29, 71, 78, n., 79, 87, 
87, n., 258, n., 259 

Fhogartaigh (Elyogarty), 28, 79, n. 

Ui Chearbhaill (Ely O'Carroll), 

78, «., 179, »., 180, n., 258, n. 

Eire (Ireland), 3, 7, 17, 25, 29, 41, 51, 
55, 59, 85, 87, 125, 127, 129, 135, 137, 
139, 141, 143, 145, 147, 155, 177, 205, 
225, 229, 238, 241, 255, 263, 267, 272 

Eireamhon (Heremon), .... 203, n. 

Eithne (Iuney), the river, 10, «., 11, n., 
180, n., 181, w. 

Ele. See Eile. 

Eliogarty, barony of (Eile Fhogartaigh), 

28,m., 78, n. 

Ely. See Eile. 

See Ail each. 

O'Carroll. See Eile Ui Chear- 

Emania. See Eamhain Macha. 

Ennell. See Loch Aininn. 

Eochaidh, son of Ailpin, . 226, »., 227, 

Finn Fothart, . . . . 211, rc. 

(see Ui Eachach, IveagK), 

148, n., 256, n. 

Cobha, . . . 164, n., 165, n. 

Gundat, 172, n. 

. Liathanach, 72, n. 

Muigh-mheadhon, . .104, w., 

182, n. 

Timine, 199, 201 




Eochaidh Tirmcharna, LOO, n. 

Eochaill (Yougliall), river of, . . 72, ». 

Eoghan (seeCWa/ Eoghain, Inis Eo- 
ghain, ami 77/- Eoghain, Tyrone), 

34, »., 35, 37, 132, 247, 267 

, ancestor of the Eoghanachts. 

See Eoghain Mor. 

Aidhrie, ancestor of tlie Ui 

Fiaehrach Aidhne, 108, n, 

■ Mor (ancestor of all the Eo- 
ghanachts), 46, »., 58, «., 66, »., 72, re., 
80, »., 230, ». 

Eoghanachts (see Eoghan Mor), 63, 66, »., 
69, 73 

Eoghanacht and Dal Cais, from whom 
descended, 45, n. 

Aine Cliach, 4(5. »., 78, ». 

80, n. 

Chaisil 72, ». 

Locha Lein, .... 59, n. 

Ui Donchadha, .... ib. 

Eoir or Feoir (Nore), river, . 88, re., 89 

Eolathach, 226, //. 

Eric, 109, a. 

Erris (lorrns), barony of, . . . . 108, w 

Faeladh's rath. See Rath Faeladh. 

Faherty. See O' Fathartaigh. 

Failghe Ros, son of Cathaeir Mor, an- 
cestor of the Ui Failghe (Offalj ), 

193, 195, 216, 217, n. 

Fan-chomair, 3, 12, v., 13 

Farney. See Fearn-mhagh. 

, barony of, . . .136, n., 154, n. 

Feabhal, lake of (i. e. Locli Foyle), 

121, 125, 248, n. 

Fearghns Luascan (son of Cathaeir 
Mor), 197 

Scannal, 88, »., 89 

Feara Arda (Ferrard), . . . 186, »., 187 

Ceall (Fercall), . . . 177, 179, ». 

Cualann (Ferconlen, see Cita- 

lann), 13, n., 218, n. 

Manach (Fermanagh), 145, 15 I. ;/.. 

Muighe Feine, or Feara Mhuighe 

(Fermoy), . 78, n., 82, «., 83, 261, n. 

Ros, territory of (see Fearn- 

mhag, Farney, barony of), . . 154, n. 

. Teahhtha (see Teabhtha), 177, 181 

— — Tulach (Fertullagh), 177,180, v., 
188, n., 189 
Fearn-mhagh (Farney), barony of, 

136, n., 145, 153, n. 

Fearta-mna-Maine, 20, n. 

Feartullagh (Feara Tulach), barony 

of, 180,n. 

Feegile. See Fidh Gaibhle. 
Feidhlimidh Mac Criomhthainn, . 56, «., 
Introd. ji xv. 

— Fir Urghlais, .... 205 

Feighcullen. See Fiodh Chuillinn, 
Feilimidh (son of Eanna Oeinseallach, 
ancestor of the Ui Fealmeadha, 208, «. 
1 Feimhin. See Magh Feimhin. 

Feis Teamhrach, . 7, «., 272, Introd. p. 1. 
Feoir or Eoir (Nore), river, . . . 203, «., 
Introd. lx. 
Feorna Floinn, or Feorainn Floinn, 48, n., 
Fercoulan (see (Juala?in and Feara 

Cualann), 13, n. 

F"ereidheach, ancestor of the Osraidhe 

(Ossorians), 64, n. 

Fermanagli, or Fir Manach (Feara 

Manach), 121, n., 154, n. 

Fermoy, barony of, (see Feara 

Mhuighe), 78, «., 82, n. 

Ferrard, barony of (see Feara Arda), 

18G, »., 187 



V \CE. 

Ferriters, 17. n. 

Fiacha, father of Cathaeir Mor, . . 203 

— Bah-Aicidh, .... 201,203 

Suighdhe [ancestor of the 

Deise), 19, »., 184, n. 

Fiachra Tort (ancestor of the Ui 

Tuirtre), 23, n. 

the race of (see Ui Fiach- 

rach), 99,111 

Fians (the ancient militia), .... 147 
Fidh Gaibhle (Feegile), . . . .214, n. 

Fine Gall, or Fingall, 187, n, 

F'inglas river, 226, n. 

Fiodh Chuillinn (Feigh Cullen), . 205, n. 

Firbolg, 104, n., 106, »., 

107, »., 174, n. 
Fircall, barony of, (see Feara Ceall), 

179, n. 
Fir na Craeibhe, 125, n. 

— Leamhna, 152, «., 153 

— Li (of the Bann), 119, 

122, 122, »., 129, 135 

— Luirg, . 119, 121, 121, »., 129, 133 
_ Manach (Fermanagh), see Feara 

Manach, 172, n. 

Fithcheal, explained (see Chess),. 70, n. 
Fitzgeralds (of Kerry), .... 47, ». 

(of Limerick), . . . 07, w. 

, (ofKildare), . . . . 216, n. 

Flann Feorna, 84, n. 

Sionna, 58, n. 

Flaimery. See O' Flannahhra. 

Fodhla (Ireland), 147, 159 

Form Iartharach (in Corca Luighe, 

or O'Driscoll's country), 59, n., 256, n. 

Fontstown, church of, 210, w. 

Fore (Demifore), barony of, . . 178, >/. 
Forgo, ancestor of the Ui Mic Caer- 

thainn (see Tirkeerin), . . . 122, n. 
Forgney, See Forgnuidhe. 
Forgnuidhe, church of, 181, n. 


Forth. Sc Fotharta. 
, baronies of, (see Fotharta), 221, n. 

Forthuatha (in Munster), . . 78,//., 79, 

(in Aileach), . 120, »., 121 

(in Uladh), 169, 172, v., 173 

(in Leinster), . 207, 207, n , 

219, 220, w., 221, 223, n., 253 

Fotharta (Forth), barony of, in Car- 
low, 211, n. 

(Forth), baronies in Wex- 
ford and Carlo w, . . . .221, 221, «. 

Fothart Airbreach, 221, n. 

Fothart an Chain (Carnsore), . . 211 ,«. 

. Oirthir Life, 221, n. 

Osnadhaigh (barony of Forth 

in Carlo-w), 211, v., 21 1 

Fotharta, 219 

Fea (Magh Fea), . . 211, n. 

Foyle. See Feabhal. 

Frertchpark, modern barony of (see 
Boyle), 100, n. 

Fryars Minors, church of, . . . 161, n. 

Fuaid (Sliabh Fuaid), . . . 144, n., 1 15 

Gabhal, a name of a avooc! and river, 

and thence of all Leinster, 214, «., 215, 

217, 217, a. 

Gabhair, ... 67, 67, it., Introd. p. lx. 

.Gabhra (mares), . . 114, «., 246, 247 

Gabhran (Gowran), 5, 17, 17, n., 40, //., 

41, 43, 59, 59, «., 69, 71, 85, 85, n., 

217, 217, n. 

Gaela, 262, «., 263 

Gaedhealga (Irish), .... 86, n., 87 

Gaileanga (of Meath), . . 188, n., 189, 

244, »., 245, 266, n., 267 

(ol'Connacht), . . . 104, n. 

Mora (Morgallion, barony 

Of), and Gaileanga Beaga, . . 188, n. 



Gaileans. See Gaileanga. 

Gailians Leinstermen), . . 19 1, 194, ". 

Gailine 213, n 

Gaill or Galls (foreigners), 51, 55, 210, 
221, 225, 227, 220,_2;!1, 249, 253 

Gallen, barony of (see Gaileanga), 103, ". 

Garrycastle, barony of, .... 182, w. 

Geibhtine, (see Eos Geabhtine), 
(Askeaton), 89, 91, ". 

Geimh (winter), and see the Intro- 
duction, p. liv., 5, 17 

Geis. Introduction, p. xlv., ... 12, ». 

Geraghty. See Mac Oireaehtaigh. 

Gillemnrry. See Mac Giolla Muire. 

Gihnor. Ditto. 

Glais Naeidhin (Glasnevin) . . . 188, n. 

Glancnrry (Glenwherry), .... 170, w. 

Glanworth. See Gathair Ghleanna 

Glasnevin. See Glais Naeidhin. 

, monastery of, .... 188, n. 

Gleann a Choire, (see Glancnrry'), 170, n. 

Amhain, 03, 07 

Anilmaeh (Glanworth), 71, 78, "., 



Finneachta (Glynn), . . 159, n. 

Geimhin (Glengiven), 50, »., 51, 

110, 122, n., 12."). ;/., 133, 1 :'.:;. n. 
na Muice Duibhe (Valley of 

the Black Pig), 130, n. 

Righe, . 36, »., 136, »., 1 is, „. 

Searraigh, .....">, 14, n., 15 

Suilighe (Glenswilly), . . 248, n. 

Uissen (Killushinn), church 

of, 194, »., 212, n. 

Glenann (Upper), barony of, . 191, n. 
Glendalough. See Gleann Da Loch. 
Glengiven. Sec Gleann Geimhin. 
Glenswilly. See Gleann Suilighe. 

V Vl, E. 

Glenwherry. See Gleann a Choire. 
Glynn. Sec Gleann Finnachta. 
Gowran. See Gabhran. 

Grafann 89, 91, n. 

Grange, parish of, 210, re, 

Rosnilvan, parish of, . . 210, «. 

Greagraidhe (in Minister), .... «9 
Greagraidhe (the Gregories in Con- 
nacht), . 42, »., 97, 90, 99, «., 101, 
103. n., Ill, 113, n. 
Grianan Ailigh (the palace of Ailcach), 

120, w. 
Guaire (Aidhne), 82, »., 99, 108, n., Ill 


Heber. See Eibhear. 
Heffernan. See O' h-Ifearnain. 
Hennessy. See (/ h-Aenghusa. 
Heremon. See Eireamhon. 

Howth, • . . 11, n. 

HuaMeith. See Ui Meith. 
Huamidhe. See Crioch Ua m-Buidhe. 

Hunting-sheds, 117 

Husseys, 47, n. 

IIv, generally for names begun with 

" Ily," — see Ui, as. for 
Hy-Many. See Ui Maine. 
Hy-Meitn Tire. See Ui Meal/,. 
Hvnev. See If h-Adhnaidh. 

Iar Connacht 100, ». 

Ibh, generally for names beginning 

with "Ibh," — see Ui, as 

Ibh Conaill Gabhra, 70. n. 

[brickan. See Ui Breacain. 

, barony of, 48, n. 

[drone (Ui Drona), barony of, 10, »., 212 
[fia and Offa East, barony of, . . 18, h. 
X 2 



V W.V.. 

fkeathy. See Ui Ceataigh. 

, barony of, 205, n. 

Ikerrin, barony of, .... 28, «., 78, n. 
Imaile. See Ui Mail. 

Imokilly, barony of, 72, n. 

Imleach, church of, 170, n. 

Inbhear Mor, or Inbliear Aimhergin, 

the estuary of Arklow, 196, a., 207, n. 

■ Latbarna, Lame estuary, . 171, n. 

Naile (InbhearJ, estuary of 

Donegal, 130, n. 

Inchiquin, barony of, . . . 20, «., 93, a. 

Inis Eogbain (Inishowen), . 119, 126, n. 

127, 132, a., 133 

Inishowen, barony of, 34, n. 

Inis Fail, 57, n. 

Inis Moeholmog, church of, . . . 195, n. 

Inis Toide, island of, 124, n. 

Inneoin, 89, 92, a., 93 

Inny river. See Eithne. 

Iregan, 193, n. 

Ireland. See Eire, Ealga, Banhha, 

Irish. See Gaedhaelga. 
Irrluachair, called Urluachair, 74, n., 75 
Island Magee. See Rinn Sibhne. 
Isle of Man (Manannan), . . . 8, a. 

Ith, 124, n. 

Iubhar (Newry), 159, n. 

Ivahagh, 256, a. 

Iveagh, Upper and Lower, baronies 

of, 148, a., 165, n. 

Iveragh, barony of, 47, n., 49, n., 84, n. 

Iveruss. See Ui Rosa. 

■ , parish of, 77, n. 

Kavenagh (Caemhanach), . . . 208, 

Kealy. See O'Caelluidhe. 

Keenaght, barony of, . . 50, m., 122, 


Kelly. See O' Ceallaigh and O'Cael- 
Kenmare. See Ceann Mara. 
Kenry. See Caenraidhe. 

Kenry, barony of, 77, n. 

Kerry. See Ciarraidhe. 
Kevin, St. See Cae.imhghin. 
Kill, parish of. See Cill. 
Killarney. See Loch Lein. 
Killary. See Cael Shaile Ruadh. 

Kilberry, parish of, 210, n. 

Kilcoursy, barony of, 180, n. 

Kilcoe, parish of, 46, n. 

Kilcullen, parish of, 210, n. 

Kilcrobane, parish of, . . . 59, n., 90, n., 
256, n. 
Killfeacle. See Cill Fiacla. 
Kilfenora. See Cill Fiunnabhrach. 
Kilgad (in Connor), church of, . 124, ». 

Kilgullane, parish of, 261, n. 

Kilkea, barony of, . . . . 16, n., 210, n. 

, parish of, 210, w. 

Kilkeare. See Cill Cere. 

Kilkelly. See Mac Giolla Ceallaigh. 

Kilkelly, parish of, 19, n. 

Kilkenny West, barony of, 180, «., 181, n., 
188, n. 

Kilkee^n, parish of, 100, v. 

Kilkerrin, parish of, 104, n. 

Killany. See Eanach Conglais. 
Killushin. See Gleann Uissen. 
Killossy. See CeaJl Ausaille. 

Killyglen, parish of, 171, a. 

Kilmaconoge, parish of, . 59, n., 256, n. 
Kilmacduagh. See Cill Mhic Dvach. 

Kilmaine, barony of, 100, n. 

Kilmallock. See Cill Da Cheafloc, 42, «., 
88, a., 93, a. 
Kilmac, parish of, ... . 59, n., 256, n. 
Kilmore, church and parish of, . 148, n. 
Kilmovee, parish of, 19, >i. 



Kilnamanagh, parish of, .... 100, «. 
Kilpeacon. See Cill Beaeain. 

Kilteely, parish of, 40, n. 

Kiltartan, barony of, 20, ». 

Kilwarlin, parish of, 163, «. 

Kilwaughter, parish of, . . . . 171, n. 
Kinatalloon, barony of, .... 72, n. 
Kinealy. See 0' Cinfhaelaidh. 
Kinelarty (see Cineal Fhaghartaigh), 

161, ». 
Kinehneaky, barony of, . 59, n., 256, n. 
King. See Mac Conroi. 
Kinsellaghs (see Ui Ceinnsealaiffh), 

208, n. 
Kirby. See O' Ciarmhaic. 

Knock, parish of, 1 00, n. 

Knockany. See Aine and Cnoc Aine. 
Knockbreda. See Cnoc Breadaigh. 
KnoekgrafFon. See Grafann and Cnoc 
Graf aim. 


Labhraidh, or Labhraidh Loingseach, 

fort of. ... 14, »., 15, 15, n., 51, n. 
Ladhrann (i. e. Ard-Ladhrann), . 202, n. 
Laeghaire (the son of Niall), 53, 178, rc., 
179, 224, n., 225, 230, »., 231 
Laeghaire, son of Fiachra Tort, ances- 
tor of the Fir Li, 123, n. 

Lore, .... 15, »., 250, n. 

Laeighis, or Laeighse (Leix), seven 
septs of, . . 160, «., 210, n., 214, n., 
215, 216, »., 219, 222, »., 223, 200 
Laeighseach, Ceann Mhor, ancestor 

of the Laeighse, 214, n. 

Laighin (Leinster), 3, 5, 15, 55, 193, 205, 

217, 221, 251, 253, 259 

Laighin (see Tuath Laighean), 3, 17, 33 

Tuatha-ghabhair (northern), 

Introd. p. lv., 32. «., 33 


Laighin, Deas-ghabair (sontliern), 88, n., 
222, »., 223 

Laighne Leathan-ghlas, .... 114, >i. 

Laithreach Bruin (Laragh brine), 
church of, 206, ». 

Lann Elo (Lynally), church of, . 179, n. 

Laraghbrine. See Laithreach Bruin. 

Larne. See Latharna. 

, parish of, 171, «. 

Larkin. See O'Lorcain. 

Latharna (Larne), . . 109, 171, 171, n. 

Latteragh (see Leitreacha), . . J 7, u. 

Leamhain (see Fir Leamhna), . 145,153 

Leap, hero of, Loop Head (see Leim 
na Con, 75, n. 

heath Chathail (Lecale), 157, 161, »., 103, 
105, n., 109 

Chuinn (Conn's Half, or the 

northern half of Ireland), 15, »., 57, 
58, w., 59, 70, 7i. 

Leath Mhogha (Mogh's half, or the 
southern half of Ireland). . 53, 58, n. 

Leatracha. See Leitreacha. 

Lecale. See Leath Chathail. 

, barony of, . . . 161, n., 165, n. 

Leighlin. See Leith-ghlinn. 

Leim na Con, king of (see Leim Con- 
chulainn), 69, 85, 85, n. 

Leim Conchullain (Leap, or Loop- 
head), . 20, ».,. 48, »., 75, »., 200, n. 

Lein (Loch Leiu, Killarney), 00, «., 07 

Leinster. See Laighin. 

Leith-ghlinn (Leighlin), . . . . 211, n. 

Leitreacha (Latteragh), 5 

Odhrain (Latteragh, in ba- 
rony of Upper Ormond), ... 42, n. 

Leithrinn, 145, 153, 153, ». 

Leix. See Laeighis. 

Lent (Corgas), obligation of, . . 4, »., 5 

Letterkenny. See Litear Ceannaighe. 

Leyney, barony of (see Luighne ;, 103, n. 




Li (Fir Li), people of, . . . 123, 123, n. 

Lia Fail, 57, n. 

Liamhain (Dunlaven), 40, »., 41, 203, 
203, »., 228, »., 221), 231 
Liath-druim (old name of Teamhair 

or Tara, see Liath Thraigh), 144, »., 
145, 189, 237, n., 238 

Liathmhuine, 261, 261, «. 

Liath Thraigh 188, ». 

Life (Liffey) river, 11, »., 12, »., 186, »., 
188, b., 226 
Liffey. See Life. 
Limerick. See Luimneach. 
Linn Duachaill (Magheralinn), . 159, «. 

Luaithrinne, . . . . 241,241,/;. 

Saileach (Loch Saileaeh, Suil- 

each, orSwilly), 7, 23, 23, «.. 248, n. 

Lios Dun g-Claire, 92, n. 

Litear Ceannaighe (Letterkenny), 248, n. 
Loch Aininn (Lough Ennel, near 

Mullingar (Westmeath), . . 8, n., 9, n. 

13eag, 124, n. 

Ceann 89, 93 

Cuan (Loch Cone, or Strang- 

ford), 164, »., 165, 249. 249, n. 

Corrib (see Loch Oirbsean), 105, u. 

Eirne, 172, n. 

■ . n-Eachach. or Loch n-Eathach 

(Lough Neagh), 166, ». 

Feabhail (Loch Foyle), see 

Feabhail, 248, »., 249 

Gair (Lough Gur), .... 90, n. 

Lein (Killarney), 5, 17, 17, n., 53, 

50, 59. n., 63, 69, 74, »., 75. 84, »., 
f-5, 257. 257. a. 

Lurgan (the Bay of Galway), 105, n. 

Measca (Mask), 100, n. 

Oirbsean (Loch Corrib), . . 18, w. 

100, n., 105, »., 1 15, >i. 

Ri (Lougb Ree), . . 264, »., 265 

Riach (Loughrea), 262, »., 264, n 

Locb Saileaeh (Lough Swilly), (see 
Linn Saileach, or Suileach), 248, »., 249 

fair (Owel), 9, n. 

Londonderry (see Doire'), ... 35, ». 

Loop-head. See Leim Chonchulainn, 
and Leim na Con. 

Lore (Laighin of), why Leinster was 
so called, 250, «., 251 

Lorha. See Lothair. 

Lothra. See Lothair. 

Lothair (Lorha), 39, »., 52, »., 53, 230, n. 

Lougban. See O'Lochain. 

Lough Cone. See Loch Cuan. 

Foyle. See Loch Feabhail. 

Gur. See Loch Gair. 

Neagh. See Loch n-Eathach. 

Loughrea. See Loch Riach. 

Lough Eee. See Loch Ri. 

Swilly. See Loch Saileach. 

Lower Ormond, .... 17,//., 198, n. 

Luaighne, Fian of, 205 

Luchaid (in Dal Chais) 5, 21 

, Anglicized Lowhid, ... 20, n. 

Lughaidh (ancestor of the tribe of 
Leithrinn") 153, w. 

Lughaidh Dealbhaeth (an ancestor of 
the Dealbhna, Delvins), . . . 105, n. 

Lughaidh Laeighsceach (ancestor of 
the Laeighse), 214, n. 

Lughaidh Mac Con, ancestor of the 
Corca Luighe, Dairfhine, (i. e. an- 
cestor of the O'h-Eidirsceoil or 
( CDriscoll), 64. n. 

Lughair (the poet), 205 

Luibneach, 3 

Luighne, (barony of Leyney, terri- 
tory of O'h-Ara), 103, 104, «., 105, 
113, 111. »., 1 15. L86, «., 187, 265, 
265, «., 266. i,.. 267 

Luimneach (Limerick), . . 260, »., 261, 




Lune, barony of, 186, n. 

Lurg (Feara Luirg), . L19, 121, 121, n. 

Lurg, barony of, 121, n. 

, men of, 133, «. 

Lynally. See Lann Elo. 


.Mac Aedha (Magee), 141, «. 

— Aenghusa (Magenniss), . . 164, w., 
165, ». 

Anna (Mac Cann), . . . . 141, n. 

Allisters of Scotland, descended 

from Colla Cais, 141, ». 

Artain, tribe of (in Down), 163, «., 

164, n. 

Brody. See Maeilin Off Mac 


Cann (sic Mac Anna), . . . 147, n. 

Carthy. See Mac Carthaigh. 

Carthaigh (Mac Carthy), . . 45, n., 

66, «., 71, n. 

Catbaraaigh, 52 n. 

Ceoach (Mae Keogh), families 

of, 45, n. 

Cocblain (Mac Cogblan), . .182, n. 

Coghlan. See Mac Cochlain. 

■ con, 64, n., 65 

Conmara (Mae Namara), family 

of, 70, n. 

( lonroi (king), 105, n. 

Cuileannain (Cormac, king of 

Minister), 87, 87, «., and Introduction, 

p. viii. 

Cninn na m-Boeht, .... 212, n. 

Daibhidh Mor (Mac Davy More), 

208, n. 

Davy More. See Mac Daibhidh 

Dei mot. See Mac Diarmada. 
Diarmada (Mac Dermol |, . 107, n. 

Mae Domhnaill 141, 

Donnell. See Mac Domhnaill. 

Dugalds (of Scotland), . . . 141, 

Duinnshleibhe (Dunlevy), . . 166. 

Eochagain (Mageog'he^an), . 52, 

Eniry. See Mac Inneirghe. 

Faelain, 205, 

Fearghusa Ceirbheoil (Diarmaid), 

his reign, 20, 

Gilmory (Gilmore). See Mac 

Giolla Muire, 161, 

Gillespick. See Mac Giolla Eps- 


Giolla Ceallaigh (Kilkelly), 108, 

Epscoip (Mac Gillespick), 

Mhuire (Gilliniurry), . 161, 

Phadrnig (Fitzpatrick), Id, 

Gorman, . . 48, »., 194, »., 212, 

Inneirghe (Mae Eniry), ... 76, 

Keogh. See Mac <\-ohi//i. 

Mathghamhna (MacMahon), . 48, i 

70, »., 141, »., 148, 

Mahon. See Mac Mathghamhna. 

Murchadha (Mac Murrough), 208, 

Namara. See Mac Conmara. 

Oireaehtaigh (Geraghtys), . 107, 

Dadog (Maddock), .... 208, 

Uidliir (Maguire), . 120, »., 141, > 

Macha (see Ard Madia, and Eamh- 
ain Macho), . . . 149, 171, 227, 

Machaire Cbaisil, 18, 

Chonnaeht, 104, 

Oirghiall 21, 

Rois (Magheross, parish) of, 


Maedhbh, 100, 

Maeilin Og Mac Bruaideadha (Mac 

Brody) 212, 

Mael (Bishop), church of, .... 9, 




Maelcobha 161, »., 165, n. 

Maen-mhagh, 5 

Magee. See Mac Aedlia. 
Mageniss (see Mac Aenghusa), . 165, ». 
Mageoghegan. See Mac Eochagain. 
Maguire. See Mac Uidhir. 

Magunihy, barony of, 47, ». 

Magh (see Magh Iotha), . 124, «., 125 

Aei, . . 104, »., 105, 107, «., 117 

Ailbhe, . 5, 15, «., 17, «., 230, n. 

Brannduibh, 40, n., 41 

Breagh (see Breagh), 3, 205, 226, n. 

Caille, 5, 87 

Callain or Cuillinn (Moycullen), 

3, 11, 11, n. 

Cobha, 7, 25, 165, »., 246, »., 247 

Dubhain, 131, n. 

DrucMain, 213, n. 

Eanaigh Rosa, 93 

Fea. See Fotharta Feu. 

Feimhin, . 5, 17, n., 18, «., 40, »., 

49, n. 

Fian, 82, »., 83 

Iotha, 119, 125, 125, « , 127, 128, »., 

133, 133, n. 

Laighean, . . 222, «., 223, 250, n. 

Leana, battle of, 58, n. 

Li, 123, n. 

Life, 226, n. 

Line (Moylinny), . 142, //., 169, 

170, «., 171 

Locha, . 177, 178, »., 179, 188, «., 


Luirg (Moylurg), 107, n. 

Maistean (see Maistin), . . 5,15 

Muirisce, 5, 19 

Maghnus Mae Mathghamhna, . . 148, n. 

Magh Naei, 89, 92, »., 93 

n-Asail 89 

n-Eadarbane, or Magh n-Edar- 

ba, 89, 93 


Magh Kath, 40, n., 41 

Rein, 247, n. 

Saire 87, 90, n. 

Sein-eheineoil, 106, n. 

Samhne, 170, n. 

Teamhrach (see Teamhair), . 2, «., 3 

Tuireadh, battle of, where fought, 

115, ». 
Magheralin. See Linn Duachaill. 

Maghery-t'ouall, 166, n. 

Magheross. See Machaire Eois. 
Magheraboy, barony of, .... 120, it. 

Maigh ( Maigue) river, 77, >/. 

Inis, 165, w. 

Maigue. See Maigh. 

Maigh (Maigue) river, 88, n. 

Maine, sepulchral mounds of the wife 

of, 5, 21 

(from whom Breagh Mhaine, 

i. e. Brawny), 186, «. 

Mai, 205 

Mor, from whom Ui Maine, 106, w., 

264, a. 
Mainister an Aenaigh (Mannisteraue- 

nagh), 91, n. 

Maistin, plain of, 14, n. 

■ (generally called Mullaghmast), 

(see Magh and Mullagh Maistean), 

14, n. 
Mannisteranenagh. See Mainistir an 

Mancha (or Moncha, or Monaigh 

Uladh, descended from Monach of 

Leinster). See Feara Manach, 

169, 172, n., 173 

Mann (see Manann), 3 

Manann (Mann), 3 

, the present Irish name of the 

Isle of Man, 8, n. 

Maryborough, East, barony of, . . 214, n. 
, West, barony of, . . ib. 



p \ • . i . 

Massareene (Upper), barony of, . lt>:>, n. 

(Lower), 23, n. 

Matal, tlie term explained, . . 38, «., 39 
Mathghamhain (Mahon), king' of Mun- 

ster, 67, u 

Mayne, river (see Atlt Maighne), . Jn, n. 
May-day (see Bealltaine), .... 3 
Meath. See Midhe. 
Meg I'Mliir (see Mac Uidhir, Mu- 

guire), 172, n. 

Menedroicbit Eanach Truim (Anna- 

truim), 214, n. 

Middlethird, barony of, 91, n. 

Midhe (Meath), 39, 53, 78, n., 183, 188, »., 
191, 211, n., 226, «., 231, 267 
Mileadh (Milesius), 51, n., 124, >,.., 174. 
227, »., 237, «. 
Milesius See Mileadh. 
Modh Ruadh (ancestor of the tribe of 

Corcumruadh), 65, n. 

Mogh Ruith, a celebrated druid, 78, »., 
82, n., 94, «., 104, n. 
Monach, ancestor of the Mancha, or 

Fir Manach ( Fermanagh ), . . 172, n. 
Monahan. See 0' Manchain. 

Monaghan, barony of, 148, n. 

Monaigh Uladh (see Mancha), . 172, n. 

Moone, parish of, 210, n. 

, barony of, . . . .16, «., 210, «. 

Morgallion, barony of, 1«8, n. 

Mount Sandle. See Dun Da Bheann. 
Mourne, barony of (not Crioch Mngh- 

dhorna), 38, »., 141, «., 150, «., 16.">, >/. 

Moyarta, barony of, 48, «. 

Moy Brey (see Magh Breayh), . 11, n. 

Moycullen, barony of, 105, «. 

Moygoish, barony of, 182, n. 

Moylagh, parish of, 178, n. 

Moy li nny. See Magh Line. 
Moylurg. Sec Magh Ling. 

Muchna, 199 


Mucnamh (Mueknoe), 148, ». 

Mucknoe. See Mucnamh. 

Mueknoe, church of, ih. 

Mughdhorn (Crioch Mughdhorna, Cre- 

morne), 145, 154, n., 155 

Dubh, 148, «., 150, n., 154, n. 

Mughna h-Ealchainn (Ballaghmoon), 

212, n. 
Muilchead, a seat of the king of Cai- 

seal, (Muilchear, now applied to a 

river), 87, 89, 89, n. 

Muintir Birn (see Ui Briuin Archoill), 

151, »., 246, n. 

Fathaidh, 105, n. 

Roduibb, 107, n. 

■ Thadhgain, 180, n. 

Muireadhach Meith (ancestor of the 

l'i Meith), 148, «., 151, «. 

Muilleathan (ancestor of 

theSiol Muireadhaigh), . . . 107, n. 

Muirisc (Murrisk), 19, n. 

Muirisc, also the name of a district in 

the barony of Tir Fhiachrach (Tire- 

ragh), 19, n. 

Muiitheimhne, 7, 21, 21, »., 157, 166, n., 
Muiscrith (see Muscraidhe), . . . 764 
Mulholland. See O'MadchallcJn. 

Mullaghinnone, 92, n. 

Mullaghreelion. Mullach Raileann. 
Mullaghmast. See Mullach Maistean. 
Mullach Maistean (Mullaghmast), 212, 
Mullach Raeileann(Mullaghreelion), 210, n. 
Mumha (Munster), 5, 6, 19, 29, 35, 37. 

41, 51, 59, 69, 71, 78, »., 87, 219, 255. 
257, 259 
, the two provinces of (see 

Tuath Mhumha and Deas Mhum/ta, 
Thomond and Desmontl), . . . 







Murbolcan (Trabolgan), . . 89, 91, n. 
Murchadh na n-Gaedhall, . . . 209, n. 
Mur-mhagh (Murvy), . . . 92, //., 93 
Murphy. See O'Murckadha. 
Murrisk, barony of, . . . 56, «., 98, //. 
Murvy. See Mur-mhagh. 
Muscraidhe (Muskerry), 29, 42, //., 43, 
45, //., 02, »., 63, 09, 74, 75 
, divided into six territories, 

all in Minister, 42, n. 

— Breoghain. See Muscraidhe 


■ Cliuirc. See ditto. 

Donnagain. See Musc- 

raidhe Tri Maighe. 
Iarthair Feimhin, or west i >t' 

Feimhin, the country of O'Car- 

thaigh, in Clanwilliam, Tipperary, 

12, a., 45, ». 
Luachra, the country of 

O'h-Aedha (O'Hea), at the source 

of the Blackwater, . . . 42, n., 44, n, 
. — Mitine, or Muscraidhe Ui 

Fhloinn (Musgrilin), in the country 
of O'Floinn, in the north-west of 
Cork, 42, »., 44, n. 

Tliire (Muskryheery), the 

country ofO'Donghajle and O'Fuirg 
(Ormond, in Tipperary), 29, n., 42, n. 
45, n 
Treitheirne or Muscraidhe 

Breoghain, or Muscraidhe Ui Chuirc, 
the country of O'Cuirc, in Clanwil- 
liam, in Tipperary, . . 12, ?/., 45, 
Tri Maighe, the country of 

O'Donnagain, in Barrymore, Cork, 

12. n.. 45, a. 
I'i Chuirc. See Muscraidhe 

Muscraidhe, I'i Donnagain. SeeA/ws 
craidhe Tri Maighe. 


I'i Fhloinn. See Muscraidhe 

Muskerry, Muskry, or Musgry. See 

Myross, parish of, 47, n. 


Naas. See Nets. 

Nas (Naas), residence of the kings of 
Leinster till the tenth century, .">, 9, 9, »., 
99, 203, 205, //., 226, »., 250, «., 251, 

Nangle, 103, n. 

Naragl), barony of, 210, n. 

Naraghmore, parish of, . 14, //., 210, n. 

Navan, fort or rath (see Eamhairi), 22, n. 

Navan (Upper and Lower), baronies 
of^ . . 178, »., Introduction, p. xxvii., 
note "'. 

New Chapel, parish of, 92, '/. 

Newcastle, barony of, 13, n. 

Newry. See Iubhar. 

river, 136, n. 

Newtown- Ards, 164, n. 

Niall of the Nine Hostages, race of, 
34, n., 53, 107, «., 108, n., 130, »., 
131, n., 135, 135, «., 151, «., 166, «., 
178, »., 230, n. 

Niall O'Neill (A. D. 1387), . . 22, n. 

the Haughty, 148.//. 

Niallan, race of (see CFNeilland, 
barony), 147, //. 

Nic, (see Aenghus Nic), 199 

Nicholastown, parish of, .... 210, //. 

Nore, river. See Eoir and Feoir. 

Norse tribes (see Fingall), . . . 220, n. 

Northmen, Norwegians, &c, . . 226, n. 

North Minister (sec Tuath Mhumha), 

105, n. 

Xowlan. Sec 0' Nuallain. 




Oath of a hostage 140, n. 

O'Baeigheallain (O'Boylan), . . 153, n. 

( PBaiscinn, 48, ». 

O'Bearga, 77. ». 

O'Beirne. Sec- O'Birn. 

O'Birn (O'Beirne), 265, n. 

O'Boylan. See O'Baeigheallain. 
O'Boyle. See O'Buighill. 

O'Braein (O'Breen) 186, » 

O'Brain (O'Byrne) 205, n. 

O'Breen. See O'Braein. 
O'Briain (O'Brian), families of, . 70, »., 

105, «., 212, n. 
O'Brien. See O'Briain. 

O'Bruic (Brick), 49, n. 

O'Bnighill (O'Boyle), 126, n. 

O'Byrne. See O'Brain. 

O'Byrne's country, 205, n. 

O'Caelluidhe (Kealy), 213, n. 

O'Caeimh (O'Keeffe), country of, 74, «.. 

O'Caemhain, 108, «., 152, n. 

O'Caise 212, «. 

O'Callaghan. See O'Ceallachain. 
O'Canannain (O'Canannan), . .126, h. 
O'Caoimh (O'Keefle, see O'Caeimh), 

country of, 74, n. 

O'Cahamey. See Ui Catlutrnaigh. 

< >'Cahmealbhain, 10, n. 

O'Carroll. See O' Cearbhaill. 

O'Carroll, Sir Charles, 78, n. 

O'Carthaigh, 42, ». 

O'Cathain (O'Kane), . . 50, »., 122, »., 

125, n. 

< I'Cathalaim (Cahallan), .... 45, n. 
O'Cathasaigh (Casey), . 187, »., 266, n. 
O'Ceallachain (O'Callaghan), . . 72, >t. 
O'Ceallaigh (O'Kelly), . 32, »., 52, «., 

53, ».. 213, "■ 
O'Cearhhaill (O'Carroll), . 59, »., 78, n. 


O'Ciarmhaic (Kirby), . . 46, «., 67, »/. 

O'Cinfhaelaidh (Kinealy), ... 76, ». 

O'Clery. See O'Clerigk. 

O'Clerigh (O'Clery), ins . ,,. 

O'Coileain (Collins), 76, n. 

O'Coindhealbhain (O'Quinlan), . 52, m. 
178, n. 

O'Conghaile (O'Connell), . 32. »., 17, ». 

O'Conghalaigh (O'Connolly), . . 53, ". 

O'Conchobhair (O'Conor or O'Con- 
nor), 48, «., 50, n., 65, n., L07, n., 
122, »., 124, »., 216, n. 

O'Conchobhair Failghe (O'Conor Fa- 
ly), 193, »., 216, n. 

Ciarraidhe (O'Conor 

Kerry), 49, n., 82, n. 

Kuaidhri (Koderic 

O'Conor), 88, n. 

of Gleann Geimhin, 

(O'Conor of Glengiven), from 
whom descended, 122, ». 

O'Connor or O'Conor. See O'Con- 

O'Conor Kern-. See O' ' Conchubhuir 

of Glengiven. See O'Con- 
chobhair of Gleann Geimhin. 

Faly. See O' Conchobhair 


O'Connell, . 76, ». 

See O'Conghaile. 

O'Connolly. See O'Conghalaigh. 

O'Cuinn (O'Quinn), 70, w. 

( >'Cuirc, 42, n. 

Odhbha Ceara (Ballovy), parish of, 

115, w. 

O'Deagbaidh (O'Dea), . . 70, n., 93, n. 

O'Dea. Sec O'Deaghaidh. 

O'Dempsey. See Diomasaigh. 

O'Diomasaigh (O'Dempsey), . . 193, w., 
216, n. 




O'Dochartaigh (O'Doherty), . . 132, n. 
O'Doherty. See O'Dochartaigh. 
O'Domhnaill (O'Donnell), 48, »., 126, «., 
131, «., 132, «., 267, n. 

O'Donghaile, 42, w. 

U'Donnobhain (O'Donovan), (see Ui 

Fidhgheinte), 46, n , 67, n. 

O'Donnagain (Donegan), .... 42, n, 
O'Donnchadha(O'Donohoe), 72, »., 257, ». 
O'Donnell. See O'Domhnaill 
O'Donoghue. See O' Donnchadha. 
O'Donovan. See O'Donnobhain. 
O'Dooley. See 0' ' Dulhlaighe. 
O'Dowda. See O'Dubhda. 
O'Driscoll. See O'h-Eidirsceoil. 
O'Driscoll's country. See Corca 

O'Dubhagain (O'Dugan), ... 78, n. 
O'Dubhlaighe (O'Dooley), . . . 180, m. 
O'Dugan. See O' Dubhagain. 
O'Dubhda (O'Dowda), . . . . 108, n. 
O'Dunne. See O'Duinn. 

O'Duibhchilline 212, n. 

O'Duibh (Deevy), 216, n. 

O'Duinn (O'Dunne) 193, ». 

O'DuibhtMre 152, w. 

O'Faelain (Phelan), 49, n. 

O'Failbhe (O'Falvy), family of, . 47, n. 
O'Falvy. See O'Failbhe. 
O'Farrell. See O'Fearghail. 
O'Faherty. See O'Fathartaiyh. 
O'Fathartaigh (O'Faherty), . . .105, ». 
Offaly. See Ui Failyhe. 
OflFelan. See Ui Faelain. 

O'Fiachra, 196, n. 

O'Fiachrach (Opheathrach), . . 121, w. 

O'Fionnachtaigh, 107, n. 

O'Fionnallain 182, n. 

O'Fogarty. See O'Fogartaiglt. 
O'Fogartaigh (O'Fogarty), . . . 78,n. 
O'Flaherty. See 0' Flaithbheartaigh. 


()' Flaithbheartaigh (O'Flaherty),. 98, n 
O'Flanagan. See O' Flanayain. 
O'Flanagain (O'Flanagan) . . . 120, « 
O'Flannabhra (Flannery), ... 76, n 
O'Fhloinn (O'Lyn), . . 141, n., 159, n 

O'Floinn (O'Flynn), 42, n 

O'Fuirg 42, « 

O'Gadln-a (O'Gara) 103, n 

O'Gara. See O'Gadhra. 
O'Gairbhith (O'Garvey), 107, n., 165, n. 
208, n 
O'Galchobhair (O'Gallagher), . .126, n 
O'Gallagher. See O'Galchobhair. 
( >'Garvey. See O' Gairbhith. 
O'Gormain (and see Mac Garmain), 
Ui Bairrche, descended from Daiie 
Barrach, son of the monarch Ca- 

fchaeir Mor, 212, n 

O'Gorman. See O' G or main. 
O'h-Adhnaidh (Hyney), . . . . 105, n 

O'h-Aedha (O'Hea), 42, n 

O'h-Aenghusa (Hennessy), . . . 188, n 

O'h-Again (O'Hagan), 36, n 

O'Hagan. See O'h-Again. 
O'Ainbhith (O'Hanvey), .... Ki5, n 
O'h-Ainlighe (O'Hanly), . . . 265, n 
O'h-Airt (Harte or O'Hart), 32, n., 53, n 
O'h-Anluain (O'Hanlon), . . . 141, n 
O'Hanlon. See O'h-Anluain. 
O'Hanlan's country. See Oirthear, 

O'Hanly. See O'h-Ainlighe. 

O'h-Anmchadha, 72, n 

O'Hanratty. See O'h-Innreachtaigh, 
( ('Ilanvey. See O'h-Jinbhith. 
O'Hannefey. See O'h-Ainbhith. 
O'h-Aodha. See O'h-Aedha. 
O'h-Aonghusa. See O'h-Aenghusa. 

O'h-Ara (O'Hara), 103, n 

O'Hart. See O'h-Airt. 

O'h-Eidhin (O'Heyne), 108, »., 109, n 




O'h-Eochadha, 166, ». 

O'h-Eidirsceoil (O'Driscoll), 46, »., 59,«., 

G4, n., 67, «., 75, »., 257, re. 

O'h-Egnigh (O'Hegny), . . . . 154, n. 

O'Heguy. See O'h-Egnigh. 

O'h-Eidhin, 109, ». 

O'Heyne. See O'h-Eidhin. 

O'h-Ifearnain (Heffernan), ... 45, n. 

O'h-Innreachtaigh (O'Hanratty), 148, n. 

O'h-Oncon, 208, n. 

O'h-Uidhrin (O'Heerin), .... 42, n. 

Oilean mor Arda Neimhidh, . . . 72, re. 

Oilioll, king of Ui Maine, . . . .107, re. 

Ceadach, .... 200, »., 201 

Earann, ancestor of the Earna, 

254, n. 

Flaun-beag, 230, n. 

■ Olum, 45, 46, »., 53, 53, n., 57, «., 

59, 66, re., 72, «., 78, »/., 85, 88, n., 

103, re., 122, »., 186, »., 187, re., 188, n , 

256, »., 230, n. 

Oilneagmacht (ancient name for Con- 
nacht), 5 

Oirbsean (Loch Corrib), . . 5, 18, »., 19 

Oirghialla (Oriel or Uriel), 21, n., 22, re., 
33, 37, 121, 135, 136, «., 137, 138, »., 
139, 139, «., 140, re., 141, 141, re., 
142, n., 143, 147, 148, n., 151, re., 
152, n., 161, »., 165, «., 166, re., 246, «., 
247, «. 

Oirthear (Orier), Crioch na n-Oir- 
thear, in Oirghialla, 148, n. 

, in Uladh, . 157, 161, 161, n. 

O'Kane. See O'Cathain. 

O'Keeffe. See O 'Caeimh and Ui, Caeimh. 

O'Kelly. See OCeallaigh. 

Olethan (see Ui Liathain), . . . 72, n. 

O'Laidhghin, 212, w. 

O'Leochain (Louglian), and see 
O'Lochain, 188, n. 

O'Liathain (see Ui Liathain), . . 72, n. 

O'Lochain (Cuan), author of the poem 
on the Geasa, &c, 9, 13, and Intro- 
duction, p. xlii. 
O'Lochlainn (O'Loughlin or O'Logh- 
len), chief of Boirinn (Barren), 49, «., 
65, v. 

O'Loingsigh, 45, n. 

O'Lomain, 262, n. 

O'Lorcain (Larkin), . . . . . 211, n. 
O'Loughlin. See O'Lochlainn. 
O'Lyn. See O'Fhloinn. 

O'Machaidhen, 141, n. 

O'Maelchallainn (Mulholland), . 77, n., 
182, n. 
O'Maeil-eachlainn (O'Melaghlin). See 

O' Maeilsheachlainn, . 180, w., 182, w. 
O'Maeldoraidh (O'Muldory), . . 126, n. 
O'Maelduin (O'Muldoon), . . . 121, n. 

O'Maellinnain, 1 7-4, //. 

O'Maelmhuaidh (O'Molloy), . . 52, n. 
O'Maelriain (O'Mulrian), . . . 212, n. 
O'Maeilsheachlainn (O'Melaghlin), 52, n. 
O'Mathghainhna (O'Mahony), . 46, v., 
59, n. 

O'Mahony. See O' ' Mathghamhna. 
O'Maille (O'Malley), ... 56, «., 98, n. 
O'Malley. See O'Maille. 
O'Manchain (Monahan), .... 265, ». 

O'Mathaidh, 212, n. 

O'Mathgharahna (O'Mahony), . . 256, n. 
Omargy (see Sliabh Mairge), . . 194, n. 
O'Meachair (O'Meaghar), . . . . 78,//. 
O'Meaghar. O'Meachair. 
O'Meath (see Ui Meith), .... 148, n. 
O'Melaghlin (Mac Loughlin). See 

O' Maeilsheachlainn. 
O'Molloy. See O'Maelmhuaidh. 
O'Mordha (O'Moore, Omore, Moore, 

&c), 210,//., 214, //. 

O'Mordha. See O More. 

O'More, O'Moore. See O'Mordha. 




O'Morna. See Cionaeth (Kenny \ 

O'Muldoon. See O'Maelduin. 
O'Muldory. See 0' Maeldoraidh. 
O'Mulrian. See O'Maeilriain. 
O'Murchadha .(Murphy), . . . .208,?*. 

Omurethie, deanery of, 210, n. 

Omna Renne, 148, n. 

O'Neill (the race of Eoghan), . . 132, n. 
O'Neill of Claim Aedha Buidhe (Clan- 

naboy), 163, »., 16G, n. 

O'Neill, Seaan. See Seann O'Neill. 
Oneilland. See Ui Niallain. 

, East and West, baronies of, 

146, n., 147, n. 
O'Nolan. See O'Nuallain. 

O'Nuallain (O'Nolan), 211, n. 

Ools. See Umhall. 

Ophaly (East), barony of, . . . .216, n. 

(West), barony of, . . . ib. 

Opheathrach (O'Fiachrach), churches 

<»f, 121, w. 

O'Quinlan. See O' Coindhealbhain. 
O'Quin. See ffCuinn. 
O'liaghallaigh (O'Reilly), . . . 107, n. 
Orbhraidhe (Orrery), 61, 63, 64, »., 66, «., 
67, 89, 95, 95, n. 

Orel, 89, 93 

Oriel. See Oirghialla. 

( )rior (( I'Hanlon's country), barony of 

(see Oirthear in Oirghialla), . 148, n. 
Ormond (Upper and Lower), baronies 

of, 29, n., 42, »., 52, »., 7s, b. 

Ormond, earl of, 78, n. 

O'Regan. See O'Riagain. 
O'Reilly. See 0' Raghallaigh. 

O'Riain (Ryan), 212, n. 

O'Riagain (O'Regan), . . 32, n., 53, n. 
( >'Rourke. See O'Ruairc. 

O'Ruairc (O'Rourke), L07, n. 

( irrerv. See Orbhraidhe, 

O'Seaclinasaigh (O'Shauglinessy), 

108, «., 109, w 
O'Seagha (O'Shea), ... 47, «., 76, n. 

O'Scolaidhe (Scully), 182, w. 

O'Shauglinessy. See O'Seachna 

O'Sheas. See O'Seagha. 
O'Sullivan. See O' Suitteabhain. 
O'Suilleabhain (O'Sullivan), 46,«., 47, n. 
Osraidheach (Aenghus), .... 17, n. 
Osraidhe (Ossory), . 17, «., 40, 40, ?)., 

42, «., 51, 53, 55, 59, «., 81, 81, n., 
83, 88, w., 214, »., 219, 253. 
Ossory. See Osraidhe. 

, diocese of, 17, w. 

, baronies of, . . 214, w., 258, w. 

O'Tadhg (Tighe), 21jQ, m. 

O'Tolairg, 181, v. 

O'Toole, Laurence. See St. Lorcan 

O' Tuathail. 
O'Tuathail (O'Toole), . 205, «., 207, w. 
Oughteranny, barony of, ... . 205, ». 

Oulartleigh, 208, n. 

Owel, Lough. See Loch Uair. 
( )wney, barony of. See Uaithne. 
Owles. See Umhall. 


Tap mountains. See Chinch Danann. 

Patrick, Saint, 

, of his angel, Victor, prophe - 

sying his coming and the supre- 
macy of Caiseal, 29 

, his father called A lplann, . 31 

Alprann, 55, 57 

. in Latin Cal- 

pornius '. . 31, ». 

called Ua Deochain Galforn, 

&c, 225 

, his blessing on Caiseal, 31, 51, 

53, 55 




Patrick, Saint, bis blessing on Ath 
Cliath, . . . 231, and [ntrod. p. \ii. 

pro habitatoribus 

Hibeniia; . 235, and lntrod. p. xxxv. 

, said to have adjusted the tri- 
butes of Munster, 51 

, story of his converting the 

Galls of Ath Cliath, 227 

Partraidhe (Partly), . . . 115, 115, n. 

Petits, 180, n. 

Phelan. See O'Faelain. 

Philip de Barry (see Barrymore), 72, re. 

Pobble O'Keerfe (see Irrluachair), 74, re. 

Poets, privileges of, and superiority 

to bards, 7, re., 235 

Portnahinch, barony of, . . . .214, n. 

Powers, 49, n. 

Powerscourt, in Feara Cualann, . 13, n. 

Pubblebrian, barony of, .... 91, n. 

Quin, (see O'Cumn), 210, 

Quinlan. See 0' Coindhealbhain. 
Quirk. See O'Guirc. 


Racavan, parish of, 124, 

Kafann, 89, 93, 93, 

Kaeilinn, 210, 211, 

Ramoan, parish of, 124, 

Raphoe, barony of, ... 34, «., 124, ; 
Raithlinn, 53, 59, 59, re., 03, G7, 69, : 
73, 73, n., 83, 83, 
Rathcroghan (see Cntachain), . 20, 
Rathcruachan (see CruacAain), . 34, 

Rathdown, barony of, 13, 

Rathkeale, Path Geala, ancientlyRath 
Fealadh, 94, 


Kadi Arda, 89, 94, «., 95 

Arda Suird, 94, w 

Beathaidh (Rath-veagh), . 203, «., 

and lntrod. p. lx. 

Cruachain, 10, re. 

Droma Deilge, or Droma Deilg, 

89, 95, 95, n. 

Eire, 89, 94, »., 95 

Faeladh (see Rathkeale), . 89, 95 

Easpuig funic, 161, n. 

Gaela (see Rathkeale), . . 94, re. 

Libhthen, church of, ... 179, re. 

Line, 7, 23, 23, n. 

Muighe, 245, n. 

Mor Muighe, 245 

Rathin Mochuda, church of, . . 179, n. 

Rathochtair Caillinn, 12, w. 

Rathveagh. See Rath Beathaidh. 

Rathvilly, barony of, 208, re. 

Ratoath, barony of, 182, re. 

Reachrainn (island of Rathlinn), 220, n. 
Red Branch, heroes of the (see 

Craebh Ruadh), 1G6, re., 249, 249, n. 
Red Hugh O'Donnell. See Aedh 

Ruadh O'Domhnaill. 

Rheban, barony of, 210, re. 

Rings, 35, 35, re. 

Rinn Sibhne (Island Magee), . . 141, «. 
River Baun, 159, n. 

Bearbha (Barrow), . . .210, w., 

213, «. 
Boinn (Boyne), 220, n. 

Eithne (Inny), 180, re. 

Eoir or Feoir (Nore), . . . 203, n. 

Finglas, 220, «. 

Gabhal (Feegile, or Fiodh Gabhla), 

214, v. 

Lagan, 103, v. 

Life (Liffey), 180, «., 188, n. 220, re. 

Maigh (Maigue), .... 07, re. 

Roa (Roe), 50, re. 

; J ,20 


FA OF.. 

River Sionainn (Shannon), . . . 264, v. 

Suileach (Swilly), . . . . 248, n. 

Siuir (Siiir), 49, n. 

Ritairec, 192, n. 

Rithlearg, 192, n. 

Roa (Roe), the river, . 122, v., 133, ». 
Roche's country (see Crioch Roisteach,) 

78, n. 

Rockbarton, 90, v. 

Roderic O'Conor. See Ruaidhri 

O' Conchobhair. 
Roe, river. See Roa. 
Roote. See Rata. 
Ros (in Fearney). See Feara Bos 

and Fearn-mhuighe, 145, 154, w., 193, 
193, n., 194, n. 
Ros Failghe, son of Cathair Mor (see 

Ui Failghe), 205, 216, n. 

Roseach (Russagh), church of, . 182, n. 
Ross, diocese of, comprised in Corca 

Luighe, 46, n., 64, n. 

the Three, ... 19. v. 

87, 89 

Ruadhan (St.) of Lothair, his fasting 

against Teamhair or Tara, . . 53 

Ruaidhri O'Conchobhair (Roderic 

O'Conor), 100, n. 

Rudhraidhe, sons of, ancient name for 

the inhabitants of Ulster, . 240, n., 241 
Russagh. See Roseach. 

Ruta (Roote), 159, n. 

Ryan. See 0'R.iain, and O'Maehiain. 

Saddles, . . 
Sadhbh, . 
Saint Abban, 

209, ?>. 

45. n 

213. ». 

— Aedhan mac Aen<rhusa, church 
of, 148, 

Audnen's, Dublin 230, 


Saint Baithenus, 131, n. 

Benean. See Renean. 

Bernard, 142, n. 

Bearchan, 211.;/. 

. Caelainn, 100, n. 

Caeimhghiu (Kevin), 12, n., 207, n. 

Colman Mac Duach, . . . 108, ». 

Colum Chille, 35, n. 

Diarmaid, 194, w. 

. Eanna, 91, n. 

Fiach, 194, n. 

Greallan, 106, w. 

Kevin. See Caeimhghin. 

Lorcan O'Tuathail (Laurence 

O'Toole), 210, n. 

Maeldoid, 148, n. 

Maidoc, 202, n. 

Mochidlle, 82, w. 

Molaga, 82, m. 

Patrick, son of Alplann or Al- 

prann, 8,n., 17,«., 30, w., 31, 43, 115, n , 

125, «., 146, »., 148, n., 151, »., 159, »., 

165, »., 180, n., 224, «., 226, »., 227, 

230, »., 232, n. 

Patrick, Benedictio Patricii,. 235, n. 

Ruadhan, 39, n., 57, ». 

Tighearnach, 172, h. 

Saithne, the tribe name of the family 
of O'Cathasaigh (Casey), in Fin- 
gall, N. E. of Dublin, 187, 187, «., 267 

Salt, barony of, 205, n. 

Samhain (AU Hallows), . . . 10, n., 55 

, River, (the Morning Star), 46, ». 

Saran (ancestor of Mac Aenghusa, 
Magennis), 165, n. 

Saraidh, daughter of Conn of the 
Hundred Battles, from whom de- 
scended the Muscraidhe, . . 42, n., 45 

Savadges 161, n. 

Seal BaJbh (king of Finland), . . 226, v. 

Scandinavian nations, 227, n. 




Seing, its meaning, . . . 70, re., 205, re. 

Scool, parish of, .... 59, »., 256, re. 

Scotland. See Alba. 

Screapall, 228, re. 

Scully. See 0' Scolaidhe. 

Seachtmhadh, a territory in Tippe- 
rary, adjoining Ara,. . 43, 49, 49, re., 
61, 63. 

Seaghais, ancient name of the moun- 
tain district of Coirr Shliabh (Cur- 
lieu) in Roscommon and Sligo, 5, 20, n., 

Sealbach the Sage, (and Introduc- 
tion, p. viii), 60, re., 61 

Seanchua Chaein (Shanahoe), a seat 
of the king of Caiseal, . 87, 89, 89, re. 

Seannain or Sionnain (Shannon) River, 

77, n. 

Semhne or Magh Semlme, in Dal 
Araidhe, .... 169, 170, »., 171 

Sescnean, .... 29, 33, 51, 53, 119 

Seskinan, parish of, 16, n. 

.Shanahoe. See Seanchua. 

Shane's Castle, 170, n. 

Shannon river. See Seannain and 

Sidh-dhruim, the ancient name of Cai- 
seal, 28, «., 29 

Sidh Neachtain, 19, w. 

Sioll Duibhthire (see Duibhthir), . . 145 

Muireadhaigh, . 97, 107, 107, n., 

Ill, 112, »., Introd. p. x. 

Sionnach (Fox), 52, n. 

Sionnain river (Shannon). See Sean- 
nain, . 105, re., 106, n., 181, n., 259 

Siuir river (the Suir), . . . . 5, 17, n. 

Six-mile-water river, 170, n. 

Slane, barony of, 152, re. 

Slatey. See Sleibhte. 

Slemmish. See Sliabh Mis. 

Sletty. See Sleibhte. 


Sliabh Ailduin, or Devil's Bit Moun- 
tain, 17, n. 

Bladhma (Slieve Bloom), . 17, n., 

40, n., 258, n., 259 

Breagh (range of hills in the ba- 
rony of Ferrard), 185, n. 

Caein (now Sliabh Riach, on the 

borders of Limerick and Cork), . 93, n. 

Callainn( Slieve Gallion), moun- 
tain of, east of the Bann, . . .123,)i. 

Calraidhe (Slieve Goby), in 

Longford, anciently Brigh Leithe, 9, n. 

Cua, ancient name of CnocMael- 

domhnaigh in Waterford (see Cud), 

5, 16, n., 17, 92, n. 

Chairbre, on the north boundary 

of Longford, 11, n. 

Echtghe (Slieve Aughty), . 260, n. 

Eibhlinne, in Tipperary, adjoin- 
ing Coonagh, 92, re. 

(Sliebhte Fheidhlimiclh), 

260, n. 

Feadha, in Cuailglme, ... 21, re. 

Fidhit, in Cuailglme, .... ib. 

Fuaid. See Fuaid. 

Guaire, in Cavan, .... 188, n. 

Liag, in Donegal, 130, re. 

Logha or Lugha, in Mayo. . 18, re. 

Luachra, . . 42, re., 48, re., 258, n. 

Lugha, 5, 19, 103, n. 

Mairge (see Slieve margt/), . 16, n. 

Mis (Slemmish), . . 23, re., 159, re. 

Mughdhorn, 148, re. 

Partraidhe (see Partraidhe), 115, n. 

Riach, 93, re. 

Sleibhte (Slatey or Sletty), 194, re., 208, re. 

Fheidhlimidh. See Sliabh 


Slieve Aughty. See Sliabh Echtghe. 

Bloom. See Sliabh Bind lima. 

Fuaid, 11, re. 





Slieve Gallion. See Sliabh Cattainn. 

Golry. See Sliabh Calraidhe. 

Slievemargy, barony of, . . . . 212, n. 

(see Sliabh Mairge), 214, n. 

Slieve Partly. See Sliabh Partraidhe. 
Small County, barony of, . 8G, n., 90, »., 
93, n. 

Soghains, 166, n. 

South Munster (see Desmond), . . 254, n. 
Stague Fort. See Cathair na Steige. 

Stipends, 109, n. 

Stone of Destiny. See Lia Fail. 

Stradbally, barony of, 214, n. 

Strang Fiord (Strangford) (see Loch 

Cuan), 164, n. 

Suca (Suck) river, . . 105, n., 106, n. 
Suck river. See Suca. 
Suilidhe (Swilly), the river, . . . 131, n. 
Suir, the river (see Siuir), 17, »., 18, n. 
Sumann Dealbhna (ancestor of the 

Delvins), 105, n. 

Swilly. See Suilidhe, Suileach, and 


Taeidhean, or Tuighean, described, 

Introd., p. ix., 32, 
Tadhg, ancestor of Saint Benean, 

, father of Cormac Gaileang, 186, 

187, n., 188, 
Taillte (Tailltean, Tail! tin, Telltown), 

137, 143, 203, 204, n., 205, 243, 
249, 249, 
Talbotstown (Upper), barony of, 207, 
Talten, battle of (see Taillte), . . 194, 
Tankardstown, parish of, . . . .210, 
Tara (see Teamhair), . . 32, «., 39, 
Tarbert, boundary of Ciarraidhe Lu- 

achra, 48, 

Taughboyne, parish of, 131, 


Teabhtha (Teffia), . . 3, 11, •«., 180, n. 

Touch Daimhain (Tidowan), church 
of, 216, n. 

Theallain, church of Tehallan, 

149, /,. 

Tealach Ard, 178, n. 

Teamhair (Tara, in Meath), 3, 5, 7, 13, 
25, 33, 39, 53, 57, 57, n., 81, 87, 90, n., 
130, 137, 143, 159, 177, 179, 183, 185, 
187, 191, 193, 203, 225, 231, 239, 241, 
243, 245, 249, 251, 255, 265, 267, 
269, 272 

Shubha (see Teamhair 

Luachra), 87, 90, n., 91 

Luachra, or Teamhair 

Luachra Deaghaidh, 90, n., 225, line 4, 
257, 261, 263 

, Feisof, . 7, 272, Introduction, 

P . 1. 

Earann (see Teamhair 

Luachra), 254, i> . 

Tearmonn Caelainne, 100, n. 

Mor, ib. 

Teffia (see Teabhtha), . . . . 3, 10, n. 

Tegh-Thellain (Tehallan), church of, 

149, n. 

Tehallan. See Teach Theallain, 
Tegh- Tkellain. 

Teltown. See Taillte. 

Templeregan, 13, w. 

Teora Tuatha (of Connacht), . . 265, n. 

Terryglass. See Tir Da Ghlais. 

Thomond. See Tuath Mhumha. 

Three Collas (see Colla), . 137, 156, n. 

Waters, meeting of (see Comar), 

17, n., 40, n. 

Rosses. See Ros. 

Tibohine, parish of, 100, n. 

Tidowan. See Teach Daimhain. 

Tigh Conaill, in Cualann, church of, 

13, i,. 



Tigh Duinn, islands at the mouth of 
the bay of Kenmare, . . . . 51, 51, re, 

Mic Dimmac, in Cualann, church 

of, 13, re. 

Timoling, parish of, 210, n. 

Tinnahincii, barony of, . 214, re., 216, re. 

Tinne (a salted pig), 121, n, 

'fir Aedha (Tirhugh), territory of, 

130, re. 

— Beccan, 182, re. 

— Boghaine, 130, n. 

— Briuin na Sionna, 265, n. 

— Chaerthainn (Tirkeerin), barony of, 

122, n. 

— Chonaill (Tyrconnell, Donegal), 

31, 34, »., 35, 126,7J., 131, n. 

— Tir Da Ghlais (Terryglass), abbot 

of, 198, re. 

— Banna, 184, re. 

— Koghain (Tyrone), . . 31, 35, 35, re. 

— Fhiachrach (Tireragh) barony of, 

19, re., 108, n, 

— Mic Caerthainn, 122, re. 

— OilioUa (Tirerill), 184, re. 

Tirawley, barony of, 108, re. 

Tireragh. See Tir Fhiachrach. 
Tirhugh (Tir Aedha), barony of, . 19, re. 
Tirkeeran. See Tir Chaerthainn. 
Tlachtgha, . . . 3, 10, «., 147, 178, n. 
Toaghie (see Tuuth Eachaclha), 148, n., 

151, re. 
Toinar, prince of the Galls of Dublin, 

Introd., p. xxxvi., 41, 207, 207, re. 
Toorah. See Tuath Ratha. 
Tort, Tuathas of (see Ui Tuirtre), 124, 
Tory Hill. See Cnoc Droma Asail. 
Trabolgan. See Murbolcan. 

Tralee, 47, n., 18, re. 

Trants, 17, ». 

I radraidhe, 42, n. 


Treada-na-riogh, a fort of the king of 
Caiseal, 89, 9:5 

Tri liosa, the three Rosses of Donegal, o 

Trim, church of, 178, n. 

Trough, territoiy of, 151, re. 

Tuaim and Tuaim Teanbath, . 15, 15, n. 

n-Eatain, n-Eidhin, seats of 

the king of Caiseal, 89, 93 

mna (Anglicized Toomna), on 

the River Boyle, 20, n. 

Tuaisceart Muighe (a seat of the king 
Caiseal), 87, 90, re. 

Tuaithbheal (explained), .... 2, re. 

Tuath Eachadha (Eochaidh's district), 
Toaghie, in Armagh, distinguish- 
ed from the Ui Eachach Uladh, 

148, re. 

Laighean 3, 12, re., 195 

IMhurnha (Thomond), 212, re., 260, re., 

261, 263 

Ratha (Toorah), 119, 120, »., 121 

Tuatha (Three), 265, 265, re. 

Tuatha de Danann, . . . 124, re., 174, «., 
248, n. 

Tuathal Teachtmhar, 6, «., 10, re., 226, re. 

Tuathas of Tort [Ui Tuirtre], . . 124, re. 

Tuites, 180, n. 

Tulach Carboid (Tullycorbet), . . 148, n. 

Chearnaigh, 39 

Dubhghlaise (Tullydouglass), 

131, n. 

Og, Tullaghoge, or Tullyhawk, 

31, 33, 36, re., 37, 119, 125, 125, «., 
129, 135 

Uam-Buidhe(Tullamoy), 134, «., 

213, n. 

Tullagh, parish of, in Carberry, . 46, ». 

Tullamoy, 213, n. 

Tullaghoge. See Tulach Og. 

Tullow, the town of, Tullow Offelimy 
(see Ui Feilmeadha), .... 208, n. 




Tullycorbet, parish of (see Tiilach 
Carboid), 148, n. 

Tullydouglass. See Tulach Dnbh- 

Tunics, 33, n. 

Tuoghs, 124, n. 

Tyrone. See Tir Eoghain. 

Tyrrell, ISO, n. 


Uacht-magh, 93 

Uaithne (Owney), 43, 45, 45, «., 61, 63, 
71, 70, 87 

Cliaeh, barony of Owney Beg, 

Limerick, 45, n. 

Tire, barony of Owney, in 

Tipperary, 45, n. 

Ucht-na-rioghna, 89, 93 

Ui Rairrche (Leinster tribe), descend- 
ed from Daire Barrach, son of Ca- 
thaeir Mor, Mac Gorman or O'Gor- 
man the chiefs, . 194, n., 212, ?i., 213 

— Breacain (Ibrickan), .... 212, n. 

— Beccon, a Meath tribe, situate at 

Tir Beccon, Ratoath, 177, 182, »., 183, 

— Rlathmaic, tribe of Blathmac, situ- 
ate at Blathewyc, round Newtown- 
ards, 157, 163, 163, n. 

— Breasail, or Clann Breasail (Clan- 
brazil), or Ui Breasal Macha, a tribe 
descended from Breasal, situate south 

of Lough Neagh, . . 145, 147, 147, n. 

— Bhriain (O'Briens), Mainister an 
Aenaigh, 91, n. 

— Briuin, of Connacht, tribes descend- 
ed from Brian, brother of Niall of 

the Nine Hostages, 107, 107,w., 113, 115 

Archoill, or Ui Briuin of 

Ulster, descended from Brian of 


Archoill Muintir Bini, a tribe situ- 
ate in Tyrone, 145, 151, 151, n., 246, n., 
Ui Bruin Seola, a tribe of the Ui 
Briuin of Connacht, in the barony 
of Clare, county of Galway, . . 18, »., 
107, n. 

— Buidhe, of Leinster, west of the 
Barrow, hi Crioch 0' m-Buidhe, . 213, 

213, n. 

— Caeimh (O'Keeffes), 261, n. 

— Catharnaigh (O'Caharneys, now 
Foxes), 180, n. 

__ Ceataigh(Ikeathy), . . . . 197, n. 

— Ceinnseallaigh, descended from 
Eanna Ceinnsealach, tribes of this 
race, 194, «., 202, »., 208, n., 220, n., 
221, 234, n., 250, n., 251, 252, n., 253 

— Chairbre, king of, or Ui Chairbre 
Aebhdha, tribe of O'Donnobhain, in 
Limerick, 71, 77, n., 85, n. 

— Chonaill Ghabhra. See Ui Ghabhra. 
, . 71, 76, n., 77, 258, n., 259 

— Creamhthann, a race of the Oir- 
ghialla, situate near Slane, 145, 152, «., 


— Criomhthaiinan, a Leinster tribe 
situate in Laeghis, in East Mary- 
borough, 216, «., 217 

— Cuanach (Coonagh), east of Lime- 
rick, 46, w., 92, n. 

— Chuirp, 89, 95 

— Deaghaidh, 196, n. 

— Dearca Chein, or Ui Earca Chehi, 
family of Mac GiollaMuire, or Gil- 
mores, .... 161, 161, n., 172, ?i. 

— Donchadha (O'Donoghoes), settle- 
ment in Maguniliy, 47, n. 

— Dortain, or Ui Tortain, a tribe of 

the Oirghialla in Meath, . 145, 151, 
151, «. 




Ui Drona (Idrone), a Leinster tribe, 

212, 7i., 213 

— Duach (see Airgead Hois), , . 203, n. 

— Divnchadha, in Leinster, on the 
Dodder, 12, n., 20G, n. 

— Eachacli, a tribe of, descended from 
Eochaidh of Oirghialla, situate in 

Armagh, .... 145, 148, n., 149 
(Iveagh, in Down), 148, n. 

Uladh, or Ui Eachach Cobha, 

165, n. 

Mumhan, . . . .250, n., 257 

— Earca Chein (see Ui Dearca Chein), 

157, 101, n. 

— Eathach. See Ui Eachach. 
See Ui Eathach. 

— Eignigh, 172, n. 

— Eineach-ghlais (in the barony of 
Arklow), 207, n. 

Muighe, . . .212, n. 

— Faelain (Oftelan), tribe and terri- 
tory of, . 205, 205, n., 250, n., 251, 

252, n. 

— Failghe (Offaly), tribe and terri- 
tory of, 193, n., 205, 7i., 210, n., 214, n., 

220, «., 221, 252, n. 

— Fearghail (O'Farrells), . . . 180, «. 

— Fearmaic, 212, n. 

— Feilmeadha, 208, «., 209 

— Feineachlais, 196, n. 

— Fiaehrach, 97, 108, »., 109, 113, 117, 

119, 121, 121, n. 

Fionn, or Ui Fiaehrach 

of Arda Sratha, 129, 133, 133, n., 264, n., 


Aidhne, . . 108, n., 109, ». 

— Fidhgheinte, tribe and territory of, 

46, n., 63, 67, 67, n., 76, n., 77, »., 
78, n. 

— Gabhla, 252, n., 253 

— Ghabhra, 76, v., 77 


Ui Ineachruis, 195, n. 

— Laeghaire, 10, w. 

— Liathain, tribe and territories of, 

69, 72, n., 73, 82, «., 83, 256, n., 257 

— Mail (Imaile), 207, n. 

— Maine (Hy Many), tribe and ter- 
ritory of, 97, 104, 7i., 106, 7i., 107, 111, 

114, n., 115, 262, 7i., 265 

— Meith (O'Meith), . 145, 148, n., 149 

Mara, 148, n. 

Tire, or Ui Meith Macha, 148, n. 

— Mic Caerthainn (see Tirkeer'ui), . 119, 

122, 7i., 123, 129, 133 

— Muireadhaigh (O'Murethi), . 206, «., 

207, «., 210, 7i., 212, n., 213, n. 

— Niallain (O'Neilland), . 145, 146, /«., 

147, 148, n. 

— Neill, race of, . 36, n., 58, n., 120, n., 

219, 230, n. 

— Rosa (Iveruss), 77, w. 

— Suileabhain (O'Snllivans), . . 91, n. 

— Tuirtre (see Tuatha of Tort) . .119, 
124, n., 129, 135, 151, 151, n., 159, n , 

166, 7i. 

Uilleann Eatan, 89, 93 

Uisce Bo Neimhidh, .... 24, w., 25 
Uisneach (the assemblies at, see Caen- 

druim), 6, n., 7, 23, 137, 249, n., 272 
Uladh (Ulster), originally applied to 
the entire province, but here chiefly 
limited to the eastern part (Down 
and Antrim), 7, 23, 25, 33, 36, >?.., 
118, »., 137, 155, 156, n., 157, 157,«., 
158, n., 159, n., 169, 238, n., 243, 245, 
245, n., 249, 249, n. 
Ulidia (applied to eastern or circum - 
scribed Uladh,) 37, n., 161, »., 165, n. 

Ullard (church of), 212, n. 

Ullta, the Ulstermen (see Uladh), 141, n., 
Ulster. S" P Uladh. 




Ulster, (old map of ), 148,*., 152, «., 247, n. 
Ulstermen (see UladK), .... 36, n. 
Ultonian Eamhain (see Eamhain), . 249 
Umliall (see Burrishuole, Miirrisk, the 
Owles, frc), 56, n., 57, 97, 98, n., 99, 
111, 113, n. 

Una, 226, n. 

Unfree tribes, 174, ». 

Urluachair. See Irrluachair. 

Usk, parish of, 210, n. 

Valentia, island of, 82, n. 

Victor (the Angel of Patrick), 30, n., 31 


Wax Candles, 14, «. 

West Breifne, 107, n. 

Connacht. See Iar-Connacht. 

Maryborough, barony of, . .214, n. 

Westport, 98, «. 

Wexford. See Carman. 

, Fothartaof, 221,*. 

Whites, 163, n. 


Youghall (see EocAailt), 

This day is published, in three thick Volumes, Ato., pp. 2500, 










The work here presented to the Public may with propriety be designated 
a continuation of those Annals of which the earlier portion was published at 
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Hibernicarum Scriptores Veteres." 

The Duke of Buckingham's publication has long been recognised as the 
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library since the time of Sir James Ware ; and no student would be consi- 
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Annals therein contained come down no farther than the end of the twelfth 
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Masters particularly, are treated of with much greater copiousness, occupying 
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A. D. 16 16. In order to complete this important publication, the Pub- 
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It may be proper here to state, that the Annals in question are those 
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Ulster. The originals, from which the compilation was made, are now, to a 
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hereditary protectors being dispersed) of O'Gara of Coolavin. The motives 
leading to the compilation are set forth with great simplicity and dignity by 
Michael O'Clery, the senior of the annalists, in the dedication of the work to 

" In every country enlightened by civilization, and confirmed therein through a succession of 
ages, it has been customary to record the events produced by tune. For sundry reasons, nothing 
was deemed more profitable or honourable than to peruse and study the works of ancient writers, 
who gave a faithful account of the great men who figured on the stage of life in preceding ages, 
that posterity might be informed how their forefathers employed their time, how long they con- 
tinued in power, and how they have finished their days. I, Michael O'Clery, have waited on 
you, noble Fergal O'Gara, as I was well acquainted with your zeal for the glory of God and the 
credit of your country. I perceived the anxiety you suffer from the cloud which at present hangs 
over our ancient Milesian race ; a state of things which has occasioned the ignorance of many 
relative to the lives of the holy men, who, in former times, have been the ornaments of our 
island ; the general ignorance also of our civil history, and of the monarchs, provincial kings, 
lords, and chieftains, who flourished in this country through a succession of ages ; with equal 
want of knowledge in the synchronism necessary for throwing light on the transactions of each. 
In your uneasiness on this subject, I have informed you that I entertained hopes of joining to my 
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the world under your name, noble O'Gara, who stood forward in patronizing this undertaking : 
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Oileall, son of Dermot," &c. 


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" I approve greatly of your intention to get our Annals of the Four Masters, &c., translated. 
But if not undertaken by a man who has a critical knowledge of the phraseology, with the changes 
made therein from the sixth to the tenth century, the sense will be frequently mistaken, and a 
bad translation, in such a case, will be worse than none at all. Even a publication of the Irish 
text would require the collation of the different manuscripts for restoring the original reading, 
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May 31, 1783. 

And again : 

" But the worst out is, I doubt that you have a man in France or Ireland who could decipher 
the contractions. In my province of Connaught I know of none (I am sure there is none), 
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caution you against their being transcribed, lest they should be mistaken for any part of the 
original." — Letter to the Chevalier 0' Gorman, Sep. 14, 1783. 

While this care has been taken to secure perfect accuracy in the text and 
translation, all the accessible depositories of information here and in Great 
Britain have been made tributary to the topographical, genealogical, and 
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ranted in stating, that so exact and copious a history of the places, families, 
and descents of an entire kingdom, through a period of 500 years, has never 
before been published in any one work in the British islands. 

In presenting so great a contribution to the literature of their age, the 
Publishers cannot but advert to the happy progress which this country has 
lately made in the grave and noble pursuits of historical learning, and to 
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the mass of the present population ; and that it is as desirable for the prac- 
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be acquainted with the nature and effect of such agencies. It is also felt 
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acts and fortunes of a peculiar people, the last representatives of that great 
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With regard to minor details, the work has been printed at the University 
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of Annals, from the earliest historic period to A. D. 16 16. 







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